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‣ Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

VAN LENTEREN, Joop C.; COCK, Matthew J. W.; BRODEUR, Jacques; BARRATT, Barbara I. P.; BIGLER, Franz; BOLCKMANS, Karel; HAAS, Fabian; MASON, Peter G.; PARRA, José Roberto P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.239307%
Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing. This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article...

‣ Políticas públicas de implementação da convenção da diversidade biológica no Brasil: o caso do Baixo Juruá; Biologial Diversity Convention Public Policies Implamentation in Brasil - Baixo Juruá, a case study

Lerner, Lucy Claudia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2008 Português
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A biodiversidade constitui o pilar de sustentação da civilização humana. No entanto, sua manutenção é constantemente ameaçada pelo próprio homem, em face do modo de produção no qual as economias mundiais se baseiam. Conseqüentemente, tornou-se necessário transformar a biodiversidade em um bem jurídico, a fim de regulamentar seu uso, o que foi feito por meio da Convenção da Diversidade Biológica (CDB). Esta reconhece a soberania dos países signatários sobre a diversidade biológica e cultural presente em seus territórios e a importância da conservação dos recursos naturais e genéticos, por meio da criação e implementação de um sistema de unidades de conservação, proteção dos conhecimentos e práticas tradicionais das comunidades locais, dentre outras formas. Estabelece as diretrizes para tal, assegurando a repartição justa e equitativa dos benefícios gerados pelo uso destes recursos. Ao apresentar as principais políticas públicas implementadas pelo Brasil referentes à conservação da diversidade biológica e tomando por base, especificamente, a criação e implementação de uma área protegida dentro do Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação, este trabalho discute se a criação de reservas extrativistas representa uma alternativa viável à conservação da diversidade biológica e...

‣ Strategy to manage AMF biological diversity within the cropping system

Brígido, C; van Tuinen, D; Brito, I; Alho, L; Goss, MJ; Carvalho, M
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
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Despite the great biological diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its functional consequences on the host plant, a strategy to manage this diversity within the cropping system is still missing. The importance of this strategy is reinforced by the fact that commercial inocula are too expensive to be used in a large scale and only contain a single or few AMF species. When high levels of botanical hierarchy are considered, such as grasses and forbs, there are evidences of strong preferential associations between some AMF and host plants, that can even superimpose the environmental conditions. To investigate the AMF biological diversity associated to different host plants in a non-sterilized soil with a diverse indigenous AMF population, a 454 pyrosequencing technique was used. When spores and root fragments were the propagule source, the results showed that the AMF species present, in the two dicot plant species (Ornithopus compressus and Trifolium subterraneum) and in the two monocots (Lolium rigidum and Triticum aestivum) used in this study, were similar within each plant species group and clear differences could be detected between the two botanical groups. However, when a monocot was planted after a dicot or vice- versa...

‣ Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

van Lenteren,Joop C.; Cock,Matthew J. W.; Brodeur,Jacques; Barratt,Barbara I. P.; Bigler,Franz; Bolckmans,Karel; Haas,Fabian; Mason,Peter G.; Parra,José Roberto P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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57.239307%
Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article...

‣ Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity

Zavaleta, Erika S.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Chiariello, Nona R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.074346%
Biodiversity responses to ongoing climate and atmospheric changes will affect both ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Combined effects of co-occurring global changes on diversity, however, are poorly understood. We examined plant diversity responses in a California annual grassland to manipulations of four global environmental changes, singly and in combination: elevated CO2, warming, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. After 3 years, elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition each reduced plant diversity, whereas elevated precipitation increased it and warming had no significant effect. Diversity responses to both single and combined global change treatments were driven overwhelmingly by gains and losses of forb species, which make up most of the native plant diversity in California grasslands. Diversity responses across treatments also showed no consistent relationship to net primary production responses, illustrating that the diversity effects of these environmental changes could not be explained simply by changes in productivity. In two- to four-way combinations, simulated global changes did not interact in any of their effects on diversity. Our results show that climate and atmospheric changes can rapidly alter biological diversity...

