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‣ As significações da percepção na apreciação musical

Gobbi, Valeria
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Esta tese situa a temática das significações da percepção na apreciação musical, com base nos referenciais piagetiano e peirciano, nos quais foram privilegiadas noções referentes às manifestações simbólicas na música pelos sujeitos que participam de atividades didáticopedagógicas em cursos realizados em contextos diversos que visam à educação musical. Busca-se investigar como se manifestam nos pronunciamentos verbais dos participantes das sessões de apreciação musical desses cursos as percepções livres, entendidas como o sensível, mais diretamente ligadas a impressões variadas dos sujeitos, e elementos do conhecimento específico da área de música, problematizando, assim, o modo como se processa a aquisição dos conhecimentos musicais e a fruição da música, supondo-se que o conhecimento influencia na qualidade da apreciação de alguma forma, que varia para diferentes sujeitos. A metodologia foi constituída com base nos referenciais indicados; considera-se que as apreciações consistem no uso de signos verbais que retomam signos musicais ouvidos, os quais são signos semiológicos, cuja constituição tem um elemento sensorial e elementos de representação mental, cognitivos, que atendem a um processo progressivo de sistematização...

‣ Cognitive mechanisms for explaining dynamics of aesthetic appreciation

Carbon, Claus-Christian
Fonte: Pion Publicador: Pion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2011 Português
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For many domains aesthetic appreciation has proven to be highly reliable. Evaluations of facial attractiveness, for instance, show high internal consistencies and impressively high inter-rater reliabilities, even across cultures. This indicates general mechanisms underlying such evaluations. It is, however, also obvious that our taste for specific objects is not always stable—in some realms such stability is hardly conceivable at all since aesthetic domains such as fashion, design, or art are inherently very dynamic. Gaining insights into the cognitive mechanisms that trigger and enable corresponding changes of aesthetic appreciation is of particular interest for psychologists as this will probably reveal essential mechanisms of aesthetic evaluations per se. The present paper develops a two-step model, dynamically adapting itself, which accounts for typical dynamics of aesthetic appreciation found in different research areas such as art history, philosophy, and psychology. The first step assumes singular creative sources creating and establishing innovative material towards which, in a second step, people adapt by integrating it into their visual habits. This inherently leads to dynamic changes of the beholders— aesthetic appreciation.

‣ MUSIC APPRECIATION AND TRAINING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT RECIPIENTS: A REVIEW

Looi, Valerie; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In recent years, there has been increasing interest in music perception of cochlear implant (CI) recipients, and a growing body of research conducted in this area. The majority of these studies have examined perceptual accuracy for pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Another important, but less commonly studied aspect of music listening is appreciation, or appraisal. Despite the ongoing research into potential technological improvements that may improve music perception for recipients, both perceptual accuracy and appreciation generally remain poor for most recipients. Whilst perceptual accuracy for music is important, appreciation and enjoyment also warrants research as it also contributes to clinical outcomes and perceived benefits. Music training is being shown to offer excellent potential for improving music perception and appreciation for recipients.

‣ Dynamics of brain networks in the aesthetic appreciation

Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; García-Prieto, Juan; Ramasco, José J.; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Bajo, Ricardo; Munar, Enric; Flexas, Albert; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Neuroimage experiments have been essential for identifying active brain networks. During cognitive tasks as in, e.g., aesthetic appreciation, such networks include regions that belong to the default mode network (DMN). Theoretically, DMN activity should be interrupted during cognitive tasks demanding attention, as is the case for aesthetic appreciation. Analyzing the functional connectivity dynamics along three temporal windows and two conditions, beautiful and not beautiful stimuli, here we report experimental support for the hypothesis that aesthetic appreciation relies on the activation of two different networks, an initial aesthetic network and a delayed aesthetic network, engaged within distinct time frames. Activation of the DMN might correspond mainly to the delayed aesthetic network. We discuss adaptive and evolutionary explanations for the relationships existing between the DMN and aesthetic networks and offer unique inputs to debates on the mind/brain interaction.

