Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), L. Leon Campbell, and John R. Postgate. Base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria deduced from buoyant density measurements in cesium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:1073–1078. 1964.—The base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of sulfate-reducing bacteria was calculated from buoyant density measurements in CsCl. The sporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria fell into two groups: Desulfovibrio orientis with a DNA base composition of 42% guanine plus cytosine (G + C), and Clostridium nigrificans with a DNA base composition of 45% G + C. The mesophilic relative of C. nigrificans had a DNA base composition of 46% G + C. Thirty strains of nonsporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria called D. desulfuricans were studied. They fell into three groups as judged by DNA base composition: group I (11 strains), 60 to 62% G + C; group II (13 strains), 54 to 56% G + C; and group III (6 strains), 46 to 47% G + C. These data underline the need for a taxonomic revision of this group of microorganisms.
Colwell, R. R. (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), and M. Mandel. Adansonian analysis and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of some gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 87:1412–1422. 1964.—The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base compositions and S values for a minimum of 134 coded properties were determined for representative cultures of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Aerobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, and Flavobacterium. Those cultures having a high degree of similarity by the criterion of numerical taxonomy were found to have similar DNA base compositions. The relative affinities of clusters of cultures suggest taxonomic relations. Eleven species of Xanthomonas might be a single species, and V. metschnikovii was shown to be more closely related to enteric bacteria than to other vibrios which, in turn, were found to be like pseudomonads. Aeromonas was found to be intermediate in similarity to enterics and pseudomonads and divisible into at least two, but possibly three, species. F. aquatile was unlike any of the other organisms studied, and its DNA also differed greatly in composition from other representatives of the genus.
Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria.
Silvestri, L. G. (Università Statale, Milan, Italy), and L. R. Hill. Agreement between deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and taxometric classification of gram-positive cocci. J. Bacteriol. 90:136–140. 1965.—It had been previously proposed, from taxometric analyses, that gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci be divided into two subgroups. Thirteen strains, representative of both subgroups, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, determined from melting temperatures. Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. Strains with low per cent GC values belonged to the Staphylococcus aureus–S. saprophyticus–S. lactis taxometric subgroups, and those with high per cent GC values belonged to the S. roseus–S. afermentans subgroup. The hypothetical nature of any classification is emphasized, and, in the present work, the hypothesis derived from taxometric analyses of division into two subgroups is confirmed by the study of DNA base ratios. The two subgroups correspond, respectively, to the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus.
Vizard, D L; Rinehart, F P; Rubin, C M; Schmid, C W
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1977Português
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The intramolecular base composition heterogeneity of human DNA has been investigated by electron microscopic observations of partially denatured structures and by equilibrium solution thermal denaturation techniques. DNA sequences having an average length of less than 2000 base pairs are found to be heterogeneous in base composition. These heterogeneous sequences occupy a minimum of 67 to 81% of the human genome.
The two complementary strand species of 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted, adenovirus-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) deoxyribonucleic acid were preparatively separated in CsCl density gradients and further purified by sedimentation through 5 to 20% sucrose. The base composition of each strand species was determined, and it was found that the species banding at a greater density in CsCl (heavy strands) had an expected higher thymidine content (26.5%) than that 21.7%) of the less dense species (light strands). Furthermore, the base composition of in vivo-synthesized, AAV-specific ribonucleic acid was similar to that of light-strand deoxyribonucleic acid, and this ribonucleic acid apparently hybridized only with heavy strands. These observations indicate that the heavy-strand species alone serves as the transcriptional template in vivo. This study represents the first instance in which the base composition and specificity of in vivo transcription have been determined for each of the complementary strands of an animal virus deoxyribonucleic acid.
