Página 1 dos resultados de 1850 itens digitais encontrados em 0.015 segundos

‣ Síntese de doutrina de segurança para projeto e operação de submarinos nucleares. ; Synthesis of safety doctrine for nuclear submarine design and operation.

Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/08/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.718457%
Considerando tanto os aspectos nucleares quanto os navais, esta tese propõe-se a organizar e sistematizar uma Doutrina de Segurança Global aplicável a futuros Submarinos Nucleares de Ataque (SNA) nacionais. Esta doutrina tem a forma de um conjunto de princípios básicos, critérios gerais, requisitos específicos e procedimentos de verificação do projeto e de inspeção da construção e operação, que garantam um alto padrão de segurança a esta classe de navio de guerra. Com ela, pretende-se constituir uma base consistente e coerente sobre a qual a Autoridade de Segurança Nuclear, considerando os Objetivos de Segurança propostos, possa avaliar a aceitabilidade dos riscos associados ao Ciclo de Vida do SNA, tomando assim suas competentes decisões quanto ao licenciamento do submarino. Entendendo-se segurança como percepção social de riscos, são discutidos o detalhamento, as interpretações, as derivações e as aplicações tecnológicas deste conceito básico em três contextos específicos: a disciplina de Segurança de Funcionamento de Sistemas Industriais (Reliability-Availability-Maintanabilit-Safety), de aplicação geral; a Segurança de Instalações Nucleares “Estacionárias”, em especial de reatores de potência eletronucleares; a Segurança Naval...

‣ Development of an applicattion to improve traceability and food safety management

Pinto, D. B.; Castro, Inês; Vicente, A. A.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.157925%
Food safety has become an important food quality attribute within the last decade. Facing recent food scandals taken up by the media, consumers are more and more concerned about and interested in the provenance and authenticity of their food. Both food industry and authorities need to be able to trace back and to authenticate food products and raw materials used for food production to comply with legislation and to meet the food safety and food quality requirements as well as the increasing consumer demand. Therefore, food companies are faced with the problem of defining and implementing a series of procedures, controls and measures. Moreover, it is necessary to define an application method which is both rigorous and economically sustainable in order to guarantee the safe production of food and to be able to trace it along the food chain. The application was designed to manage traceability as well as to help in the quality control and production improvement, using an user-friendly interface. This application was developed in Visual Basic over an SQL database and its main features are: to register quality control parameters of raw materials, in-course products and final products; to manage reception, production and expedition orders; to analyse production costs...

‣ Prevenção de acidentes: o que sabem os pais

Costa, A.; Sá, A.; Fraga, J.; Dias, F.; Serafim, M.J.
Fonte: Nascer e Crescer Publicador: Nascer e Crescer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098765%
Introdução: Os acidentes domésticos e rodoviários são causa frequente de morbilidade e mortalidade infantil. Objectivo: avaliar o conhecimento das normas de segurança infantil por parte dos pais, tendo em conta o grau de habilitações académicas (Ensino Básico (B), Ensino Secundário (S), Ensino Superior (SU)). Material e métodos: Estudo transversal com aplicação de um inquérito aos pais de crianças entre os 9 meses-6 anos. Na análise estatística utilizou-se o teste χ2 (p<0,05), recorrendo ao programa SPSS versão17.0. Resultados: Foram recolhidos 281 inquéritos (46% SU). As principais fontes de informação sobre prevenção de acidentes foram os meios de comunicação (86,7%) e o médico (69,5%). Relativamente às medidas de segurança gerais da habitação salientam-se os seguintes resultados: 40,2% sem trincos de segurança nas varandas ou janelas (B 26,8%, S 36,8%, SU 48,5%, p=0,014); ausência de protecção nas escadas em 47,5% (B 17,9%, S 44,4%, SU 59,5%, p=0,000) e nas lareiras 28,1%; 33,1% sem protecções de tomadas eléctricas e 70,2% sem protecções de esquinas. Na cozinha, 30,2% dos pais deixavam as crianças sozinhas; 22,8% cozinhavam com crianças ao colo; 49,5% não guardavam em local inacessível os detergentes e 8...

