O presente estudo recorre ao quadro conceptual e aos instrumentos metodológicos da Análise do Discurso
para a identificação e descrição dos traços essenciais do discurso do Presidente da Assembleia da República
na sessão solene parlamentar de comemoração do 25 de Abril de 1974, em 26 de abril de 1977, na primeira
sessão da primeira legislatura da Assembleia da República em regime democrático. O estudo centra-se nas
questões enunciativas, no ethos do enunciador e nas mais relevantes isotopias que perpassam o discurso. Conclui que este discurso se constrói sobre uma visão pessoal particularmente marcada, dando a ver o
conjunto de valores que o seu enunciador assume como edificadores do Portugal novo saído da revolução
de 25 de abril de 1974 e os compromissos que assume perante o povo português.; This study draws on the conceptual framework and methodological tools of discourse analysis for the
identification and description of the essential features of the Parliament President’s speech at the solemn
parliamentary session commemorating April 25th 1974, on April 26th 1977 in the first session of the first
legislature of the Parliament in democracy. The study focuses on the enunciative issues, the ethos of the
enunciator and the most relevant isotopies that underlie his speech. We conclude that this discourse is constructed on a particularly marked personal vision...
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) originates from the clonal expansion of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. These B-cell–derived elements constitute less than 10% of the tumoral mass. The remaining tissue is comprised of an inflammatory infiltrate that includes myeloid cells. Myeloid cells activate B cells by producing BAFF and APRIL, which engage TACI, BCMA, and BAFF-R receptors on the B cells. Here, we studied the role of BAFF and APRIL in HL. Inflammatory and HRS cells from HL tumors expressed BAFF and APRIL. Unlike their putative germinal center B-cell precursors, HRS cells lacked BAFF-R, but expressed TACI and BCMA, a phenotype similar to that of plasmacytoid B cells. BAFF and APRIL enhanced HRS cell survival and proliferation by delivering nonredundant signals via TACI and BCMA receptors through both autocrine and paracrine pathways. These signals caused NF-κB activation; Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc up-regulation; and Bax down-regulation, and were amplified by APRIL-binding proteoglycans on HRS cells. Interruption of BAFF and APRIL signaling by TACI-Ig decoy receptor, which binds to and neutralizes BAFF and APRIL, or by small-interfering RNAs targeting BAFF, APRIL, TACI, and BCMA inhibited HRS cell accumulation in vitro and might attenuate HL expansion in vivo.
Cols, Montserrat; Barra, Carolina M.; He, Bing; Puga, Irene; Xu, Weifeng; Chiu, April; Tam, Wayne; Knowles, Daniel M.; Dillon, Stacey R.; Leonard, John P.; Furman, Richard R.; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal B cell disorder of unknown origin. Accessory signals from the microenvironment are critical for the survival, expansion and progression of malignant B cells. We found that the CLL stroma included microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) expressing BAFF and APRIL, two TNF family members related to the T cell-associated B cell-stimulating molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L). Constitutive release of soluble BAFF and APRIL increased upon engagement of CD40 on MVECs by CD40L aberrantly expressed on CLL cells. In addition to enhancing MVEC expression of the CD40 receptor, leukemic CD40L induced cleavases that elicited intracellular processing of pro-BAFF and pro-APRIL proteins in MVECs. The resulting soluble BAFF and APRIL proteins delivered survival, proliferation, Ig gene-remodeling and differentiation signals by activating CLL cells through TACI, BAFF-R and BCMA receptors. BAFF and APRIL further amplified CLL cell survival by up-regulating the expression of leukemic CD40L. Inhibition of TACI, BCMA and BAFF-R expression on CLL cells, abrogation of CD40 expression in MVECs, or suppression of BAFF and APRIL cleavases in MVECs reduced the survival and diversification of malignant B cells. These data indicate that BAFF...