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## ‣ Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration

Fonte: Copyright 2000 BMJ publishing Group
Publicador: Copyright 2000 BMJ publishing Group

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em /01/2000
Português

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Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect “what if” simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors...

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## ‣ Schumpeterian Growth Theory and the Dynamics of Income Inequality

Fonte: Econometric Society
Publicador: Econometric Society

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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#innovation#wage structure#between-group wage inequality#within-group wage inequality#general purpose technology#skill premium#adaptability premium

In this lecture, it is argued that Schumpeterian Growth Theory, in which growth is driven by a sequence of quality-improving innovations, can shed light on two important puzzles raised by the recent evolution of wage inequality in developed economies. The first puzzle concerns wage inequality between educational groups, which has substantially risen in the US and the UK during the past two decades following a sharp increase in the supply of educated labor. The second puzzle concerns wage inequality within educational groups, which accounts for a large fraction of the observed increase in wage inequality, although in contrast to between-group wage inequality it has mainly affected the temporary component of income. The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com.; Economics

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## ‣ Revisiting Between-group Inequality Measurement : An Application to the Dynamics of Caste Inequality in Two Indian villages

Fonte: Banco Mundial
Publicador: Banco Mundial

Português

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#ABSOLUTE POVERTY#ACCESS TO IRRIGATION#AGRICULTURAL CHANGE#ANNUAL GROWTH#ANNUAL GROWTH RATE#ASSESSMENT OF INEQUALITY#AVERAGE INCOME#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CONFLICT#CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

Standard approaches to decomposing how
much group differences contribute to inequality rarely show
significant between-group inequality, and are of limited use
in comparing populations with different numbers of groups.
This study applies an adaptation to the standard approach
that remedies these problems to longitudinal household data
from two Indian villages -- Palanpur in the north, and Sugao
in the west. The authors find that in Palanpur the largest
scheduled caste group failed to share in the gradual rise in
village prosperity. This would not have emerged from
standard decomposition analysis. However, in Sugao the
alternative procedure did not yield any additional insights
because income gains applied relatively evenly across castes.

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## ‣ Revisiting Between-Group Inequality Measurement: An Application to the Dynamics of Caste Inequality in Two Indian Villages

Fonte: Banco Mundial
Publicador: Banco Mundial

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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77.60195%

#Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions D310#Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement D630#Economics of Minorities and Races#Non-labor Discrimination J150#Economic Development: Human Resources#Human Development#Income Distribution#Migration O150#Formal and Informal Sectors#Shadow Economy#Institutional Arrangements O170

Standard approaches to decomposing how much group differences contribute to inequality rarely show significant between-group inequality, and are of limited use in comparing populations with different numbers of groups. We apply an adaptation to the standard approach that remedies these problems to longitudinal household data from two Indian villages-Palanpur in the north and Sugao in the west. In Palanpur we find that the largest Scheduled Caste group failed to share in the gradual rise in village prosperity. This would not have emerged from standard decomposition analysis. However, in Sugao the alternative procedure does not yield any additional insights because income gains have applied relatively evenly across castes.

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## ‣ Reinterpreting Between-Group Inequality

Fonte: Banco Mundial
Publicador: Banco Mundial

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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#Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions D310#Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement D630

We evaluate observed inequality between population groups against a benchmark of the maximum between-group inequality attainable given the number and relative sizes of those groups under examination. Because our measure is normalized by these parameters, drawing comparisons across different settings is less problematic than with conventional inequality decompositions. Moreover, our measure can decline with finer sub-partitioning of population groups. Consequently, the exact manner in which one groups the population acquires greater significance. Survey data from various countries suggest that our approach can provide a complementary perspective on the question of whether (and how much) a particular population breakdown is salient to an assessment of inequality in a country.

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## ‣ Earnings Inequality Within and Across Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Groups in Four Latin American Countries

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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67.97044%

#ACCESS OF GIRLS#ACCESS OF GIRLS TO EDUCATION#ACCOUNTING#AFFIRMATIVE ACTION#AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICIES#ANTIDISCRIMINATION#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CALCULATIONS#CASH TRANSFERS#CHILD LABOR#CONTRIBUTION

Latin American countries are generally
characterized as displaying high income and earnings
inequality overall along with high inequality by gender,
race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not
a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using
household survey data from four Latin American countries
(Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which
stratification by race or ethnicity is possible, this paper
demonstrates (using Theil index decompositions as well as
Gini indices, and 90/10 and 50/10 percentile comparisons)
that within-group earnings inequality rather than
between-group earnings inequality is the main contributor to
overall earnings inequality. Simulations in which the
relatively disadvantaged gender and/or racial/ethnic group
is treated as if it were the relatively advantaged group
tend to reduce overall earnings inequality measures only
slightly and in some cases have the effect of increasing
earnings inequality measures.

