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‣ WNT5A Mutations in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Robinow Syndrome

PERSON, Anthony D.; BEIRAGHI, Soraya; SIEBEN, Christine M.; HERMANSON, Spencer; NEUMANN, Ann N.; ROBU, Mara E.; SCHLEIFFARTH, J. Robert; BILLINGTON JR., Charles J.; BOKHOVEN, Hans van; HOOGEBOOM, Jeannette M.; MAZZEU, Juliana F.; PETRYK, Anna; SCHIMMENTI,
Fonte: WILEY-LISS Publicador: WILEY-LISS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Robinow syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia with both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance patterns. It is characterized by short stature, limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and craniofacial abnormalities. The etiology of dominant Robinow syndrome is unknown; however, the phenotypically more severe autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome has been associated with mutations in the orphan tyrosine kinase receptor, ROR2, which has recently been identified as a putative WNT5A receptor. Here, we show that two different missense mutations in WNT5A, which result in amino acid substitutions of highly conserved cysteines, are associated with autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. One mutation has been found in all living affected members of the original family described by Meinhard Robinow and another in a second unrelated patient. These missense mutations result in decreased WNT5A activity in functional assays of zebrafish and Xenopus development. This work suggests that a WNT5A/ROR2 signal transduction pathway is important in human craniofacial and skeletal development and that proper formation and growth of these structures is sensitive to variations in WNT5A function. Developmental Dynamics 239:327-337, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Classification and identification of inherited brachydactylies

Fitch, Naomi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1979 Português
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A search for patterns of malformation in the brachydactylies has resulted in new ways to identify the different types. Type A-1 can be characterised by a proportionate reduction of the middle phalanges. Type B is thought to be an amputation-like defect. In type C the fourth middle phalanx is usually the longest, and type E (Riccardi and Holmes, 1974) is characterised by short metacarpals and short distal phalanges. Short stature is usually present in type A-1 and type E brachydactyly (Riccardi and Holmes, 1974) and it may be present in some individuals with brachydactyly C. As short children have short hands, it is possible that in patients with very mild expressions of brachydactyly the cause of the short stature may be overlooked. It is suggested that in every child with proportionate short stature the hands should be carefully examined. If the hands are disproportionately short, if any distal creases are missing, if there is a shortening, however mild, of any finger, if any metacarpals are short, then it is important to have ϰ-rays to look for brachydactyly A-1, C, or E.

‣ Sorsby syndrome: a report on further generations of the original family.

Thompson, E M; Baraitser, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1988 Português
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Sorsby syndrome is a dominantly inherited combination of bilateral macular colobomas and apical dystrophy of the hands and feet (brachydactyly type B). We report on a further three affected members of the family originally described by Sorsby. Two of these have a single kidney, two have hearing loss, and one has a uterine anomaly.

‣ An inversion involving the mouse Shh locus results in brachydactyly through dysregulation of Shh expression

Niedermaier, Michael; Schwabe, Georg C.; Fees, Stephan; Helmrich, Anne; Brieske, Norbert; Seemann, Petra; Hecht, Jochen; Seitz, Volkhard; Stricker, Sigmar; Leschik, Gundula; Schrock, Evelin; Selby, Paul B.; Mundlos, Stefan
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2005 Português
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Short digits (Dsh) is a radiation-induced mouse mutant. Homozygous mice are characterized by multiple defects strongly resembling those resulting from Sonic hedgehog (Shh) inactivation. Heterozygous mice show a limb reduction phenotype with fusion and shortening of the proximal and middle phalanges in all digits, similar to human brachydactyly type A1, a condition caused by mutations in Indian hedgehog (IHH). We mapped Dsh to chromosome 5 in a region containing Shh and were able to demonstrate an inversion comprising 11.7 Mb. The distal breakpoint is 13.298 kb upstream of Shh, separating the coding sequence from several putative regulatory elements identified by interspecies comparison. The inversion results in almost complete downregulation of Shh expression during E9.5–E12.5, explaining the homozygous phenotype. At E13.5 and E14.5, however, Shh is upregulated in the phalangeal anlagen of Dsh/+ mice, at a time point and in a region where WT Shh is never expressed. The dysregulation of Shh expression causes the local upregulation of hedgehog target genes such as Gli1-3, patched, and Pthlh, as well as the downregulation of Ihh and Gdf5. This results in shortening of the digits through an arrest of chondrocyte differentiation and the disruption of joint development.