‣ Murine Noroviruses Comprising a Single Genogroup Exhibit Biological Diversity despite Limited Sequence Divergence▿ †

Thackray, Larissa B.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Chachu, Karen A.; Liu, Bo; Alegre, Eric R.; Henderson, Kenneth S.; Kelley, Scott T.; Virgin, Herbert W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Viruses within the genus Norovirus of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human noroviruses are genetically diverse, with up to 57% divergence in capsid protein sequences, and comprise three genogroups. The significance of such genetic diversity is not yet understood. The discovery of murine norovirus (MNV) and its ability to productively infect cultured murine macrophages and dendritic cells has provided an opportunity to determine the functional consequences of norovirus diversity in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we compared the full-length genomes of 21 new MNV isolates with five previously sequenced MNV genomes and demonstrated a conserved genomic organization consisting of four open reading frames (ORFs) and a previously unknown region of nucleotide conservation in ORF2. A phylogenetic analysis of all 26 MNV genomes revealed 15 distinct MNV strains, with up to 13% divergence at the nucleotide level, that comprise a single genotype and genogroup. Evidence for recombination within ORF2 in several MNV genomes was detected by multiple methods. Serological analyses comparing neutralizing antibody responses between highly divergent strains suggested that the MNV genogroup comprises a single serotype. Within this single genogroup...

‣ Biological diversity in a changing world

Magurran, Anne E.; Dornelas, Maria
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/11/2010 Português
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From the pioneering explorations of Joseph Banks (later a President of the Royal Society), to the present day, a great deal has been learnt about the extent, distribution and stability of biological diversity in the world. We now know that diverse life can be found even in the most inhospitable places. We have also learned that biological diversity changes through time over both large and small temporal scales. These natural changes track environmental conditions, and reflect ecological and evolutionary processes. However, anthropogenic activities, including overexploitation, habitat loss and climate change, are currently causing profound transformations in ecosystems and unprecedented loss of biological diversity. This series of papers considers temporal variation in biological diversity, examines the extent of human-related change relative to underlying natural change and builds on these insights to develop tools and policies to help guide us towards a sustainable future.

‣ Co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas

Gorenflo, L. J.; Romaine, Suzanne; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Walker-Painemilla, Kristen
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As the world grows less biologically diverse, it is becoming less linguistically and culturally diverse as well. Biologists estimate annual loss of species at 1,000 times or more greater than historic rates, and linguists predict that 50–90% of the world’s languages will disappear by the end of this century. Prior studies indicate similarities in the geographic arrangement of biological and linguistic diversity, although conclusions have often been constrained by use of data with limited spatial precision. Here we use greatly improved datasets to explore the co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in regions containing many of the Earth’s remaining species: biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Results indicate that these regions often contain considerable linguistic diversity, accounting for 70% of all languages on Earth. Moreover, the languages involved are frequently unique (endemic) to particular regions, with many facing extinction. Likely reasons for co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity are complex and appear to vary among localities, although strong geographic concordance between biological and linguistic diversity in many areas argues for some form of functional connection. Languages in high biodiversity regions also often co-occur with one or more specific conservation priorities...

‣ Biological Diversity in the Patent System

Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2013 Português
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Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing...

‣ A efic??cia da lei brasileira na prote????o de ecossistemas como requisito para conserva????o da diversidade biol??gica

Rech, Naura Teresinha; Sparemberger, Raquel Fabiana Lopes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Este trabalho pretende analisar a import??ncia da prote????o dos ecossistemas nacionais como conditio sine qua non para a conserva????o da diversidade biol??gica nacional. Da an??lise te??rica do tema, partindo-se dos conceitos legais conferidos a sua nomenclatura-chave (diversidade biol??gica, ecossistemas e conserva????o), chega-se a uma abordagem da legisla????o ambiental brasileira, com destaque ao C??digo Florestal, no intuito de verificar a efic??cia da norma jur??dica dentro deste processo. Ser?? a legisla????o capaz de proteger os ecossistemas e, assim, garantir a conserva????o da diversidade biol??gica no Brasil? Diante da amplitude do assunto e da riqueza dos biomas nacionais (florestas ??? Mata Atl??ntica e Amaz??nia ???, cerrado, caatinga, etc), o tema ser?? enfocado sob o ponto de vista da conserva????o das florestas nacionais, contrapondo as suas necessidades ?? prote????o que lhes dispensa a legisla????o nacional, notadamente o C??digo Florestal (Lei n 4.771, de 15 de setembro de 1995).; This work intends to analyze the importance of the protection to national ecosystems as conditio sine qua non for the conservation of the national biological diversity. Of the theoretical analysis of the subject, starting of the legal concepts conferred its nomenclature-key (biological diversity...

