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‣ STS-PCR markers appropriate for wheat-barley introgression

Blake, T.; Kadyrzhanova, D.; Shepherd, K.; Islam, A.; Langridge, P.; McDonald, C.; Erpelding, J.; Larson, S.; Blake, N.; Talbert, L.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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Introgression of chromosomal segments across large taxonomic distances has long been an objective of scientists interested in understanding the relationships between genes and their effect on phenotype. Barley and wheat represent cultivated members of the Triticeae with different zones of adaptation, different responses to pathogens, and different end-use characteristics. Introduction of small, well-characterized chromosomal segments among grass relatives presents an opportunity to both better understand how genes perform in novel genomic environments and to learn more about the evolutionary novelties which differentiate related species. Since the distribution of the wheat-barley addition lines, the potential power and value of a comprehensive series of wheat/barley translocation lines has been widely appreciated. A scarcity of easy-touse markers which unambiguously distinguish barley loci from their wheat homologues has limited the ability of scientists to identify the relatively rare inter-chromosomal recombination events which are the necessary antecedents of these lines. Since the single most critical pathogen affecting U.S. wheat producers is Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) and since barley carries a gene conferring immunity, molecular markers may prove practically and immediately important. In this report we describe a series of 135 barley-specific markers amplified by 115 primer sets developed from sequences from previously mapped restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. These easily distinguish the cognate barley products from their wheat counterparts and should find ready use in the identification of lines which contain wheat/barley translocation events.; T. K. Blake...

‣ Barley disease resistance gene analogs of the NBS-LRR class: identification and mapping

Madsen, L.; Collins, N.; Rakwalska, M.; Backes, G.; Sandal, N.; Krusell, L.; Jensen, J.; Waterman, E.; Jahoor, A.; Ayliffe, M.; Pryor, A.; Langridge, P.; Schulze-Lefert, P.; Stougaard, J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The majority of verified plant disease resistance genes isolated to date are of the NBS-LRR class, encoding proteins with a predicted nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region. We took advantage of the sequence conservation in the NBS motif to clone, by PCR, gene fragments from barley representing putative disease resistance genes of this class. Over 30 different resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were isolated from the barley cultivar Regatta. These were grouped into 13 classes based on DNA sequence similarity. Actively transcribed genes were identified from all classes but one, and cDNA clones were isolated to derive the complete NBS-LRR protein sequences. Some of the NBS-LRR genes exhibited variation with respect to whether and where particular introns were spliced, as well as frequent premature polyadenylation. DNA sequences related to the majority of the barley RGAs were identified in the recently expanded public rice genomic sequence database, indicating that the rice sequence can be used to extract a large proportion of the RGAs from barley and other cereals. Using a combination of RFLP and PCR marker techniques, representatives of all barley RGA gene classes were mapped in the barley genome, to all chromosomes except 4H. A number of the RGA loci map in the vicinity of known disease resistance loci...

‣ Chromosomal assignment and deletion mapping of barley EST markers

Nasuda, S.; Kikkawa, Y.; Ashida, T.; Islam, A.; Sato, K.; Endo, T.
Fonte: Genetics Soc Japan Publicador: Genetics Soc Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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From about 10000 PCR-based EST markers of barley we chose 1421 EST markers that were demonstrated to be amplified differently by PCR between wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Betzes). We assigned them to the seven barley chromosomes (1H to 7H) by PCR analysis using a set of wheat-barley chromosome addition lines. We successfully assigned 701 (49.3%) EST markers to the barley chromosomes: 75 to 1H, 127 to 2H, 119 to 3H, 94 to 4H, 108 to 5H, 81 to 6H and 97 to 7H. By using a set of Betzes barley telosomic addition lines of Chinese Spring, we could successfully determine the chromosome-arm (S or L) location of at least 90% of the EST markers assigned to each barley chromosome. We conducted a trial mapping using 90 EST markers assigned to 7HS (49) or 7HL (41) and 19 wheat lines carrying 7H structural changes. More EST markers were found in the distal region than in the proximal region.; Shuhei Nasuda, Yukari Kikkawa, Taizo Ashida, A. K. M. Rafiqul Islam, Kazuhiro Sato, Takashi R. Endo

‣ Interspecific transferability and comparative mapping of barley EST-SSR markers in wheat, rye and rice