Using a chemical isotope derivative method, we have determined the minor base composition of the “70S-associated” 4S RNA isolated from avian myeloblastosis virus. The minor base composition of this “70S-associated” 4S RNA is strikingly similar to that of the corresponding “free” 4S RNA of the virion. This minor base content, plus the capacity to esterify amino acids, establishes that both of these virion 4S RNA fractions contain transfer RNA. The percentage of minor bases in virion “70S-associated” 4S RNA is, however, much lower than in “free” 4S virion RNA and in myeloblast 4S RNA. The implication is that the “70S-associated” 4S RNA fraction as isolated herein also contains RNA that is not transfer RNA. This latter RNA may represent either degradation products of high molecular weight RNA or indigenous 4S RNA of undetermined function.
The number of distinct functional classes of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) and the number of sequences representing them are substantial and continue to increase. Organizing this data in an evolutionary context is essential, yet traditional comparative sequence analyses require that homologous sites can be identified. This prevents comparative analysis between sequences of different functional classes that share no site-to-site sequence similarity. Analysis within a single evolutionary lineage also limits evolutionary inference because shared ancestry confounds properties of molecular structure and function that are historically contingent with those that are imposed for biophysical reasons. Here, we apply a method of comparative analysis to ssRNAs that is not restricted to homologous sequences, and therefore enables comparison between distantly related or unrelated sequences, minimizing the effects of shared ancestry. This method is based on statistical similarities in nucleotide base composition among different functional classes of ssRNAs. In order to denote base composition unambiguously, we have calculated the fraction G+A and G+U content, in addition to the more commonly used fraction G+C content. These three parameters define RNA composition space...
We examine variation in mutation dynamics across a single genome (Zea mays ssp. mays) in relation to regional and flanking base composition using a data set of 10,472 SNPs generated by resequencing 1776 transcribed regions. We report several relationships between flanking base composition and mutation pattern. The A + T content of the two sites immediately flanking the mutation site is correlated with rate, transition bias, and GC → AT pressure. We also observe a significant CpG effect, or increase in transition rate at CpG sites. At the regional level we find that the strength of the CpG effect is correlated with regional A + T content, ranging from a 1.7-fold increase in transition rate in relatively G + C-rich regions to a 2.6-fold increase in A + T-rich regions. We also observe a relationship between locus A + T content and GC → AT pressure. This regional effect is in opposition to the influence of the two immediate neighbors in that GC → AT pressure increases with increasing locus A + T content but decreases with increasing flanking base A + T content and may represent a relationship between genome location and mutation bias. The data indicate multiple context effects on mutations, resulting in significant variation in mutation dynamics across the genome.
It has been suggested that mutation bias is the major determinant of base composition bias at synonymous, intron, and flanking DNA sites in mammals. Here I test this hypothesis using population genetic data from the major histocompatibility genes of several mammalian species. The results of two tests are inconsistent with the mutation hypothesis in coding, noncoding, CpG-island, and non-CpG-island DNA, but are consistent with selection or biased gene conversion. It is argued that biased gene conversion is unlikely to affect silent site base composition in mammals. The results therefore suggest that selection is acting upon silent site G + C content. This may have broad implications, since silent site base composition reflects large-scale variation in G + C content along mammalian chromosomes. The results therefore suggest that selection may be acting upon the base composition of isochores and large sections of junk DNA.
Fluctuations in base composition appear to be prevalent in Drosophila and mammal genome evolution, but their timescale, genomic breadth, and causes remain obscure. Here, we study base composition evolution within the X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and five of its close relatives. Substitutions were inferred on six extant and two ancestral lineages for 14 near-telomeric and 9 nontelomeric genes. GC content evolution is highly variable both within the genome and within the phylogenetic tree. In the lineages leading to D. yakuba and D. orena, GC content at silent sites has increased rapidly near telomeres, but has decreased in more proximal (nontelomeric) regions. D. orena shows a 17-fold excess of GC-increasing vs. AT-increasing synonymous changes within a small (∼130-kb) region close to the telomeric end. Base composition changes within introns are consistent with changes in mutation patterns, but stronger GC elevation at synonymous sites suggests contributions of natural selection or biased gene conversion. The Drosophila yakuba lineage shows a less extreme elevation of GC content distributed over a wider genetic region (∼1.2 Mb). A lack of change in GC content for most introns within this region suggests a role of natural selection in localized base composition fluctuations.