‣ Why is Housing Always Satisfactory? A Study into the Impact of Preference and Experience on Housing Appreciation

Jansen, Sylvia J. T.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study focuses on residents’ perceptions of residential quality concerning 23 different dwelling aspects. Respondents were asked to indicate their appreciation of these dwelling aspects on a scale ranging from 0 (“extremely unattractive”) to 100 (“extremely attractive”). The influence of two potential factors on the appreciation of dwelling aspects is examined: (1) preference and (2) experience. It was hypothesized that residents who live according to their preferences give higher appreciation scores than residents who do not. This should even apply to low-quality housing. Furthermore, it was argued that residents appreciate their current housing situation more than residents who do not live in that particular housing situation. This effect should be independent of preference. The impact of both preference and of experience could be confirmed. The results also showed an interaction effect between preference and experience: the positive effect of experience on appreciation is larger in residents who live in a housing situation that they do not prefer. This result would be expected if the impact of experience works to decrease the ‘gap’ in residential satisfaction due to the discrepancy between what residents have and what they want. In conclusion...

‣ Influence of Aesthetic Appreciation of Wildlife Species on Attitudes towards Their Conservation in Kenyan Agropastoralist Communities

de Pinho, Joana Roque; Grilo, Clara; Boone, Randall B.; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/02/2014 Português
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The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191) as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection (“rescuing them”), and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion). Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it...

‣ In the working memory of the beholder: Art appreciation is enhanced when visual complexity is compatible with working memory

Sherman, Aleksandra; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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What shapes art appreciation? Much research has focused on the importance of visual features themselves (e.g., symmetry, natural scene statistics) and of the viewer’s experience and expertise with specific artworks. However, even after taking these factors into account, there are considerable individual differences in art preferences. Our new result suggests that art preference is also influenced by the compatibility between visual properties and the characteristics of the viewer’s visual system. Specifically, we have demonstrated, using 120 artworks from diverse periods, cultures, genres and styles, that art appreciation is increased when the level of visual complexity within an artwork is compatible with the viewer’s visual working memory capacity. The result highlights the importance of the interaction between visual features and the beholder’s general visual capacity in shaping art appreciation.

‣ A comparative study of condominium and single family house price appreciation in the Salt Lake Valley

Billings, John D. (John David), 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 60 leaves; 4321854 bytes; 4321663 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study examines whether the form of ownership affects the appreciation rate of housing units. The specific test conducted is whether condominiums and single family homes in the Salt Lake Valley have appreciated at the same rate over the past six and a half years. To test this hypothesis, a sample of 10,134 condominium and 48,913 house transactions was analyzed. The sales were grouped into eight geographic analysis areas. Hedonic models were used to quantify the contributory effect on value of the time of sale, age of the unit, and other significant housing characteristics. The price indices created by the hedonic models for each housing type are then compared within geographic areas and across the valley. The paper shows that condominium price appreciation is significantly below the appreciation of single family houses in seven of the eight areas examined, which represents 80% of the sample. Valley wide regressions were then conducted utilizing geographic dummy variables for the individual analysis areas. These models indicate a strong premium for units of both housing types located in the downtown area.; by John D. Billings.; Thesis (S.M. in Real Estate Development)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning...

‣ Characteristics of North Sea oil reserve appreciation

Watkins, G. C.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 33, A1-A28, B1-B7, C1-C23, D1-D7 p
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In many petroleum basins, and especially in more mature areas, most reserve additions consist of the growth over time of prior discoveries, a phenomenon termed reserve appreciation. This paper concerns crude oil reserve appreciation in both the UK and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea. It examines the change in reserves attributed to North Sea fields over time, seeking to reveal patterns of reserve appreciation both for individual fields and for groups of fields classified by potentially relevant common elements. These include field size, year of production start-up, geological age, gravity, depth and depletion rate. The paper emphasises the statistical analysis of reserve appreciation. It contrasts the Norwegian and UK experience. An important distinction is drawn between appreciation of oil-in-place and changes in recovery factors. North Sea oil reserve appreciation between production start-up and the last observation year (usually 1996) is found to be substantial, but it generally lacks a consistent profile. Appreciation recorded for the Norwegian fields on average is considerably greater than for the UK. Most UK appreciation is seemingly accounted for by oil-in-place; in Norway, from increases in recovery factors. However, UK recovery factors commence at much higher levels than those for Norway.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