Varshney, R.; Sigmund, R.; Borner, A.; Korzun, V.; Stein, N.; Sorrells, M.; Langridge, P.; Graner, A.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent increase in the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST) data has facilitated the development of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in a number of plant species groups, including cereals. As these SSRs are derived from ESTs/genes (EST-SSRs), they exhibit a higher potential for transfer through cross-amplification in related species than SSR markers generated from genomic DNA libraries. In this study, a sub-set of 165 EST-SSR markers from a total of 185 assigned to the genetic map of barley was examined for transferability to wheat, rye and rice. A higher proportion, i.e., 78.2% of barley markers showed amplification in wheat followed by 75.2% in rye and 42.4% in rice. Furthermore, in silico comparison of SSR-ESTs (ESTs containing SSRs) corresponding to 185 mapped barley EST-SSR loci against 1,369,182 publicly available cereal ESTs showed significant homology with ESTs of wheat (93.5%), rye (37.3%), rice (57.3%), sorghum (51.9%) and maize (51.9%). Sequence similarity of the barley ESTs with 379,944 ESTs of the two model dicot species, Arabidopsis and Medicago suggested theoretical transferability of barley markers into dicot species although at low frequency (9.7% in Arabidopsis and 8.6% in Medicago). In silico comparative mapping (sequence comparison) of mapped barley SSR-ESTs against the mapping data of rye...

‣ Identification of Marker Trait Associations in a Barley Four Way Cross

McMichael, G.; Eglinton, J.; Barr, A.; Chalmers, K.
Fonte: Australian Barley Association Publicador: Australian Barley Association
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Until recently, genetic mapping in cereals has been exclusively applied to populations derived from simple crosses. Genetic studies are now targeting broader population structures to take advantage of association mapping and whole genome analysis techniques. This paper presents a study of a Doubled Haploid (DH) population derived from the complex cross, Chieftan/Barque//Manley/VB9104, which is a significant departure from conventional mapping population structures. The population has been extensively phenotyped for malt quality and adaptation characteristics, through evaluation as a mainstream breeding population within the SA Barley Improvement Program (SABIP). Of the 841 (DH) lines, 837 lines were evaluated in double row trials, with 350 individuals promoted to stage one, 70 individuals to stage two and 10 individuals to stage three. One line (WI3408) has subsequently progressed to pilot scale malting and brewing trials, with potential for commercial release. Using high throughput technology the stage one DH lines (350) were extensively screened with fluorescently labelled simple sequence repeats (SSRs) based on their association with the traits of interest for this population. There was a 60 percent rate of polymorphism between one or more parents. In total...

‣ The Bio-fortification of Barley with Selenium

Gibson, C.; Park, Y.; Myoung, K.; Suh, M.; McArthur, T.; Lyons, G.; Stewart, A.
Fonte: Leishman Associates Publicador: Leishman Associates
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health and is reported to play a role in a number of physiological and metabolic processes. It has antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-viral functions, and there is evidence suggesting that Se could reduce alcohol-induced liver damage and the risk of prostate cancer. In South Korea, 70 percent of soil consists of granite and basalt with very low contents of selenium, potentially leading to Se deficiencies in the population. A study was undertaken to biofortify barley. The biofortified barley was then malted and brewed to determine if Se is available in the final beer. Two means of biofortifying barley were undertaken. Firstly, the application of sodium selenate to barley in the field, and secondly, the addition of sodium selenate and sodium selenite to barley during the steeping and watering phases of the malting process. A concentration of up to 2.7ppm Se was achieved in barley from foliar application, and 8.4ppm Se was achieved in malt from additions during the germination phase of malting, around 25 to 80 times higher than un-biofortified barley. The bio-fortified barley was micro-malted and brewed through both laboratory and pilot-scale processes. A mass balance of this bio-accumulated Se was conducted throughout the various intermediary and by-products of the malting and brewing process. Beer from both brewing methods contained appreciable concentrations of Se. The laboratory brew from malt containing 2.2ppm Se contained 38ppb...

‣ Where to for barley research, a researcher’s perspective

Mather, D.
Fonte: Australian Barley Association; Australia Publicador: Australian Barley Association; Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Many areas of research, from molecular biology through agronomy and economics, will provide opportunities to advance the barley industry. This presentation will focus on research in barley genetics and breeding, areas that are able to exploit a rapidly expanding suite of new technologies and to deliver new barley cultivars to the industry via molecular breeding.

‣ The genetics of barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in barley and rice.