The base composition of DNA was determined for individual chromosomes from the dipteran Chironomus tentans and for each one of six different segments of one of the chromosomes. The isolations were carried out by micromanipulation and the DNA purines were first extracted from the isolated components and afterwards separated by means of microelectrophoresis on a cellulose fiber. It was found that DNA from this material has an unusual composition corresponding to a guanine + cytosine content of about 30%. This composition was not a function of the polytenic condition but was also found for DNA from testis tissue. Furthermore Drosophila has a more traditional base composition for the bulk of DNA. Statistically significant variations in base data were found between whole chromosomes as well as between the segments from one of the chromosomes.
Chromatin in sperm is different from that in other cells, with most of the genome packaged by protamines not nucleosomes. Nucleosomes are, however, retained at some genomic sites, where they have the potential to transmit paternal epigenetic information. It is not understood how this retention is specified. Here we show that base composition is the major determinant of nucleosome retention in human sperm, predicting retention very well in both genic and non-genic regions of the genome. The retention of nucleosomes at GC-rich sequences with high intrinsic nucleosome affinity accounts for the previously reported retention at transcription start sites and at genes that regulate development. It also means that nucleosomes are retained at the start sites of most housekeeping genes. We also report a striking link between the retention of nucleosomes in sperm and the establishment of DNA methylation-free regions in the early embryo. Taken together, this suggests that paternal nucleosome transmission may facilitate robust gene regulation in the early embryo. We propose that chromatin organization in the male germline, rather than in somatic cells, is the major functional consequence of fine-scale base composition variation in the human genome. The selective pressure driving base composition evolution in mammals could...
The relative importance of mutation, selection, and biased gene conversion to patterns of base composition variation in Drosophila melanogaster, and to a lesser extent, D. simulans, has been investigated for many years. However, genomic data from sufficiently large samples to thoroughly characterize patterns of base composition polymorphism within species have been lacking. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of coding and noncoding polymorphism in a large sample of inbred D. melanogaster strains from Raleigh, North Carolina. Consistent with previous results, we observed that AT mutations fix more frequently than GC mutations in D. melanogaster. Contrary to predictions of previous models of codon usage in D. melanogaster, we found that synonymous sites segregating for derived AT polymorphisms were less skewed toward low frequencies compared with sites segregating a derived GC polymorphism. However, no such pattern was observed for comparable base composition polymorphisms in noncoding DNA. These results suggest that AT-ending codons could currently be favored by natural selection in the D. melanogaster lineage.
Viral codon usage bias may be the product of a number of synergistic or antagonistic factors, including genomic nucleotide composition, translational selection, genomic architecture, and mutational or repair biases. Most studies of viral codon bias evaluate only the relative importance of genomic base composition and translational selection, ignoring other possible factors. We analyzed the codon preferences of ssRNA (luteoviruses and potyviruses) and ssDNA (geminiviruses) plant viruses that infect translationally distinct monocot and dicot hosts. We found that neither genomic base composition nor translational selection satisfactorily explains their codon usage biases. Furthermore, we observed a strong relationship between the codon preferences of viruses in the same family or genus, regardless of host or genomic nucleotide content. Our results suggest that analyzing codon bias as either due to base composition or translational selection is a false dichotomy that obscures the role of other factors. Constraints such as genomic architecture and secondary structure can and do influence codon usage in plant viruses, and likely in viruses of other hosts.
The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3′COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3′UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3′CORs and 3′UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3′COR and 3′UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3′COR and 3′UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants...