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## ‣ The Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity : Theory and an Application to Latin America

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#AGRICULTURAL WORKERS#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CENTRAL AMERICA#CENTRAL AMERICAN#CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES#CONSUMPTION INEQUALITY#COUNTERFACTUAL#DATA SET#DATA SETS#DECOMPOSABLE INEQUALITY MEASURES#DECOMPOSITION OF INEQUALITY

What part of the inequality observed in
a particular country is due to unequal opportunities, rather
than to differences in individual efforts or luck? This
paper estimates a lower bound for the opportunity share of
inequality in labor earnings, household income per capita
and household consumption per capita in six Latin American
countries. Following John Roemer, the authors associate
inequality of opportunity with outcome differences that can
be accounted for by morally irrelevant pre-determined
circumstances, such as race, gender, place of birth, and
family background. Thus defined, unequal opportunities
account for between 24 and 50 percent of inequality in
consumption expenditure in the sample. Brazil and Central
America are more opportunity-unequal than Colombia, Ecuador,
or Peru. "Opportunity profiles," which identify
the social groups with the most limited opportunity sets,
are shown to be distinct from poverty profiles: ethnic
origin and the geography of birth are markedly more
important as determinants of opportunity deprivation than of
outcome poverty...

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## ‣ Measuring Ancient Inequality

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#ABSOLUTE POVERTY#ABSOLUTE POVERTY LINE#ACCOUNTING#ADVANCED COUNTRIES#ANNUAL INCOME#ANNUAL INCOMES#ANNUAL WAGE#AVERAGE ANNUAL#AVERAGE INCOME#AVERAGE INCOMES#AVERAGE INEQUALITY

Is inequality largely the result of the
Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and
life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of
sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered.
This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial
societies using what are known as social tables, stretching
from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to
England in 1688, to Nueva España around 1790, to China in
1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new
concepts in making those assessments - what the authors call
the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality
extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of
actual inequality, the authors compare the latter with the
maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have
been extracted by the elite. The results, especially when
compared with modern poor countries, give new insights in to
the connection between inequality and economic development
in the very long run.

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## ‣ Re-Interpreting Sub-Group Inequality Decompositions

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#AVERAGE INCOME#AVERAGE INCOMES#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CENTRAL ASIAN#COUNTERFACTUAL#DECOMPOSABLE INCOME INEQUALITY MEASURES#DECOMPOSABLE INEQUALITY MEASURES#DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS#DECOMPOSITION RESULTS#DEVELOPED COUNTRIES#DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The authors propose a modification to the conventional approach of decomposing income inequality by population sub-groups. Specifically, they propose a measure that evaluates observed between-group inequality against a benchmark of maximum between-group inequality that can be attained when the number and relative sizes of groups under examination are fixed. The authors argue that such a modification can provide a complementary perspective on the question of whether a particular population breakdown is salient to an assessment of inequality in a country. As their measure normalizes between-group inequality by the number and relative sizes of groups, it is also less subject to problems of comparability across different settings. The authors show that for a large set of countries their assessment of the importance of group differences typically increases substantially on the basis of this approach. The ranking of countries (or different population groups) can also differ from that obtained using traditional decomposition methods. Finally, they observe an interesting pattern of higher levels of overall inequality in countries where their measure finds higher between-group contributions.