Collins, Nicholas Charles
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18751%
Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), an aphid transmitted luteovirus, is the most widespread and economically damaging virus of cereal crops. The work in this thesis aims to characterise the basis of the naturally occurring resistance to BYDV in cereals in three ways: Firstly, by facilitating the isolation of the Yd2 gene for BYDV resistance from barley by a map-based approach. Secondly, by determining if a BYDV resistance gene in rice is orthologous to Yd2. Thirdly, by establishing if other BYDV resistance genes in non- Ethiopian barleys are allelic to Yd2. It is hoped that the information generated in this study will ultimately assist in the production of BYDV resistant cereal cultivars. A detailed genetic map of the Yd2 region of barley chromosome 3 was constructed, containing 19 RFLP loci, the centromere and the Yd2 gene. Yd2 mapped on the long arm, 0.5 cM from the centromere, and in the mapping population of 106 F2 individuals, perfectly cosegregated with the RFLP loci XYlp, and Xwg889. This map represents the first stage in a project to isolate the Yd2 gene by a map-based approach. The isolation of Yd2 could help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the Yd2-mediated BYDV resistance, and may allow the production of BYDV resistant cereals by genetic transformation. The RFLP markers mapped closest to Yd2 could also be useful in barley breeding...

‣ Role of Pyrenophora teres toxins in net blotch of barley.

Sarpeleh, Abolfazi
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), exists in two forms; P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata. Both forms induce a combination of brown necrotic spots and extensive chlorosis in susceptible barley cultivars. Although a number of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) have been previously isolated from P. teres culture filtrates, they only induced certain components of symptoms. Fungal metabolites were extracted from culture filtrates of both forms of the pathogen and separated into low (<3kDa) and high molecular weight compounds (HMWCs, >10 kDa) with each fraction inducing a component of the net blotch symptoms in a barley leaf toxicity assay. Inactivation of both LMWCs (<1kDa) and HMWCs resulted in loss of activity confirming their potential role in symptom development. Low molecular weight compounds induced chlorosis and water soaking but not the brown necrotic spots or lesions usually seen during the infection of barley by P. teres. The high molecular weight compounds (>10 kDa) induced the brown necrotic spots or lesions with no chlorosis evident. Further characterisation of LMWCs showed that they are not host specific while HMWCs exhibited host specificity. LMWCs were purified and further analysed using high voltage paper electrophoresis...

‣ Market Opportunities for Waxy Hulless Barley Cultivars in Australia

Washington, J.; Box, A.
Fonte: Australian Barley Association Publicador: Australian Barley Association
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The nutritional value of barley in supplying a western diet with a high fibre, low fat and low GI alternative to other less nutritious grains is beginning to be realised. The availability of agronomically viable waxy hulless barley will enable Australian food processors to utilise this valuable food grain. Processing techniques such as pearling, milling and flaking (rolling) enable barley to be utilised in a variety of food products. The availability of waxy hulless barley will provide food manufacturers with a fast cooking grain (whole or pearled) with excellent pearling and flaking quality with a high content of beta-glucan. This soluble fibre has been shown to lower blood cholesterol in humans thus reducing risk of heart disease. It has also been extracted for numerous end-uses, such as bio-films, wound dressings and nutritional supplements. We have compared the physical grain quality, pearling, cooking, baking and flaking quality of Australian waxy hulless barley with other hulless and covered barleys. The quality attributes of waxy hulless barley will be discussed in the context of potential products and market opportunities. Other end-uses for waxy barley will also be discussed. The South Australian Barley Improvement Program has bred waxy hulless barleys with considerable improvements in agronomy and food quality characteristics compared to older waxy cultivars. New waxy hulless cultivars will provide food processors with an alternative health related ingredient and will benefit farmers by offering a value-added grain to the food market. Waxy hulless barley will also provide a nutritious...

