Alstroemeria graminea Phil. (Taltalia graminea according to BAYER 1998) is the only annual species described within the genus Alstroemeria L. and its cytogenetic relationship with the perennial species have not been described. In this work, an analysis of the karyotype and the C-banding pattern of Alstroemeria graminea are reported. A. graminea, with an asymmetric karyotype 2n = 2x = 16, shows similar chromosome morphology with respect to the perennial Alstroemeria species previously analysed. However, some differences in relative length and position of the C-bands were observed in A. graminea. These differences were the presence of a centromeric band and an interstitial band in the short arm of pair 1 and pericentromeric bands in the long arms of pairs 3 and 7, which have not been observed in the other species. The cytogenetic data of the present study on A. graminea are concurrent with other species within the genus Alstroemeria, and do not justify the separation of this species from the genus Alstroemeria and its inclusion in the new monotypic genus Taltalia.