‣ North Sea reserve appreciation, production, and depletion

Sem, Tone; Ellerman, A. Denny
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 39 p
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Oil field "growth" has become a well-recognized phenomenon in mature, well-explored provinces such as the United States leading to the continual under-estimation in oil production forecasts. This working paper explores the role of field growth, what is here called reserve appreciation, in newer oil-producing provinces, such as the North Sea, which have also generally exceeded earlier forecasts of production levels. The analysis seeks to determine the regularities in North Sea reserve appreciation as a function of the years produced, the size of the field, the time period, and whether location in the Norwegian or UK sector matters, using standard panel regression techniques. The analysis finds that the reserves in North Sea oil producing fields have appreciated at rates varying between 2% and 3% pr annum, with the notable exception of mid-sized oil reserves. In the end, about one-quarter of 1996 production from the North Sea can be attributed to reserve appreciation. This result indicates that, although reserve appreciation is important in the North Sea, new discoveries are the primary source of the greater than expected production from this oil producing province.

‣ Personality, affective and motivational factors in the appreciation of art of three levels of abstraction and two affective tones

Leon, Erla (1971 - ); Ryan, Richard M.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:x, 149 leaves
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Clinical and Social Psychology, 2008.; Personality, affective and motivational variables were examined in relation to art appreciation. More specifically, sensation seeking, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, affective state and mood of participants were examined in relation to the appreciation for Realist, Expressionist and Abstract Expressionist paintings of positive/neutral and sad mood. Sensation seeking was found to moderate each of the associations of painting arousal, abstraction and mood to preference for the paintings. Openness approached significance in moderating the association between abstraction and liking, and was associated with higher preference for paintings of a negative mood. Participant positive affect was associated with higher overall preference for paintings. Negative affect was associated with perceiving the mood of paintings as more negative. When presented with information about the extrinsic value of paintings (monetary worth of the paintings, painter fame, museum status), participants increased liking for paintings that were assigned higher value. Contrary to expectation, intrinsic aspirations and autonomy orientation tended to be associated with higher preference for paintings that were assigned higher value. Extrinsic aspirations were associated with increased preference for abstract paintings that were assigned higher extrinsic value.

‣ A apreciação musical infantil: aspectos da constituição da infância contemporânea no discurso de crianças do Ensino Fundamental

Macedo, Narjara Medeiros de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia; Psicologia, Sociedade e Qualidade de Vida Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia; Psicologia, Sociedade e Qualidade de Vida
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Music can be found in peculiar historical and social context with distinct functions, such as religious rituals, ethic-esthetic education of subjects, therapeutic elements, critic and maintenance of established patterns, among others. Considered as language, music acts on dialogue dimensions of the body, the senses, the affectionate-cognitive and of social interactions. Their uses reveal the social forces that cross the culture and constitution of subjectivities. The attribution of senses by the subjects to musical production reveals the cultural voices in dialogue, that circumscribe determined social places to them. Our aim in this work is to investigate the child musical appreciation, with children about 7 to 9 years old, and, by attributing uses and senses to music, unveil the voices that settle the places intended and assumed by infancy in contemporaneity The child constructs its musical appreciation through cultural access and mediation, possible by circulation in several socializing groups like family, school, church, infant groups, community groups and, more recently, publicity and media These last two spheres, enabled by the development of the technological means of communication, contributed to the dissemination of the set of consume ideas and for the emergence of the cultural industry...