‣ Two decades of radiological accidents direct causes, roots causes and consequences

Rozental,Jose de Julio
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.331238%
Practically all Countries utilize radioisotopes in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. The extent to which ionizing radiation practices are employed varies considerably, depending largely upon social and economic conditions and the level of technical skills available in the country. An overview of the majority of practices and the associated hazards will be found in the Table IV to VII of this document. The practices in normal and abnormal operating conditions should follow the basic principles of radiation protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, considering the IAEA Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series 120 and the IAEA Recommendation of the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, Safety Series Nº 115. The Standards themselves underline the necessity to be able to predict the radiological consequences of emergency conditions and the investigations that should need to be done. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last two decades, provides a methodology for analyses and gives a collection of lessons learned. This will help the Regulatory Authority to review the reasons of vulnerabilities, and to start a Radiation safety and Security Programme to introduce measurescapable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. Although a number of accidents with fatalities have caught the attention of the public in recent year...

‣ Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

Motta,Sergio Paulo Olinto da; Flint,Steve; Perry,Paul; Noble,Alasdair
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos - ITAL Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos - ITAL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.157925%
Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007). In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012). Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003). This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety) and answers (likelihood of food contamination). A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation...

‣ Reducing Poverty and Investing in People : The New Role of Safety Nets in Africa

Monchuk, Victoria
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.115718%
For two decades, Africa’s strong economic growth has paved the way for poverty reduction. Nevertheless, high chronic poverty levels persist, and the gap between income groups in terms of human capital and access to basic services is growing. Also, poor households are vulnerable to frequent shocks. By providing regular, reliable support to poor households and helping them invest in productive activities, targeted interventions such as safety nets help reduce persistent poverty, reverse the trend of increasing inequality, and build household resilience. Until recently, safety nets were implemented only on an ad hoc basis in Africa. However, in the wake of the global economic crisis, policy makers are increasingly viewing safety nets as core instruments for reducing poverty and managing risk. Also a momentum toward rationalizing public spending to provide more adequate and targeted support to the poorest is emerging in response to growing evidence that safety nets can successfully reduce poverty and vulnerability and promote inclusive growth. This book assesses the status and analyzes the objectives, features, systems, performance, and financing of safety nets in 22 African countries. It then identifies how governments and donors can strengthen safety net systems and protect and promote poor and vulnerable people. Overall...

‣ Republic of Senegal : Safety Net Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.309219%
In 2010, the World Bank initiated a technical assistance program in social protection with the Government of Senegal, with a focus on safety nets. The World Bank and the government identified a number of technical notes and training sessions tailored to the immediate needs of the government. This Senegal safety net assessment integrates and summarizes the content of these technical notes. Poverty is a serious concern in the country, with the economy displaying significant vulnerabilities. While the government has been quick to respond to past crises, some of the measures taken by the government have had certain drawbacks. Also, factors such as poorly targeted support and rising prices have detracted from the efforts taken by the government. A well designed and implemented national safety net system is thus of utmost importance. This document examines the various factors involved in the creation and implementation of a well-designed safety net system for Senegal.

‣ Mali Social Safety Nets

Cherrier, Cecile; Ninno, Carlo del; Razmara, Setareh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.101128%
This report shows that Mali s safety nets are insufficient to address the needs of the population and suggests ways to improve them. There is a need to devise a set of cost effective programs to expand the scope and coverage of the national safety net. Given that any reform plan must be financially feasible, the government must allocate its scarce resources to programs that are well targeted and efficient. Creating the fiscal room for safety nets will also depend on political will. The government needs to: (i) strengthen the strategic, institutional, and financial frameworks for designing, implementing, and monitoring and evaluating safety nets; and (ii) increase the effectiveness of the safety net system by strengthening existing programs and designing new ones.