‣ Distinct Mutations in the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene ROR2 Cause Brachydactyly Type B

Schwabe, Georg C.; Tinschert, Sigrid; Buschow, Christian; Meinecke, Peter; Wolff, Gerhard; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Oldridge, Michael; Wilkie, Andrew O. M.; Kömec, Reyhan; Mundlos, Stefan
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Brachydactyly type B (BDB) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. Recently, heterozygous mutations of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) ROR2, located within a distinct segment directly after the TK domain, have been shown to be responsible for BDB. We report four novel mutations in ROR2 (two frameshifts, one splice mutation, and one nonsense mutation) in five families with BDB. The mutations predict truncation of the protein within two distinct regions immediately before and after the TK domain, resulting in a complete or partial loss of the intracellular portion of the protein. Patients affected with the distal mutations have a more severe phenotype than do those with the proximal mutation. Our analysis includes the first description of homozygous BDB in an individual with a 5-bp deletion proximal to the TK domain. His phenotype resembles an extreme form of brachydactyly, with extensive hypoplasia of the phalanges and metacarpals/metatarsals and absence of nails. In addition, he has vertebral anomalies, brachymelia of the arms, and a ventricular septal defect—features that are reminiscent of Robinow syndrome, which has also been shown to be caused by mutations in ROR2. The BDB phenotype...

‣ Brachydactyly type B: clinical description, genetic mapping to chromosome 9q, and evidence for a shared ancestral mutation.

Gong, Y; Chitayat, D; Kerr, B; Chen, T; Babul-Hirji, R; Pal, A; Reiss, M; Warman, M L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 Português
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Autosomal dominant brachydactyly type B (BDB) is characterized by nail aplasia with rudimentary or absent distal and middle phalanges. We describe two unrelated families with BDB. One family is English; the other family is Canadian but of English ancestry. We assigned the BDB locus in the Canadian family to an 18-cM interval on 9q, using linkage analysis (LOD score 3.5 at recombination fraction [theta] 0, for marker D9S938). Markers across this interval also cosegregated with the BDB phenotype in the English family (LOD score 2.1 at straight theta=0, for marker D9S277). Within this defined interval is a smaller (7.5-cM) region that contains 10 contiguous markers whose disease-associated haplotype is shared by the two families. This latter result suggests a common founder among families of English descent that are affected with BDB.

‣ Brachydactyly type B: linkage to chromosome 9q22 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity.

Oldridge, M; Temple, I K; Santos, H G; Gibbons, R J; Mustafa, Z; Chapman, K E; Loughlin, J; Wilkie, A O
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 Português
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Brachydactyly type B (BDB), an autosomal dominant disorder, is the most severe of the brachydactylies and is characterized by hypoplasia or absence of the terminal portions of the index to little fingers, usually with absence of the nails. The thumbs may be of normal length but are often flattened and occasionally are bifid. The feet are similarly but less severely affected. We have performed a genomewide linkage analysis of three families with BDB, two English and one Portugese. The two English families show linkage to the same region on chromosome 9 (combined multipoint maximum LOD score 8.69 with marker D9S257). The 16-cM disease interval is defined by recombinations with markers D9S1680 and D9S1786. These two families share an identical disease haplotype over 18 markers, inclusive of D9S278-D9S280. This provides strong evidence that the English families have the same ancestral mutation, which reduces the disease interval to <12.7 cM between markers D9S257 and D9S1851 in chromosome band 9q22. In the Portuguese family, we excluded linkage to this region, a result indicating that BDB is genetically heterogeneous. Reflecting this, there were atypical clinical features in this family, with shortening of the thumbs and absence or hypoplasia of the nails of the thumb and hallux. These results enable a refined classification of BDB and identify a novel locus for digit morphogenesis in 9q22.

‣ A New Subtype of Brachydactyly Type B Caused by Point Mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist NOGGIN

Lehmann, K. ; Seemann, P. ; Silan, F. ; Goecke, T. O. ; Irgang, S. ; Kjaer, K. W. ; Kjaergaard, S. ; Mahoney, M. J. ; Morlot, S. ; Reissner, C. ; Kerr, B. ; Wilkie, A. O. M. ; Mundlos, S. 
Fonte: American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Brachydactyly type B (BDB) is characterized by terminal deficiency of fingers and toes, which is caused by heterozygous truncating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase–like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in the majority of patients. In a subset of ROR2-negative patients with BDB, clinically defined by the additional occurrence of proximal symphalangism and carpal synostosis, we identified six different point mutations (P35A, P35S, A36P, E48K, R167G, and P187S) in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist NOGGIN (NOG). In contrast to previously described loss-of-function mutations in NOG, which are known to cause a range of conditions associated with abnormal joint formation but without BDB, the newly identified BDB mutations do not indicate a major loss of function, as suggested by calculation of free-binding energy of the modeled NOG-GDF5 complex and functional analysis of the micromass culture system. Rather, they presumably alter NOG’s ability to bind to BMPs and growth-differentiation factors (GDFs) in a subtle way, thus disturbing the intricate balance of BMP signaling. The combined features observed in this phenotypic subtype of BDB argue for a functional connection between BMP and ROR2 signaling and support previous findings of a modulating effect of ROR2 on the BMP-receptor pathway through the formation of a heteromeric complex of the receptors at the cell surface.