‣ Suivi postnatal à domicile après un congé précoce : Critères de sélection et Appréciation du délai

Pomerleau, Sophie G.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Aujourd’hui, la satisfaction des utilisateurs des services de santé est reconnue comme une mesure de la qualité des soins. Au Québec, le congé précoce en obstétrique constitue la norme pour les mères ayant donné naissance à un bébé en santé. Selon la littérature, cette pratique n’entraîne pas de répercussions négatives pour la santé des mères et de leur nouveau-né à condition qu’un suivi adéquat soit assuré. D’autre part, bien qu’il semble que la diminution de la durée du séjour hospitalier soit appréciée par les mères, peu de données sont disponibles relativement aux caractéristiques menant à l’appréciation du suivi postnatal. Objectifs : Cette étude s’intéresse principalement à la première visite à domicile effectuée par une infirmière suite au congé précoce en obstétrique. Dans un premier temps, elle vise à tracer un portrait des mères en fonction du délai de la première visite à domicile et, dans un second temps, à connaître les facteurs associés à l’appréciation, par les mères, du délai de cette visite. Méthode : Les données de cette étude ont été recueillies au Québec, entre janvier 2002 et janvier 2003, lors d’une enquête téléphonique effectuée auprès de mères de bébés nés en santé...

‣ L’influence d’activités en arts plastiques sur l’expérience d’appréciation musicale d’élèves de sixième année du primaire

Racine, Elyse
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Depuis 2001, le Programme de formation de l’école québécoise impose l’enseignement de la compétence « apprécier » dans les quatre disciplines artistiques. Ce mémoire s’intéresse à l’influence que peuvent avoir des activités intégrant les arts plastiques à la musique sur l’expérience d’appréciation musicale d’élèves de sixième année du primaire. Plus spécifiquement, elle vise à rendre compte des différentes dimensions présentes dans la description que font les élèves de leur expérience d’appréciation ainsi qu’à comprendre de quelle façon les activités d’appréciation intégrant les arts plastiques à la musique affectent la verbalisation que font les élèves de cette expérience. La recherche prend la forme d’études de cas réalisées auprès de cinq élèves de sixième année du primaire. Ces élèves, ainsi que tous les élèves de leur classe, ont participé à une activité d’appréciation musicale intradisciplinaire ainsi qu’à deux activités d’appréciation interdisciplinaires. Après chacune des activités, ces cinq élèves ont été rencontrés individuellement. Au cours d’entrevues semi-dirigées, il leur était demandé de rendre compte de leur expérience d’appréciation. Quatre grandes tendances ont émergé de l’analyse des propos des élèves...

‣ Aid, Growth, and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Go, Delfin S.; Page, John; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Devarajan, Go, Page, Robinson, and Thierfelder argued that if aid is about the future and recipients are able to plan consumption and investment decisions optimally over time, then the potential problem of an aid-induced appreciation of the real exchange rate (Dutch disease) does not occur. In their paper, "Aid, Growth and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics," this key result is derived without requiring extreme assumptions or additional productivity story. The economic framework is a standard neoclassical growth model, based on the familiar Salter-Swan characterization of an open economy, with full dynamic savings and investment decisions. It does require that the model is fully dynamic in both savings and investment decisions. An important assumption is that aid should be predictable for intertemporal smoothing to take place. If aid volatility forces recipients to be constrained and myopic, Dutch disease problems become an issue.

‣ A comparative approach of the national margin of appreciation doctrine before the ECtHR, investment tribunals and WTO dispute settlement bodies

EL BOUDOUHI, Saïda
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The paper proposes a critical appraisal of the possibility of transposing the national margin of appreciation doctrine as developed in the ECtHR case law to the WTO dispute settlement system on the one hand and to investor-State arbitration on the other. For that purpose, the analysis first establishes the difference between the doctrine and the concept of national margin of appreciation which takes into account many situations that would otherwise be misleading. The paper then looks at the functional nature of the doctrine within the case law of the ECtHR to conclude that it acts as a “softener” of the otherwise stringent proportionality analysis test. While the observation of the case law in WTO and international investment law shows that there is currently little room for the transposition of the doctrine to these areas, the paper looks at possible theoretical explanations for such a state of the law which seems to be due to both structural differences and political contingencies.