‣ Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Production Landscapes

Petersen, Caroline; Huntley, Brian
Fonte: Washington, DC : Global Environment Facility Publicador: Washington, DC : Global Environment Facility
Português
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This volume contributes to broadening the understanding and application of the concept of mainstreaming biodiversity. It captures the inputs to, and findings of an international workshop held in Cape Town, South Africa, in September 2004 on Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Production Landscapes and Sectors. The aims of the workshop were to: determine an operational definition of the concept of mainstreaming biodiversity in production landscapes and sectors; demonstrate the role of mainstreaming in advancing Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) goals and Strategic Priority of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) work program; explore the scale at which mainstreaming can most effectively be implemented; critique successes and failures in achieving mainstreaming outcomes to date; and, brainstorm on modified or new approaches and tools. These aims are addressed in the first paper in this volume, which explores what is meant by "mainstreaming biodiversity," while the new approaches and tools-the products of the workshop-are outlined in the final paper...

‣ Biodiversity and Health Symposium Conclusions and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The paper reported that to increase the effectiveness of healthcare as well as to alleviate poverty in the poorest parts of the world, the symposium participants recommended urgent attention to three principles: 1. Success will only be achieved if both biological diversity and cultural diversity are conserved.; 2. Leadership must come from indigenous peoples/(local communities) in the use of traditional knowledge for broader health benefits; 3. International cooperation and partnerships are necessary to ensure safety and quality of traditional phytomedicines.

‣ The GEF-6 Biodiversity Strategy

Global Environment Facility
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biodiversity as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) demonstrated that biodiversity underpins ecosystem goods and services that are required for the survival of human societies and for the future of all life on the planet. In addition, biodiversity generates considerable economic value through the provision of goods such as food, water, and materials, and services such as climate regulation, pollination, disaster protection, and nutrient cycling. Governments, civil society organizations, the private sector, indigenous people and local communities, and others have made some progress in sustainably managing biodiversity and ecosystems at local and national levels...

‣ A molecular genetic appraisal of biodiversity and conservation units in freshwater fishes from southern Australia.

Hammer, Michael P.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The freshwater fish fauna of southern Australia is characterised by low species richness and high endemism in groups displaying southern temperate, temperate-subtropical or temperate-tropical distributions. Comparatively few studies in Australia have incorporated modern molecular techniques to delineate species boundaries and define within-species conservation units. This is problematic because freshwater fishes are likely to show high levels of cryptic speciation and marked spatial sub-structure, and is information which is needed to conserve biological diversity and maintain the integrity of ecological communities and processes. The current study uses a ‘combined evidence’ approach, led principally by a set of nuclear genetic markers (allozymes), to assess species boundaries, spatial sub-structure and conservation units in obligate freshwater fishes from southern Australia. A literature review (Chapter 2) concerns the nature and effects of fragmentation in freshwater environments. It considers the implications for freshwater fishes and the types of extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics, both natural and human accelerated, that might drive population fragmentation and divergence. This theoretical framework is then applied to a suite of six largely co-occurring species groups with contrasting biological characteristics...

‣ Biological diversity and ethical development (Diversidade biológica e desenvolvimento ético)

Goulet, Denis
Fonte: Ciência & Trópico Publicador: Ciência & Trópico
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2011 Português
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RESUMO Constatando que a secularização e uma concepção fáustica do desenvolvimento enfraqueceram a ética tradicional referente aos cuidados para com a terra, defende a necessidade de uma nova ética de responsabilidade em relação ao cosmo. Argumenta que, nas arenas de decisão, as racionalidades técnica, política e ética interagem de modo circular, e não vertical. Constata que muitas questões éticas relacionadas aos problemas ambientais ainda estão por ser respondidas. Defende que o respeito à bio-diversidade é um pré-requisito para um desenvolvimento saudável e que muitas formas de diversidade são necessárias: a biológica, a cultural, a referente aos modelos de racionalidade e desenvolvimento. Ressalta a necessidade de abordagens não reducionistas à economia e ao desenvolvimento, juntamente com um tratamento não instrumental dos seres humanos, concluindo que a bio-diversidade é tanto um instrumento quanto um valor-fim. ABSTRACT Biological diversity and ethical development. v. 20, n. 1, p. 49-72, jan./jun. 1992. Remarking that the secularization and a faustian conception of development had enfeebled the traditional stewardship ethic, claims that a new ethic of responsibility of the cosmos is needed. Argues that...

‣ Unsupervised classification of natural areas

United States -- National Biological Service; Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; NOAA Coastal Ocean Program (U.S.)
Fonte: National Biological Service ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: National Biological Service ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 66 x 48 cm. on sheet 90 x 61 cm.
Publicado em //1994 Português
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67.165146%
Remote-sensing map.; "Projection: UTM - Zone 17 - Spheroid: Clark 1866 - Datum: NAD27 - Units: Meters."; DRAFT - This is not a distribution product."; "This map was compiled using LANDSAT TM 5 imagery from April 1994."; "Florida Biological Diversity Project, National Biological Service."; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.; (Statement of Responsibility) cooperators: NBS, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, NOAA Coastal Ocean Program.