‣ A mutation in the receptor binding site of GDF5 causes Mohr‐Wriedt brachydactyly type A2

Kjaer, K W; Eiberg, H; Hansen, L; van der Hagen, C B; Rosendahl, K; Tommerup, N; Mundlos, S
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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‣ Disruption of PCP signaling causes limb morphogenesis and skeletal defects and may underlie Robinow syndrome and brachydactyly type B

Wang, Bing; Sinha, Tanvi; Jiao, Kai; Serra, Rosa; Wang, Jianbo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Brachydactyly type B (BDB1) and Robinow syndrome (RRS) are two skeletal disorders caused by mutations in ROR2, a co-receptor of Wnt5a. Wnt5a/Ror2 can activate multiple branches of non-canonical Wnt signaling, but it is unclear which branch(es) mediates Wnt5a/Ror2 function in limb skeletal development. Here, we provide evidence implicating the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway as the downstream component of Wnt5a in the limb. We show that a mutation in the mouse PCP gene Vangl2 causes digit defects resembling the clinical phenotypes in BDB1, including loss of phalanges. Halving the dosage of Wnt5a in Vangl2 mutants enhances the severity and penetrance of the digit defects and causes long bone defects reminiscent of RRS, suggesting that Wnt5a and Vangl2 function in the same pathway and disruption of PCP signaling may underlie both BDB1 and RRS. Consistent with a role for PCP signaling in tissue morphogenesis, mutation of Vangl2 alters the shape and dimensions of early limb buds: the width and thickness are increased, whereas the length is decreased. The digit pre-chondrogenic condensates also become wider, thicker and shorter. Interestingly, altered limb bud dimensions in Vangl2 mutants also affect limb growth by perturbing the signaling network that regulates the balance between Fgf and Bmp signaling. Halving the dosage of Bmp4 partially suppresses the loss of phalanges in Vangl2 mutants...

‣ A cis-regulatory site downregulates PTHLH in translocation t(8;12)(q13;p11.2) and leads to Brachydactyly Type E

Maass, Philipp G.; Wirth, Jutta; Aydin, Atakan; Rump, Andreas; Stricker, Sigmar; Tinschert, Sigrid; Otero, Miguel; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Goldring, Mary B.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Bähring, Sylvia
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is an important chondrogenic regulator; however, the gene has not been directly linked to human disease. We studied a family with autosomal-dominant Brachydactyly Type E (BDE) and identified a t(8;12)(q13;p11.2) translocation with breakpoints (BPs) upstream of PTHLH on chromosome 12p11.2 and a disrupted KCNB2 on 8q13. We sequenced the BPs and identified a highly conserved Activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif on 12p11.2, together with a C-ets-1 motif translocated from 8q13. AP-1 and C-ets-1 bound in vitro and in vivo at the derivative chromosome 8 breakpoint [der(8) BP], but were differently enriched between the wild-type and BP allele. We differentiated fibroblasts from BDE patients into chondrogenic cells and found that PTHLH and its targets, ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 were downregulated along with impaired chondrogenic differentiation. We next used human and murine chondrocytes and observed that the AP-1 motif stimulated, whereas der(8) BP or C-ets-1 decreased, PTHLH promoter activity. These results are the first to identify a cis-directed PTHLH downregulation as primary cause of human chondrodysplasia.

‣ A misplaced lncRNA causes brachydactyly in humans

Maass, Philipp G.; Rump, Andreas; Schulz, Herbert; Stricker, Sigmar; Schulze, Lisanne; Platzer, Konrad; Aydin, Atakan; Tinschert, Sigrid; Goldring, Mary B.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Bähring, Sylvia
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Translocations are chromosomal rearrangements that are frequently associated with a variety of disease states and developmental disorders. We identified 2 families with brachydactyly type E (BDE) resulting from different translocations affecting chromosome 12p. Both translocations caused downregulation of the parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) gene by disrupting the cis-regulatory landscape. Using chromosome conformation capturing, we identified a regulator on chromosome 12q that interacts in cis with PTHLH over a 24.4-megabase distance and in trans with the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) gene on chromosome 17q. The element also harbored a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Silencing of the lncRNA, PTHLH, or SOX9 revealed a feedback mechanism involving an expression-dependent network in humans. In the BDE patients, the human lncRNA was upregulated by the disrupted chromosomal association. Moreover, the lncRNA occupancy at the PTHLH locus was reduced. Our results document what we believe to be a novel in cis– and in trans–acting DNA and lncRNA regulatory feedback element that is reciprocally regulated by coding genes. Furthermore, our findings provide a systematic and combinatorial view of how enhancers encoding lncRNAs may affect gene expression in normal development.