‣ Sudan Social Safety Net Assessment

Kjellgren, Annika; Jones-Pauly, Christina; El-Tayeb Alyn, Hadyiat; Tadesse, Endashaw; Vermehren, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.321062%
The Sudanese population has suffered from years of conflict, and deep-seated security issues have severely hampered Sudan s long-term economic stability and social development. As a consequence, Sudan is struggling to meet its MDGs. Since the secession of South Sudan, Sudan has lost a considerable part of its oil production and fiscal revenues. At the same time, the Government recognizes social safety nets as important instruments for reducing poverty. This report provides an analysis of the state of social safety nets in Sudan which shows that Sudan s existing safety net programs are limited in coverage, lack coordination, as well as monitoring and evaluation. The report suggests (i) reallocation of savings from the fuel subsidy reform to targeted pro-poor safety net programs; (ii) strengthening of the existing safety net through monitoring the outcomes, strong controls and social accountability, and a culture of evaluation, and (iii) development of a coherent National Social Protection Policy.

‣ Rwanda : Social Safety Net Assessment

Kamurase, Alex; Wylde, Emily; Hitimana, Stephen; Kitunzi, Anka
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35812%
Rwanda has experienced remarkable reductions in poverty from 59 percent in 2000/01 to 45 percent in 2010/11 (NISR, 2012). Social protection sector has equally evolved recently, both in terms of extending coverage of new programs and developing core functions on policy and strategy. The sector has matured from fragmented and largely off-budget donor programs to an increasingly government-owned and coherent system of interventions. But many Rwandans remain in extreme deprivation and are often stuck in chronic poverty. The sector thus needs to evolve further by deepening systems and reforms to the implementation level, increasing current low coverage of the poor by the core social safety nets programs and adequately responding to the changing needs of poverty and vulnerability. The government remains committed to pro-poor reforms and ensuring inclusive growth is sustained and enhanced.

‣ Niger : Food Security and Safety Nets

Aker, Jenny C.; del Ninno, Carlo; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mulder-Sibanda, Menno; Razmara, Setareh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29526%
This study aims to assist the Government of Niger in developing a multi-sectoral approach to reducing the population s vulnerability to food insecurity. The study reviews food security policies and programs in Niger, and provides an action plan for strengthening the existing system and developing an effective safety net strategy. The study finds that targeting of food aid has been either weak with significant leakages. Moreover, although the need to support poor and food insecure households is substantial, safety nets are small, receive limited funding, and are designed for emergency food crises. The study recommends to improve the efficiency and scope of safety net programs in Niger and to promote effective strategies to improve food availability and the emergency response systems.

‣ Tanzania Poverty, Growth, and Public Transfers : Options for a National Productive Safety Net Program

Smith, W. James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09229%
This report reviews the role that safety nets have played in Tanzania and explores options on how they can contribute in accelerating poverty reduction in Tanzania, focusing on mechanisms for giving transfers to the poor. The report shows that given the large numbers of poor in Tanzania and the country s limited resources, it is essential that safety net interventions be well-targeted and efficiently organized. Significant amounts of money are already being spent on transfer programs in Tanzania, but their impact has been limited. The report recommends that for Tanzania, a single intervention will not be enough to effectively tackle extreme poverty but a combination of different type of cash transfer options is more likely to make a difference in the strategy to reduce extreme poverty and food insecurity.