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## ‣ Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality and Economic Mobility : Some International Comparisons

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE#ACCESS TO SERVICES#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CAUSE INEQUALITY#COUNTERFACTUAL#CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISONS#DATA SETS#DECOMPOSABLE INCOME INEQUALITY MEASURES#DEVELOPING COUNTRIES#DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS#DEVELOPMENT POLICY

Despite a recent surge in the number of
studies attempting to measure inequality of opportunity in
various countries, methodological differences have so far
prevented meaningful international comparisons. This paper
presents a comparison of ex-ante measures of inequality of
economic opportunity (IEO) across 41 countries, and of the
Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for 39 countries. It also
examines international correlations between these indices
and output per capita, income inequality, and
intergenerational mobility. The analysis finds evidence of a
"Kuznets curve" for inequality of opportunity, and
finds that the IEO index is positively correlated with
overall income inequality, and negatively with measures of
intergenerational mobility, both in incomes and in years of
schooling. The HOI is highly correlated with the Human
Development Index, and its internal measure of inequality of
opportunity yields very different country rankings from the
IEO measure.

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## ‣ Non-Farm Diversification, Poverty, Economic Mobility and Income Inequality : A Case Study in Village India

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#ABSOLUTE POVERTY#ADVERSE IMPACTS#AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES#AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT#AGRICULTURAL INCOMES#AGRICULTURAL LABORER#AGRICULTURAL LABORERS#AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES#AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY#AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH#AGRICULTURAL WAGE

This paper assembles data at the
all-India level and for the village of Palanpur, Uttar
Pradesh, to document the growing importance, and influence,
of the non-farm sector in the rural economy between the
early 1980s and late 2000s. The suggestion from the combined
National Sample Survey and Palanpur data is of a slow
process of non-farm diversification, whose distributional
incidence, on the margin, is increasingly pro-poor. The
village-level analysis documents that the non-farm sector is
not only increasing incomes and reducing poverty, but
appears as well to be breaking down long-standing barriers
to mobility among the poorest segments of rural society.
Efforts by the government of India to accelerate the process
of diversification could thus yield significant returns in
terms of declining poverty and increased income mobility.
The evidence from Palanpur also shows, however, that at the
village-level a significant increase in income inequality
has accompanied diversification away from the farm. A
growing literature argues that such a rise in inequality
could affect the fabric of village society...

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## ‣ On the Unequal Inequality of Poor Communities

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Português

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#ANTI- POVERTY PROGRAMS#BETWEEN- GROUP INEQUALITY#COLLECTIVE ACTION#CRIME#DATA SETS#DECOMPOSABLE INCOME INEQUALITY MEASURES#DECOMPOSITION RESULTS#DEVELOPING COUNTRIES#DEVELOPING WORLD#DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS#DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES

Important differences exist between
communities with respect to their needs, capacities, and
circumstances. As central governments are not able to
discern these differences fully, they seek to achieve their
policy objectives by relying on decentralized mechanisms
that use local information. However, household and
individual characteristics within communities can also vary
substantially. A growing theoretical literature suggests
that inequality within communities can influence policy
outcomes, and that this influence could be harmful or
helpful, depending on the circumstances. Empirical
investigations into the impact of inequality have, to date,
largely been held back by a lack of systematic evidence on
community-level inequality. The authors use household survey
and population census data to estimate per capita
consumption inequality within communities in three
developing countries: Ecuador, Madagascar, and Mozambique.
Communities are found to vary markedly from one another in
terms of the degree of inequality they exhibit. The authors
also show that there should be no presumption that
inequality is less severe in poor communities. They argue
that the kind of community-level inequality estimates
generated in this paper can be used in designing and
evaluating decentralized antipoverty programs.

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## ‣ The Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam in the 1990s

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#WAGE RATE#LABOR MARKET CHARACTERISTICS#WAGE DIFFERENTIATION#EMPLOYMENT#SOCIAL INEQUALITY#INCOME GROWTH#LIVING STANDARDS INDICATORS#ECONOMIC GROWTH#MARKET REFORMS#SECTORAL ASSESSMENT#AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY

Has the expansion of wage employment in
Vietnam exacerbated social inequalities, despite its
contribution to income growth? Gallup uses the two rounds of
the Vietnamese Living Standards Survey (VLSS) to evaluate
the contribution of wage employment to inequality and income
growth over the period of rapid economic growth in the 1990s
following market reforms. If Vietnam sustains its economic
development in the future, wage employment will become an
ever more important source of household income as family
farms and self-employed household enterprises become less
prevalent. Observing the recent evolution of wage employment
compared with farm and non-farm self-employment provides
clues as to how economic development will change Vietnamese
society, in particular its impact on income inequality
within and between communities. The author shows that
standard methods for calculating income inequality can be
severely biased due to measurement error when decomposing
the contribution of different sectors, regions, or groups to
overall inequality. A new method for consistent
decomposition of inequality by income source shows that
despite the rapid growth of wages in the 1990s...