‣ Pearling and SKCS Analysis of Australian Barley for the Asian Food Market

Washington, J.; Roumeliotis, S.; Kaczmarek, R.; Barr, A.
Fonte: Australian Barley Technical Symposium; Glen Osmond, South Australia Publicador: Australian Barley Technical Symposium; Glen Osmond, South Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.074917%
Australian barley sold to the Asian food market (apart from malt) is mainly pearled for use either as a rice extender, in the production of miso paste or for the Japanese spirit, shochu. The shochu market is the most profitable of the Asian staple foods to Australian barley producers. Barley that meets shochu grade will suit the majority of Asian food market requirements. Pearling quality is of greatest importance to buyers of shochu quality barley. Measurements of pearling quality using a small-scale pearler are laborious and qualitative. The Single Kernel Characterisation System from Perten Instruments has been under investigation, to quantitatively measure barley uniformity and determine its usefulness in predicting pearling quality. Previously, we found that SKCS could be used to predict pearling yield, screenings less than 2.0mm and broken kernels (Washington et al., 2001). Since these findings were based on a two-year study only, Pearling and SKCS analysis was performed over four years to validate the use of SKCS as a predictor of pearling quality. The diverse climate and soil types unique to South Australia have enabled a thorough investigation of grain quality for the shochu market. South Australia and Western Australia currently export Schooner (SA) and Stirling (WA) to Japan for shochu. Each variety provides unique properties desirable to shochu manufacturers. However...

‣ The transcripted response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to boron toxicity.

Hassan, Mahmood
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.177383%
The occurrence of Boron (B) toxicity in Australian soils is recognised as a limiting factor for cereal productivity. A number of loci conferring tolerance to B toxicity have been identified in barley and chromosomally mapped. However, a lack of knowledge relating to the physiological and molecular events that occur under B toxicity and the molecular basis for B stress tolerance has been a bottleneck in harnessing available genetic diversity in barley and wheat. The recent advances in functional genomics provided an opportunity to examine B stress in barley in more detail. The aim of this project was to analyse genes differentially expressed under B stress in tolerant and intolerant barley to identify candidate genes involved in B toxicity tolerance. Two experimental approaches, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) and microarray were adopted. Firstly, SSH was performed to examine gene expression in roots of selected tolerant and intolerant doubled haploid lines from a Clipper (B intolerant) X Sahara 3771 (B tolerant) mapping population, grown under moderate B stress. The SSH experiment aimed to investigate the early transcriptional response of B tolerant barley lines to B stress in order to identify the basis for B toxicity tolerance in roots. Differential screening of the subtracted library generated from B treated plants identified a total of 111 non-redundant clones up-regulated in bulked tolerant lines. On the other hand 94 clones were differentially expressed under non-treated conditions. Among the clones identified from subtracted library generated from B treated plants...

‣ Molecular characterisation of differentially expressed genes in the interaction of barley and Rhynchosporium secalis.

Jabbari, Jafar Sheikh
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The barley scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) causes extensive economic losses, not only through lost product and quality, but also due to costs associated with chemical control. Economic and environmental impacts and the emerging resistance to fungicides and dominant resistance genes are reasons to understand molecular defence responses in order to develop new strategies to increase resistance of barley to this pathogen. In most pathosystems, defence gene expression in susceptible or resistant genotypes commonly differs quantitatively. Thus, differentially expressed genes between genotypes contrasting for response to infection by pathogens are considered candidate genes that have a role in resistance. This thesis presents functional analysis of a subset of genes isolated from a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation library. The library was previously established and enriched for differentially expressed genes in epidermis of resistant and susceptible near-isogenic barley cultivars inoculated with R. secalis. Functional characterisation involved both investigating their putitative biochemical function as well as the genes‟ role(s) in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Three cDNA clones from the library were selected based on the putative function of the encoded proteins and the full length of the clones and their homologues were isolated from cDNA and genomic DNA. One of the clones represented a member of the pathogenesis-related protein family 17 (PR-17). Southern hybridisation showed that a small multigene family encodes the barley PR-17 proteins. Three members were cloned with two of them being novel. The second clone was homologous to galactinol synthases (GolS) and Southern blot analysis indicated existence of two GolS genes in the barley genome and subsequently two HvGolS members were isolated. The last clone (a single gene) showed similarity to very long chain fatty acid elongases...