‣ Achieving Zero Accidents – A Strategic Framework for Continuous Safety Improvement in the Construction Industry

Farooqui, Rizwan U
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.140693%
In the U.S., construction accidents remain a significant economic and social problem. Despite recent improvement, the Construction industry, generally, has lagged behind other industries in implementing safety as a total management process for achieving zero accidents and developing a high-performance safety culture. One aspect of this total approach to safety that has frustrated the construction industry the most has been “measurement”, which involves identifying and quantifying the factors that critically influence safe work behaviors. The basic problem attributed is the difficulty in assessing what to measure and how to measure it – particularly the intangible aspects of safety. Without measurement, the notion of continuous improvement is hard to follow. This research was undertaken to develop a strategic framework for the measurement and continuous improvement of total safety in order to achieve and sustain the goal of zero accidents, while improving the quality, productivity and the competitiveness of the construction industry as it moves forward. The research based itself on an integral model of total safety that allowed decomposition of safety into interior and exterior characteristics using a multiattribute analysis technique. Statistical relationships between total safety dimensions and safety performance (measured by safe work behavior) were revealed through a series of latent variables (factors) that describe the total safety environment of a construction organization. A structural equation model (SEM) was estimated for the latent variables to quantify relationships among them and between these total safety determinants and safety performance of a construction organization. The developed SEM constituted a strategic framework for identifying...

‣ Improving occupational health and safety policy through intervention research

LaMontagne, Anthony D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 110999 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.223928%
Intervention research in occupational health and safety (OHS) addresses the development, implementation, and evaluation of OHS interventions.(1) The emphasis in intervention research is applied rather than basic or etiologic. Etiologic OSH research is about identifying risk factors for occupational injury and disease, such as in epidemiology studies about the relationship between job stress and heart disease. It has tended to be under-emphasized historically in relation to more basic science-oriented etiologic research. The goal of intervention research in OHS is to translate basic research knowledge into public health action and benefits. As such, intervention research in OHS is often cross-disciplinary, drawing from a range of disciplines such as program evaluation, education, and social psychology in addition to OHS and other branches of public health. The US National Institutes for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) presented a National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to improve OHS in 1996.(2, 3) NORA was based on input from over 500 stakeholder groups across the country and identified 21 priority research areas, one of which was Intervention Effectiveness Research.(4) For each priority research area, NIOSH assembled a Team of experts in the area...

‣ Tanzania Poverty, Growth, and Public Transfers : Options for a National Productive Safety Net Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.321062%
Tanzania has made significant economic progress in the recent past, with per capita national income almost doubling from United States (U.S.) 230 dollars equivalent in the late-1990s to U.S. 440 dollars. This report explores the role safety nets and transfers can play in reducing poverty more rapidly in Tanzania. It presents the potential need and costs, to inform a debate of options. The report reviews existing programs, and provides recommendations for an action plan to strengthen the current system and develop a more unified national program, one which will have a greater impact on poverty levels at reasonable cost, in line with the Government's poverty reduction strategy, known by the Swahili acronym MKUKUTA. The report looks at transfers to the poor, including public works employment, subsidies, food distribution programs, cash and in-kind transfers, and vouchers. This paper is organized in following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; attempts to lay out what the options might be, within an analytical assessment of the nature of poverty and shocks faced by the poor in Tanzania is given in chapter two; chapter three examines the effectiveness of existing transfer programs; at a strategic level it then evaluates the capacity of the state to spend on transfers...

‣ Cameroon : Social Safety Nets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.101128%
This report responds to the Government of Cameroon's strong interest in strengthening its social safety net system to support the poorest and most vulnerable households during crises. It is grounded in extensive discussions with government counterparts in a collaborative and inclusive process. The report incorporates detailed comments received from the government as well as important donors and partners through two participatory stakeholder workshops. In addition, it is a part of the World Bank's rapid social response program to support the Government of Cameroon in making its system of safety nets more comprehensive, flexible, and suitable to the country's economic and social conditions. In this context, the objective of this report is to lay the ground for a social safety net system that can address the needs of the poor in Cameroon. The high level of chronic poverty and high levels of malnutrition (especially in the northern regions of the country) call for targeted social safety net program. Therefore...