DNA base composition is a fundamental genome feature. However, the evolutionary pattern of base composition and its potential causes have not been well understood. Here, we report findings from comparative analysis of base composition at the whole-genome level across 2210 species, the polymorphic-site level across eight population comparison sets, and the mutation-site level in 12 mutation-tracking experiments. We first demonstrate that base composition follows the individual-strand base equality rule at the genome, chromosome and polymorphic-site levels. More intriguingly, clear separation of base-composition values calculated across polymorphic sites was consistently observed between basal and derived groups, suggesting common underlying mechanisms. Individuals in the derived groups show an A&T-increase/G&C-decrease pattern compared with the basal groups. Spontaneous and induced mutation experiments indicated these patterns of base composition change can emerge across mutation sites. With base-composition across polymorphic sites as a genome phenotype, genome scans with human 1000 Genomes and HapMap3 data identified a set of significant genomic regions enriched with Gene Ontology terms for DNA repair. For three DNA repair genes (BRIP1...
The source and significance of the wide variation in the genomic base composition of bacteria have been a matter of continued debate. Although the variation was originally attributed to a strictly neutral process, i.e., species-specific differences in mutational patterns, recent genomic comparisons have shown that bacteria with G+C-rich genomes experience a mutational bias toward A+T. This difference between the mutational input to a genome and its overall base composition suggests the action of natural selection. Here, we examine if selection acts on G+C contents in Caulobacter crescentus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which both have very G+C-rich genomes, by testing whether the expression of gene variants that differ only in their base compositions at synonymous sites affects cellular growth rates. In C. crescentus, expression of the more A+T-rich gene variants decelerated growth, indicating that selection on genic base composition is, in part, responsible for the high G+C content of this genome. In contrast, no comparable effect was observed in P. aeruginosa, which has similarly high genome G+C contents. Selection for increased genic G+C-contents in C. crescentus acts independently of the species-specific codon usage pattern and represents an additional selective force operating in bacterial genomes.
The base composition of RNA from individually isolated giant chromosomes, puffed chromosome segments, nucleoli, and samples of cytoplasm from Chironomus salivary gland cells was determined by microelectrophoresis. Data on the adenine: guanine quotient of the chromosomal DNA were also obtained. The results show that: 1) Chromosomal, nucleolar, and cytoplasmic RNA's differ significantly from each other in base composition. 2) Nucleolar and cytoplasmic RNA's, in spite of the difference, show great similarities with regard to the base composition and are both rich in adenine and uracil. 3) The RNA extracted from chromosome I differs significantly from the RNA's extracted from different segments of chromosome IV, and the latter differ significantly from each other. 4) The values for the RNA: DNA quotients of chromosome segments parallel the development of synthetically active genes, so-called Balbiani rings. 5) The chromosomal RNA does not show a base symmetry in any of the investigated cases, nor is the content of guanine + cytosine the same as that for DNA. The first of these two facts excludes the possibility that the chromosomal RNA is a complete copy of both strands of the chromosomal DNA. In spite of the difference in guanine + cytosine content between the two nucleic acids the RNA may still partly or completely be a single strand copy depending upon how representative the DNA values are for the synthetically active DNA.
The effect of tricyano-amino-propene, a dimer of malononitrile, on the base composition of the RNA in isolated Deiters' nerve cells and their oligodendroglial cells has been studied using a microelectrophoretic method. Tri-a-p in a dose of 20 mg/kg has the effect of increasing the RNA and protein content per nerve cell by 25 per cent and decreasing the glia RNA by 45 per cent. The RNA base composition of the nerve cells from the control animals differs from that of their glial cells. The guanine of the nerve cell is significantly higher than that of the glia, but the content of cytosine is higher in the glia than in the RNA of nerve cell. The cytosine of nerve cells decreased significantly after tri-a-p administration. In the glial cells the cytosine showed a 20 per cent increase, and the guanine a 25 per cent decrease. Tri-a-p sharpened the difference in RNA composition already existing between the control nerve cells and their glial cells by almost 300 per cent for the guanine and by 400 per cent for the cytosine. The chemical and functional relationship between the nerve cell and its oligodendroglial cells is discussed.