‣ High-resolution genotyping of wild barley introgression lines and fine-mapping of the threshability locus thresh-1 using the Illumina GoldenGate assay

Schmalenbach, I.; March, T.; Bringezu, T.; Waugh, R.; Pillen, K.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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37.09962%
Genetically well-characterized mapping populations are a key tool for rapid and precise localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and subsequent identification of the underlying genes. In this study, a set of 73 introgression lines (S42ILs) originating from a cross between the spring barley cultivar Scarlett (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (H. v. ssp. spontaneum) was subjected to high-resolution genotyping with an Illumina 1536-SNP array. The array enabled a precise localization of the wild barley introgressions in the elite barley background. Based on 636 informative SNPs, the S42IL set represents 87.3% of the wild barley genome, where each line contains on average 3.3% of the donor genome. Furthermore, segregating high-resolution mapping populations (S42IL-HRs) were developed for 70 S42ILs in order to facilitate QTL fine-mapping and cloning. As a case study, we used the developed genetic resources to rapidly identify and fine-map the novel locus thresh-1 on chromosome 1H that controls grain threshability. Here, the recessive wild barley allele confers a difficult to thresh phenotype, suggesting that thresh-1 played an important role during barley domestication. Using a S42IL-HR population...

‣ Evaluation of juvenile drought stress tolerance and genotyping by sequencing with wild barley introgression lines

Honsdorf, N.; March, T.J.; Hecht, A.; Eglinton, J.; Pillen, K.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09962%
Drought is a major stress which can seriously limit yield in many crops including barley. Wild barley introgression lines (ILs) like the S42IL library may enhance drought stress tolerance of barley cultivars through the introduction of exotic alleles. The S42IL library was already characterized with 636 Illumina SNPs. New approaches like genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are available for barley to enhance the characterization of ILs. We generated an improved genetic map of the S42IL library, consisting of 4,201 SNPs by adding GBS data. The new map with a total length of 989.2 cM confirmed the extent of wild barley introgressions. Adding GBS data increased the resolution of the S42IL map tenfold from 0.4 to 4.2 markers/cM. This may assist to select possible candidate genes that improve drought tolerance. In four greenhouse experiments, juvenile drought stress response of 52 barley S42ILs was tested to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Thirteen S42ILs showed effects for plant biomass and leaf senescence. Subsequently, two verification experiments were conducted with these S42ILs. Nine out of eleven QTL were verified, and 22 additional QTL were detected. For 21 QTL, the Hsp allele increased trait performance, indicating the value of wild barley introgressions. For example...

‣ A Transgenic Transcription Factor (TaDREB3) in Barley Affects the Expression of MicroRNAs and Other Small Non-Coding RNAs

Hackenberg, Michael; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.15285%
Transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and other functional non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene regulators. Comparison of sRNA expression profiles between transgenic barley over-expressing a drought tolerant TF (TaDREB3) and non-transgenic control barley revealed many group-specific sRNAs. In addition, 42% of the shared sRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (|log2| >1). Furthermore, TaDREB3-derived sRNAs were only detected in transgenic barley despite the existence of homologous genes in non-transgenic barley. These results demonstrate that the TF strongly affects the expression of sRNAs and siRNAs could in turn affect the TF stability. The TF also affects size distribution and abundance of sRNAs including miRNAs. About half of the sRNAs in each group were derived from chloroplast. A sRNA derived from tRNA-His(GUG) encoded by the chloroplast genome is the most abundant sRNA, accounting for 42.2% of the total sRNAs in transgenic barley and 28.9% in non-transgenic barley. This sRNA, which targets a gene (TC245676) involved in biological processes, was only present in barley leaves but not roots. 124 and 136 miRNAs were detected in transgenic and non-transgenic barley...

‣ The genetic basis of barley black point formation.

March, Timothy
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.177383%
Black point of barley grain refers to a discolouration of the embryo end of the grain. Historically black point has been proposed to be due to fungal colonisation of the grain. However, Koch’s postulates have yet to be satisfied. The discolouration occurs during grain fill in response to high humidity or rainfall during the grain filling period. In wheat, which is also affected by black point, the discolouration has been proposed to be due to the oxidation of phenolic acids within the grain to form discoloured end products. Within this study, two approaches were investigated in order to understand the proteins and genes associated with this disorder. Firstly, a proteomics approach enabled the identification of individual proteins associated with black point. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the proteome of the husk and whole grain tissue of mature black pointed and healthy grain. Very little watersoluble protein was extracted from the husk tissue. However, a significantly larger amount of protein was extracted using a salt extraction buffer, indicating the husk proteins were mostly cell wall bound. Due to the effect of residual salt and low protein concentrations these proteins were not conducive to analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Further experiments using acid hydrolysis of the husk tissue and subsequent amino acid analysis revealed that the proteins were bound to the husk cell walls via covalent bonds. In contrast...