‣ Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.258237%
The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban areas; and a nationally-led small-scale infrastructure program (such as FONCODES) only makes sense for rural areas. The Report also argues that the implementation arrangements for the SSN strategy should be differentiated for rural and urban areas, due the differences in capacity between the municipal administrations in the major cities and the rest of the country. In the 30 biggest cities, SSN programs should be decentralized, to ensure better responsiveness to local needs and improved transparency. In the rest of the country, for the foreseeable future, strong national agencies will be needed to ensure that SSN programs are effective...

‣ A Social Development Saga : India Uttar Pradesh Basic Education and India District Primary Education Projects

Kuehnast, Kathleen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07171%
The Uttar Pradesh (UP) Basic Education Pilot Project and the national India District Primary Education Project exemplify good social development practices. The pilot project in UP to assist girls to achieve better education proved so successful that it was scaled up to a national project. The guiding principle of both projects is to improve education by building capacity at the community level. preparation. Surveys and focus group discussions identified a wide-range of educational issues at the village level. Problems ranged from caste discrimination to debate on the language of instruction to the impact of weather on educational opportunities. In some villages, girls were not attending school because of their responsibility to care for younger siblings. In other places, the issue was girls' safety. Lessons learned included the following: 1) Community support for education is a central element of a successful school development program. 2) Community implementation is a cost-effective way to achieve large-scale school construction. 3) Block Resource Centers and Cluster Resource Centers can serve as effective mechanisms to provide recurrent in-service training and school-based professional support for teachers. 4) Improving the quality of education and strengthening institutional capacity are long-term processes. 5) Micro-planning is necessary to assess the need for new schools and additional classrooms and teachers.

‣ Niger : Food Security and Safety Nets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.258237%
Niger is a very poor country that faces serious problems of poverty and household food insecurity. With a per capita gross national income (GNI) of US$240 and an estimated 62 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Niger is one of the lowest-ranked countries on the United Nations' human development index. Reducing vulnerability and ensuring food and nutrition security is an overarching priority for the Government. Maintaining food security at the national and household level is an important priority for developing countries in general, both for the welfare of the poor and for political stability. In order to ensure food security, governments have adopted various strategies, including efforts to increase staple food crop production, market interventions, and a variety of safety net programs, especially during emergencies. In Niger, where profound vulnerabilities combined with a high level of population growth have resulted in endemic food insecurity, the Government is faced with a serious challenge. In this context...

‣ Segurança contra incêndio em unidades básicas de saúde; Safety against fire in basic health units

Machi Junior, Amaury; Quiaios, André; Domingues, José Nuno; Ferreira, Ana; Paixão, Susana; Sá, Nelson Leite; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Silva, Odair Ramos da; Vicente, Maria Teresa Conceição; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.123884%
Hoje em dia reconhece-se a necessidade de uma modernização dos Estados e respectivos aparelhos administrativos. No contexto normativo e referente à prevenção de incêndios, o Corpo de Bombeiros foi à entidade mais atuante na criação de legislações e normas, baseando-se nos trágicos acontecimentos e na experiência adquirida no atendimento diário de ocorrências. O incêndio pode atacar qualquer local onde existam ou não atividades humanas sendo que os estabelecimentos assistenciais de saúde (EAS) não estão isentos deste infortúnio e infelizmente existe a possibilidade real de que possam acontecer novas tragédias relacionadas com incêndios dado que a carga de incêndio. O objectivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o nível de conhecimento que os funcionários de Unidades Básicas de Saúde possuem em relação à temática Segurança contra Incêndio e confrontar os resultados com o exigido legislação vigente confrontando os achados com o Decreto Estadual 5.6819/11 devido à não obrigatoriedade de constituição de brigada de incêndio nas unidades básicas de saúde, com menos de 750 m², piso térreo, constituindo a grande maioria das edificações do sistema de Saúde Brasileiro. O método de investigação é um qualitativo observacional e descritivo por amostra de conveniência em noveUnidades Básicas de Saúde no município de Santo André...