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## ‣ Measuring Inequality of Opportunity with Imperfect Data : The Case of Turkey

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Português

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#ADULT POPULATION#AGRICULTURAL LAND#ASSETS#AVERAGING#BENCHMARK#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CD#CONSUMPTION#CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES#CONSUMPTION INEQUALITY#DATA SET

The measurement of inequality of
opportunity has hitherto not been attempted in a number of
countries because of data limitations. This paper proposes
two alternative approaches to circumventing the missing data
problems in countries where a demographic and health survey
and an ancillary household expenditure survey are available.
One method relies only on the demographic and health survey,
and constructs a wealth index as a measure of economic
advantage. The alternative method imputes consumption from
the ancillary survey into the demographic and health survey.
In both cases, the between-type share of overall inequality
is computed as a lower bound estimator of inequality of
opportunity. Parametric and non-parametric estimates are
calculated for both methods, and the parametric approach is
shown to yield preferable lower-bound measures. In an
application to the sample of ever-married women aged 30-49
in Turkey, inequality of opportunity accounts for at least
26 percent (31 percent) of overall inequality in imputed
consumption (the wealth index).

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## ‣ Gender Inequality and Growth : The Case of Rich vs. Poor Countries

Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC

Português

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#ABSOLUTE VALUE#ACCESS TO JOBS#ADVERSE EFFECT#ADVERSE IMPACT#ANNUAL GROWTH#ANNUAL GROWTH RATE#CONSUMER PRICE INFLATION#COUNTRY DUMMY#COUNTRY REGRESSIONS#COUNTRY REPORTS#COUNTRY SIZE

This paper uses cross-section data for
107 countries to explore the relationship between gender
inequality and economic growth. The paper departs from the
literature by using a broad measure of gender inequality
that goes well beyond gender inequality in education, which
has been the focus of most studies. Another novelty of the
paper lies in exploring heterogeneity in the growth-gender
inequality relationship. The results confirm that greater
gender inequality is strongly associated with lower economic
growth. However, this negative relationship between gender
inequality and growth is entirely due to the relatively poor
countries, with the relatively rich countries showing no
such relationship. The findings have important implications
for the design and targeting of gender-specific policies.

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## ‣ Desigualdad en la distribución mundial de emisiones de CO2 por sectores: descomposición y estudio de sensibilidad; Inequality of global distribution of CO2 emissions by sector: decomposition and sensitivity study

Fonte: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT
Publicador: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT

Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion

Português

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#Distribución de emisiones de CO2#Descomposición de la desigualdad#Indice de Theil#Indice de entropía generalizada#CO2 distribution#Inequality decomposition#Theil index#Generalized entropy index

RESUMEN. En este trabajo se analiza la desigualdad en la distribución mundial de emisiones de CO2 por sectores, para las regiones del PNUD en el año 2009, mediante el índice de Theil-Bourguignon, que permite descomponer la desigual-dad total en la distribución por grupos de población. Cabe destacar que la mayor desigualdad en las emisiones de CO2 por sectores se produce en regiones que están formadas por países pobres o en vías de desarrollo. Asimismo, los resultados proporcionan una mayor importancia relativa al componente de desigualdad intragrupos. Posteriormente, se completa el estudio anterior mediante un análisis de sensibilidad de los componentes de desigualdad, utilizando la familia de índices de entropía generalizada. Dichos resultados señalan de nuevo el importante peso del componente intragrupos.; ABSTRACT. In this paper, inequality of global distribution of CO2 emissions by sector is studied across the regions considered by the UNDP in the year 2009. Firstly, the research is carried out using the Theil-Bourguignon inequality index which can be decomposed into the within-group and the between-group inequality components. The greatest inequality in CO2 emissions by sector occurs in regions that are formed by poor or developing countries. The results show also that the within-group inequality component is the main contributor to the whole inequality value. Secondly...