‣ Selection of quality Australian barley for the Japanese staple food market

Washington, J.; Collins, H.; Maeda, Y.; Box, A.; Barr, A.
Fonte: Australian Barley Technical Symposium Publicador: Australian Barley Technical Symposium
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approximately 150,000 tonnes of Australian malting quality barley valued at approximately $30,000,000 is exported annually for the Japanese staple market. However, barley selected for malting quality may not always meet Japanese requirements. This may put Australia's competitive 'edge' at risk. The first step towards improved selection of grain for the Japanese staple market is to measure pearling quality, since pearling is performed prior to the production of three important Japanese food products: miso, rice extender and shochu. Barley suitable for pearling must be uniform in size, shape and hardness. Pearling methods obtained from Japanese processors were compared with grain uniformity tests using the Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System. Results indicate that the SKCS tests can be used to predict pearling quality of Australian barley from a diverse range of sites, providing a rapid screening tool. This paper describes the relationships between chemical components of grain, grain hardness and uniformity of hardness and measurements of pearling quality, and also discusses the effect of genotype and environment on pearling quality.; Jennifer Washington, Helen Collins, Yoshiaki Maeda, Amanda Box and Andrew Barr

‣ Spanish Barley Core Collection: Aula Dei Experimental Station Germplasm Bank [website - database]; Colección Nuclear de Cebadas Españolas: Banco de Germoplasma de la Estación Experimental de Aula Dei [www - base de datos]

Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel; Casas Cendoya, Ana María; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar; Igartua Arregui, Ernesto; Yahiaoui, Samia; Molina-Cano, José Luis; Romagosa, Ignacio; Moralejo, María Ángeles; López, A.; Montoya, José Luis; Ciudad, Francisco J.;
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España); Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España); Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (España)
Tipo: Software Formato: 36600 bytes; 37244 bytes; text/html; text/html
Português
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* The development of the CORE is described in: E. Igartua. M.P. Gracia, J.M. Lasa, B. Medina, J.L. Molina-Cano, J.L. Montoya and I. Romagosa. 1998. The Spanish Barley Core Collection. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45: 475-481. ** Related book: Spanish Barley : Core Collection / José Manuel Lasa (coordinator).-- Madrid : Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, cop. 2008.-- 222 p. : il. col. ; 24 cm.-- (Monografías INIA. Agrícola . Núm. 25-2008). ISBN 978-84-7498-526-9.; [EN] Spanish barleys constitute a germplasm group of particular interest for breeding purposes, as Spain has been proposed as a possible centre of origin of the crop. The Spanish National Phytogenetic Resources Centre (CRF) holds a collection of more than 2000 barley accessions, mostly landraces collected in Spain prior to extensive introduction of modern varieties. From these materials a Core Collection, representative of ancient barley genotypes grown in Spain, was created. The Spanish Barley Core Collection (SBCC) was constituted by three groups of germplasm: successful old varieties (16); and 2-row (11) and 6-row (148) entries from the CRF, for a total of 175 entries. Entries were selected by stratified sampling in agro-ecological uniform zones of barley cultivation in Spain. Classification of agro-ecological regions for barley was based on historical yield records for Spanish provinces. Once the SBCC was constituted...

‣ Utilization of barley grain in substitution of corn in diets for lactation cows; UTILIZAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE CEVADA EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO EM DIETAS PARA VACAS EM LACTAÇÃO

CÓRDOVA, H.A.; THALER NETO, A.; GOMES, I.P.O.; SANTOS, I.R.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2006 Português
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In the present research work the effects of partial and total substitution of ground corn grain by dry rolled barley on the milk production and composition were evaluated. Twenty-eight Holstein cows with an average of 125 days in milk were used in a 4x4 latin square design. Once a day, the diet was supplied in a totally mixed ration. Four levels of corn substitution by barley were tested (T1 – 0% barley; T2 – 33% barley; T3 –67% barley; and T4 – 100% barley. The experiment was carried out during 105 days. Cows were milked twice a day and contents of fat, protein, milk total solids, and somatic cell count (SCC) were established twice in each treatment period and the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) at the end of each period. The dry matter intake decreased in a linear fashion when barley replaced corn in the diet. However, the ingestion of crude protein, neutral fiber detergent and acid fiber detergent were not affected when substituting corn by barley. Linear reduction was observed in milk yield, fat corrected milk production and fat and protein contents of the milk, while the protein percentages increased in a linear way. No effect was registered concerning the levels of substitution on the protein production, total solids of the milk...