Página 1 dos resultados de 9995 itens digitais encontrados em 0.062 segundos
Resultados filtrados por Publicador: National Academy of Sciences

‣ Heterogeneity explains features of “anomalous” thermodynamics and statistics

Gheorghiu, Stefan; Coppens, Marc-Olivier
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.50083%
Phenomena characterized by power-law probability distributions abound in nature and the applied sciences. We show that many of these power laws are well described by the Student, or t, distribution, and we discuss the origin of this universality based on three examples (Brownian motion, Knudsen diffusion in rough pores, and bubbly multiphase flow). These case studies are representative for a large class of systems with heterogeneous features, examples of which can be found from Earth sciences to astrophysics, and even in the social sciences. We show that common forms of polydispersity, such as polydispersity arising naturally as a result of aggregation–fragmentation phenomena, typically lie at the basis of the observed scaling. We conclude that complicated arguments based on long-range correlations or nonergodicity are often incorrect or misleading in explaining many naturally observed power laws and, in particular, those described by the Student distribution.

‣ Long-term cortical plasticity evoked by electric stimulation and acetylcholine applied to the auditory cortex

Ma, Xiaofeng; Suga, Nobuo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58468%
Auditory fear conditioning with tone bursts followed by electric leg stimulation activates neurons not only in the auditory and somatosensory systems but also in many other regions of the brain and elicits shifts in the best frequencies (BFs) of collicular and cortical neurons, i.e., reorganization of the frequency (co-chleotopic) maps in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex (AC). What are the neural elements minimally necessary for evoking long-term cortical BF shifts? We found that: (i) both electric stimulation and acetylcholine applied to the AC evoke the long-term cortical BF shift as does the conditioning; (ii) both electric stimulation of the AC and acetylcholine applied to the inferior colliculus increase the short-term collicular BF shift evoked by the cortical electric stimulation but do not change it into long-term; and (iii) as this short-term collicular BF shift is blocked by atropine, the development of the long-term cortical BF shift becomes slow and small. Therefore, the most essential neural elements for evoking the long-term cortical BF shift are the AC, corticofugal feedback and the cholinergic nucleus. Our current data support the Gao–Suga model, which hypothesizes that the small short-term cortical BF shifts are evoked by tonal stimuli without the association of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in the multisensory thalamic nuclei and that these BF shifts are augmented and changed into the large long-term BF shifts by cholinergic neurons.

‣ Continuous polyelectrolyte adsorption under an applied electric potential

Ngankam, A. Pascal; Van Tassel, Paul R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.648657%
Interactions between charged macromolecules (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, polyelectrolytes) and charged surfaces govern many natural and industrial processes. We investigate here the influence of an applied electric potential on the adsorption of charged polymers, and report the following significant result: the adsorption of certain amine side chain-containing polycations may become continuous, i.e., asymptotically linear (or nearly linear) in time over hours, upon the application of a modest anodic potential. Employing optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) and an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, we show that asymptotic kinetics, and the adsorbed mass at the onset of the asymptotic regime, depend sensitively on polymer chemistry (in particular, side chain volume and charge location), increase with applied potential and ionic strength (conditions favoring a thicker initial layer), and are independent of bulk polymer concentration (suggesting postadsorption events to be rate limiting). X-ray photoelectron spectra reveal a suppressed polymer charge within layers formed via continuous adsorption, but no evidence of electrochemical reactions. We propose a mechanism based on polymer–polymer binding within the adsorbed layer...

‣ Membrane shape as a reporter for applied forces

Lee, Heun Jin; Peterson, Eric L.; Phillips, Rob; Klug, William S.; Wiggins, Paul A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58468%
Recent advances have enabled 3-dimensional reconstructions of biological structures in vivo, ranging in size and complexity from single proteins to multicellular structures. In particular, tomography and confocal microscopy have been exploited to capture detailed 3-dimensional conformations of membranes in cellular processes ranging from viral budding and organelle maintenance to phagocytosis. Despite the wealth of membrane structures available, there is as yet no generic, quantitative method for their interpretation. We propose that by modeling these observed biomembrane shapes as fluid lipid bilayers in mechanical equilibrium, the externally applied forces as well as the pressure, tension, and spontaneous curvature can be computed directly from the shape alone. To illustrate the potential power of this technique, we apply an axial force with optical tweezers to vesicles and explicitly demonstrate that the applied force is equal to the force computed from the membrane conformation.