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## ‣ Exploring the Sources of Downward Bias in Measuring Inequality of Opportunity

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research

Português

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#LIVING STANDARDS#EQUAL OPPORTUNITY#HOUSEHOLD SURVEY#POPULATION DISTRIBUTION#POPULATION EDUCATION#ECONOMIC GROWTH#CAPITAL ACCUMULATION#INCOME#INTEREST#NORMAL DISTRIBUTION#INCOME INCREASE

This study analyzes the extent of
downward bias in the calculation of inequality of
opportunity for continuous outcomes such as income. A
typically recognized source of bias is the unobserved
circumstances as there is a limited set of variables
available in household and labor force surveys. Another
previously overlooked source is the likely unobservable
nature of top incomes. Using Monte Carlo simulations where
the underlying inequality of opportunity is predetermined at
various levels, the study presents three key findings.
First, the omission of a relevant circumstance can bias the
inequality of opportunity estimate by as much as 80 percent,
depending on how much variation of the outcome such
circumstance explains. Second, not observing the top 5
percent of the income distribution can lead to downward
biases of anywhere between 12 and 35 percent, and the
combination of missing the most favored population and even
one relevant circumstance exacerbates the bias of the
empirical estimates. The third key result is that the
estimated inequality of opportunity is strongly correlated
with the amount of variation in the outcome variable
explained by the combination of circumstances (measured by
the R2). This result suggests that in empirical
applications...

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## ‣ An inequality decomposition method which minimizes equivalence scales contamination problems

Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid

Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em /06/1997
Português

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Decomposable measures are a useful tool to analyze the impact of households characteristics on income or expenditure inequality. However, the results are sensitive to the choice of equivalence scales in a heterogenous population. In this paper, we assume that equivalence scales depend only on the number of persons in the household. In this context, we suggest a method to free the decomposition analysis from the possible 'contamination' that will arise if we use an inappropiate equivalence scale. The method is applied to the evolution of the standard of living in Spain during the 80' s. We study the structure of Spanish inequality in 1980-81 and 1990-91, as well as the trend in overall inequality over time in terms of three factors: i) the change in within-group inequality, ii) the change in between-group inequality, and iii) the demographic change across partition subgroups.

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## ‣ Economic Inequality in the Arab Region

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research

Português

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57.803125%

#ACCESS TO TRANSPORTATION#ACCOUNTING#ADVERSE EFFECTS#AVERAGE INCOME#AVERAGE INCOME LEVEL#AVERAGE INCOMES#BANK POLICY#BENCHMARK#BETWEEN-GROUP INEQUALITY#CAPITAL ACCUMULATION#CONSUMER PRICE INDICES

The paper uses harmonized household
survey micro-data to assess the levels and determinants of
economic inequality in 12 Arab countries. It focuses on the
sources of rural-urban, as well as
metropolitan-nonmetropolitan, inequalities and applies the
unconditional quantile regression decomposition technique to
analyze the welfare gaps across the entire distribution. The
analysis finds moderate inequality levels, with the Gini
coefficient for the distribution of household real per
capita total expenditures ranging between 30.7 in Libya and
45 in Mauritania. Differences in households'
endowments, such as demographic composition, human capital,
and community characteristics, appear as the main sources of
the urban-rural welfare gap. There is inequality between
metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions in many countries,
mainly because of differences in returns to households'
characteristics and particularly returns to human capital.

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## ‣ Global Poverty and Inequality : A Review of the Evidence

Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC
Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC

Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research

Português

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#ABSOLUTE INEQUALITY#ABSOLUTE POVERTY#ABSOLUTE VALUE#ADVERSE IMPACT#AGGREGATE GROWTH#AGRICULTURAL GROWTH#ANNUALIZED CHANGE#AVERAGE LEVEL#AVERAGE RATE#BAD GROWTH#CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

Drawing on a compilation of data from
household surveys representing 130 countries, many over a
period of 25 years, this paper reviews the evidence on
levels and recent trends in global poverty and income
inequality. It documents the negative correlations between
both poverty and inequality indices, on the one hand, and
mean income per capita on the other. It points to the
dominant role of Asia in accounting for the bulk of the
world's poverty reduction since 1981. The evolution of
global inequality in the last decades is also described,
with special emphasis on the different trends of inequality
within and between countries. The statistical relationships
between growth, inequality and poverty are discussed, as is
the correlation between inequality and the growth elasticity
of poverty reduction. Some of the recent literature on the
drivers of distributional change in developing countries is
also reviewed.

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