‣ A unique point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) defines a new craniosynostosis syndrome

Muenke, M.; Gripp, K.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Gaudenz, K.; Whitaker, L.; Bartlett, S.; Markowitz, R.; Robin, N.; Nwokoro, N.; Mulvihill, J.; Losken, H.; Mulliken, J.; Guttmacher, A.; Wilroy, R.; Clarke, L.; Hollway, G.; Ades, L.; Haan, E.; Mulley, J.; Cohen
Fonte: UNIV CHICAGO PRESS Publicador: UNIV CHICAGO PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
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The underlying basis of many forms of syndromic craniosynostosis has been defined on a molecular level. However, many patients with familial or sporadic craniosynostosis do not have the classical findings of those craniosynostosis syndromes. Here we present 61 individuals from 20 unrelated families where coronal synostosis is due to an amino acid substitution (Pro250Arg) that results from a single point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene on chromosome 4p. In this instance, a new clinical syndrome is being defined on the basis of the molecular finding. In addition to the skull findings, some patients had abnormalities on radiographs of hands and feet, including thimble-like middle phalanges, coned epiphyses, and carpal and tarsal fusions. Brachydactyly was seen in some cases; none had clinically significant syndactyly or deviation of the great toe. Sensorineural hearing loss was present in some, and developmental delay was seen in a minority. While the radiological findings of hands and feet can be very helpful in diagnosing this syndrome, it is not in all cases clearly distinguishable on a clinical basis from other craniosynostosis syndromes. Therefore, this mutation should be tested for in patients with coronal synostosis.; M. Muenke...

‣ Functional Analysis of Alleged NOGGIN Mutation G92E Disproves Its Pathogenic Relevance

Zimmer, Julia; Doelken, Sandra C.; Horn, Denise; Groppe, Jay C.; Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Seemann, Petra
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/04/2012 Português
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We identified an amino acid change (p.G92E) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein antagonist NOGGIN in a 22-month-old boy who presented with a unilateral brachydactyly type B phenotype. Brachydactyly type B is a skeletal malformation that has been associated with increased Bone Morphogenetic Protein pathway activation in other patients. Previously, the amino acid change p.G92E in NOGGIN was described as causing fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a rare genetic disorder characterized by limb malformations and progressive heterotopic bone formation in soft tissues that, like Brachydactyly type B, is caused by increased activation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling. To determine whether G92E-NOGGIN shows impaired antagonism that could lead to increased Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling, we performed functional assays to evaluate inhibition of BMP signaling. Interestingly, wt-NOGGIN shows different inhibition efficacies towards various Bone Morphogenetic Proteins that are known to be essential in limb development. However, comparing the biological activity of G92E-NOGGIN with wt-NOGGIN, we observed that G92E-NOGGIN inhibits activation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling with equal efficiency as wt-NOGGIN, supporting that G92E-NOGGIN does not cause pathological effects. Genetic testing of the child's parents revealed the same amino acid change in the healthy father...

‣ The Deleted in Brachydactyly B Domain of ROR2 Is Required for Receptor Activation by Recruitment of Src

Akbarzadeh, Shiva; Wheldon, Lee M.; Sweet, Steve M. M.; Talma, Sonia; Mardakheh, Faraz Khosravi; Heath, John K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2008 Português
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The transmembrane receptor ‘ROR2’ resembles members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family of signalling receptors in sequence but its' signal transduction mechanisms remain enigmatic. This problem has particular importance because mutations in ROR2 are associated with two human skeletal dysmorphology syndromes, recessive Robinow Syndrome (RS) and dominant acting Brachydactyly type B (BDB). Here we show, using a constitutive dimerisation approach, that ROR2 exhibits dimerisation-induced tyrosine kinase activity and the ROR2 C-terminal domain, which is deleted in BDB, is required for recruitment and activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src. Native ROR2 phosphorylation is induced by the ligand Wnt5a and is blocked by pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase activity. Eight sites of Src-mediated ROR2 phosphorylation have been identified by mass spectrometry. Activation via tyrosine phosphorylation of ROR2 receptor leads to its internalisation into Rab5 positive endosomes. These findings show that BDB mutant receptors are defective in kinase activation as a result of failure to recruit Src.