‣ Unsupervised classification of natural areas

United States -- National Biological Service; Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; NOAA Coastal Ocean Program (U.S.)
Fonte: National Biological Service ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: National Biological Service ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 66 x 48 cm. on sheet 90 x 61 cm.
Publicado em //1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.239453%
Remote-sensing map.; "Projection: UTM - Zone 17 - Spheroid: Clark 1866 - Datum: NAD27 - Units: Meters."; DRAFT - This is not a distribution product."; "This map was compiled using LANDSAT TM 5 imagery from April 1994."; "Florida Biological Diversity Project, National Biological Service."; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.; (Statement of Responsibility) cooperators: NBS, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, NOAA Coastal Ocean Program.

‣ Rarefaction and Extrapolation with Hill Numbers: A Framework for Sampling and Estimation in Species Diversity Studies

Chao, Anne; Gotelli, Nicholas; Hsieh, T. C.; Sander, Elizabeth; Ma, K. H.; Colwell, Robert K.; Ellison, Aaron M.
Fonte: Ecological Society of America Publicador: Ecological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Quantifying and assessing changes in biological diversity are central aspects of many ecological studies, yet accurate methods of estimating biological diversity from sampling data have been elusive. Hill numbers, or the effective number of species, are increasingly used to characterize the taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional diversity of an assemblage. However, empirical estimates of Hill numbers, including species richness, tend to be an increasing function of sampling effort and thus tend to increase with sample completeness. Integrated curves based on sampling theory that smoothly link rarefaction (interpolation) and prediction (extrapolation) standardize samples on the basis of sample size or sample completeness and facilitate the comparison of biodiversity data. Here we extend previous rarefaction and extrapolation models for species richness (Hill number \(^q\)D, where q = 0) to measures of taxon diversity incorporating relative abundance (i.e., for any Hill number \(^q\)D, q > 0) and present a unified approach for both individual-based (abundance) data and sample-based (incidence) data. Using this unified sampling framework, we derive both theoretical formulas and analytic estimators for seamless rarefaction and extrapolation based on Hill numbers. Detailed examples are provided for the first three Hill numbers: q = 0 (species richness)...

‣ The ecosystem-service chain and the biological diversity crisis

Mooney, Harold A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/01/2010 Português
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The losses that are being incurred of the Earth's biological diversity, at all levels, are now staggering. The trend lines for future loss are steeply upward as new adverse drivers of change come into play. The political processes for matching this crisis are now inadequate and the science needs to address this issue are huge and slow to fulfil, even though strong advances have been made. A more integrated approach to evaluating biodiversity in terms that are meaningful to the larger community is needed that can provide understandable metrics of the consequences to society of the losses that are occurring. Greater attention is also needed in forecasting likely diversity-loss scenarios in the near term and strategies for alleviating detrimental consequences. At the international level, the Convention on Biological Diversity must be revisited to make it more powerful to meet the needs that originally motivated its creation. Similarly, at local and regional levels, an ecosystem-service approach to conservation can bring new understanding to the value, and hence the need for protection, of the existing natural capital.

‣ Biosystematics and conservation biology: critical scientific disciplines for the management of insect biological diversity

Braby, Michael; Williams, Matthew R.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Biosystematics and conservation biology are critical scientific disciplines that underpin the management of biological diversity. This is because biosystematics provides two basic elements that are fundamental to conservation management: the circumscription of species and the spatial distribution of species. These elements in turn allow conservation biologists to determine the components of biodiversity, such as local species richness (α-diversity), composition and community structure, patterns of spatial turnover and heterogeneity (β-diversity), levels of endemism, and location of 'biodiversity hotspots'. This information ultimately provides a framework for systematic conservation planning for the management of biological diversity and natural resources. In this review, drawing on examples of Australian diurnal Lepidoptera (butterflies and day-flying moths), we discuss three areas of conservation biology that are crucial for insect biodiversity conservation: (1) inventory and estimation of faunal richness; (2) monitoring for conservation management and the selection and use of bioindicators; and (3) assessment of conservation status and recovery of threatened species. We then explore the capacity of biosystematics to complement and enhance these programmes. Major challenges for biosystematics are to catalogue and map the Earth's known species...