‣ Aid Inflows and the Real Effective Exchange Rate in Tanzania

Li, Ying; Rowe, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Tanzania is well placed to receive a significant increase in aid inflows in coming years. Despite the potential for the additional aid inflows to raise income levels in the country, increasing them may bring about structural changes in the economy that may be unwelcome. One such change is an appreciation of the real exchange rate that leads to a contraction of traditional export sectors and a loss of export competitiveness. This paper employs a reduced-form equilibrium real exchange rate approach to explain movements in Tanzania's real effective exchange in recent decades. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between aid inflows and the real effective exchange rate. The authors find that the long-run behavior of the real effective exchange rate is influenced by terms of trade movements, the government's trade liberalization efforts, and aid inflows. Positive terms-of-trade movements are associated with an appreciation, periods of improving trade liberalization are associated with a depreciation...

‣ The Impact of the Strong Euro on the Real Effective Exchange Rates of the Two Francophone African CFA Zones

Zafar, Ali
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The author estimates the degree of misalignment of the CFA franc since the introduction of the euro in 1999. Using a relative purchasing power parity-based methodology, he develops a monthly panel time series dataset for both the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) zone and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) zone to compute a trade-weighted real effective exchange rate indexed series from January 1999 to December 2004. The author's main finding is that the real effective exchange rate appreciated by close to 8 percent in UEMOA and 7 percent in CEMAC, influenced by volatility in the euro-dollar bilateral exchange rate and conservative monetary policies in the two zones, resulting in a partial loss of competitiveness in export markets. The lower appreciation in Central Africa can be explained by lower inflation in CEMAC than in UEMOA and by the greater trade with higher inflation East Asian countries, partially offset by the peg to the dollar. However, the inclusion of "unrecorded trade" results in an appreciation of only 6 percent in the UEMOA zone and 6 percent in the CEMAC zone due to higher inflation in the two countries with unmonitored cross-border flows, Ghana and Nigeria. Using time series econometrics...

‣ Appreciation of humor sense in college students; Apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios; Apreciação do sentido de humor em estudantes universitários

Reyes Rojas, Monica; Lara Rodriguez, Gustavo; Lizcano, Elsa Catalina
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/04/2012 Português
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Appreciation of humor includes several cognitive and social processes. None can say that two communities will laugh at the same jokes and find funny the same humorous content. This study worked differences in humor appreciation of university students and comparisons were made between sex and age of participants. To assess the appreciation of humor was built an instrument with 15 written jokes. This instrument was presented to a total sample of 81 students, divided into 3 groups of different age. Participants had to evaluate two aspects: the playfulness and the difficulty of each stimulus or humorous vignette. The jokes that showed significant differences in jocularity have a particular structure marked for a disqualifying content to men, indicating, as noted the literature, that men have more fun with sexual humor and prefers this kind of jokes as well as content related to aggressive or hostile, while women have more fun with humorous vignettes when the man is the victim and reject more when the victim is a woman. In terms of age and the appreciation of humor, there are differences in the type of situations and social contexts valued in the jokes, involving relationship between situational and social aspects of humor.; La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos presentado a una muestra total de 81 estudiantes...

‣ Disinflation and real currency appreciation in Chile and Mexico: the role of monetary policy

Ibarra,Carlos A.
Fonte: UNAM, Facultad de Economía Publicador: UNAM, Facultad de Economía
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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Chile and Mexico followed strategies of gradual disinflation during the 1990s, conducted their monetary policies in broadly similar ways, and experienced real currency appreciation. But the appreciation was larger in Mexico, which helps to explain its economic-growth underperformance. Motivated by these parallels and contrasts, the paper compares the conduct of monetary policy in the two countries through (a) a qualitative analysis of monetary policy episodes -episodes featuring a clear shift in the policy stance- and (b) the estimation of error-correction models for the interest rate, and identifies the specific traits of Mexico's monetary policy that contributed to the large appreciation of its currency.