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‣ Racismo contra negros: um estudo sobre o preconceito sutil; Racism against blacks: a research about a subtle prejudice

Nunes, Sylvia da Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2010 Português
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O racismo é um tema pouco abordado na psicologia, no entanto, tratase de um problema social sério. Pesquisas têm observado, em vários países, a frequência cada vez maior da forma sutil de preconceito em contraposição à diminuição da forma mais explícita. Nesse sentido, nosso objetivo foi compreender melhor essa nova fisionomia do racismo o preconceito sutil. Uma parte do estudo foi realizada no Brasil e outra, na Espanha. Dentre os vários grupos humanos possíveis de ser alvo de práticas racistas, enfocamos o racismo contra negros no Brasil e contra gitanos na Espanha. Embora existam diferenças na história de cada grupo, é comum entre eles o fato de estar há séculos em território brasileiro e espanhol, respectivamente, e persistirem as práticas discriminatórias contra eles. A presente pesquisa combinou métodos quantitativo (escalas de preconceito sutil e flagrante de Pettigrew e Meertens) e qualitativo (entrevistas). No Brasil, 235 alunos responderam ao questionário e 71 estudantes, na Espanha. Destes, 15 foram entrevistados na pesquisa realizada no Brasil e 4, na Espanha. Para a análise dos dados quantitativos, foram feitas provas estatísticas. Para as entrevistas, foram formuladas categorias de análise. Os dados dos questionários apontaram: (1) maior facilidade dos espanhóis em declarar o racismo; (2) os homens mostraram maior preconceito do que as mulheres...

‣ Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks.

Bell, N H; Greene, A; Epstein, S; Oexmann, M J; Shaw, S; Shary, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1985 Português
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As compared with values in white subjects, bone mass is known to be increased and urinary calcium to be diminished in black individuals. To evaluate the possibility that these changes are associated with alterations in the vitamin D-endocrine system, an investigation was performed in 12 black subjects, 7 men and 5 women, and 14 white subjects, 8 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr. All of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium, 900 mg of phosphorus, and 110 meq of sodium. Whereas mean serum calcium, ionized calcium, and phosphate were the same in the two groups, mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (350 +/- 34 vs. 225 +/- 26 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) and mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (41 +/- 3 vs. 29 +/- 2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly lower in the blacks than in the whites (6 +/- 1 vs. 20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean urinary sodium and 24-h creatinine clearance were the same in the two groups, whereas mean urinary calcium was significantly lower (101 +/- 14 vs. 166 +/- 13 mg/d, P less than 0.01) and mean urinary cyclic AMP was significantly higher (3.11 +/- 0.47 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.25 nM/dl glomerular filtrate...

‣ Hepatocellular carcinoma in urban born blacks: frequency and relation to hepatitis B virus infection.

Kew, M C; Kassianides, C; Hodkinson, J; Coppin, A; Paterson, A C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/11/1986 Português
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Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is far less common in urban born than in rural born southern African blacks, who also have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. A case-control study was carried out to determine the relative frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma and its relation to hepatitis B virus infection in urban born blacks. Three hundred and ninety two black patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and matched controls seen at two city hospitals were classified by questioning as urban born or rural born. The ratio of rural born to urban born blacks among the controls was 1.1:1.0 (207/185), whereas in the patients with cancer the ratio was 4.8:1.0 (324/68) (p less than 0.0001). Analysis of the prevalence of hepatitis B markers in 62 urban born and matched rural born blacks with hepatocellular carcinoma showed no differences in the frequency of current or past hepatitis B virus infection. It is concluded that urban born blacks are less likely than rural born blacks to develop hepatocellular carcinoma, but when they do the tumour is equally likely to be related to infection with hepatitis B virus. The findings lend further support to an important role for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

‣ Socioeconomic status and multiple myeloma among US blacks and whites.

Baris, D; Brown, L M; Silverman, D T; Hayes, R; Hoover, R N; Swanson, G M; Dosemeci, M; Schwartz, A G; Liff, J M; Schoenberg, J B; Pottern, L M; Lubin, J; Greenberg, R S; Fraumeni, J F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of multiple myeloma among Blacks and Whites in the United States. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 573 cases (206 Blacks and 367 Whites) with new diagnoses of multiple myeloma identified between August 1, 1986, and April 30, 1989, and 2131 controls (967 Blacks and 1164 Whites) from 3 US geographic areas. Information on occupation, income, and education was obtained by personal interview. RESULTS: Inverse gradients in risk were associated with occupation-based SES, income, and education. Risks were significantly elevated for subjects in the lowest categories of occupation-based SES (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 2.53), education (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.75), and income (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.93). Occupation-based low SES accounted for 37% of multiple myeloma in Blacks and 17% in Whites, as well as 49% of the excess incidence in Blacks. Low education and low income accounted for 17% and 28% of the excess incidence in Blacks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the measured SES-related factors account for a substantial amount of the Black-White differential in multiple myeloma incidence.

‣ Cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors among urban blacks and whites.

Hahn, L P; Folsom, A R; Sprafka, J M; Norsted, S W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 Português
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Smoking behaviors among blacks and whites were studied in a population-based sample of 2,626 residents of Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN. More blacks than whites were found to be smokers, before and after adjusting for age and education differences. More whites than blacks were former smokers, but the prevalence of those who had never smoked was comparable for whites and blacks. Among smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was lower among blacks than whites, but more blacks were found to smoke cigarettes with high "tar" (dry particulate matter) and nicotine content. Men smokers were found to smoke more than women smokers, young people smoked more than older people, and those with a high school education or less smoked more than those with more than a high school education. Smoking cessation behavior consisted mostly of a variety of strategies that began with reducing cigarette consumption, followed by changing to lower tar brands, attempting to quit, and actually quitting. In general, a higher percentage of whites than blacks reported smoking cessation behaviors. A greater percentage of white than black women had tried cigarette brands lower in tar and nicotine within the previous year. Among men, a lower percentage of black than white smokers had tried quitting...

‣ Do blacks and whites differ in their use of health care for symptoms of coronary heart disease?

Crawford, S L; McGraw, S A; Smith, K W; McKinlay, J B; Pierson, J E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1994 Português
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OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of race in seeking and receipt of care for symptoms of coronary heart disease. METHODS. Data on medical care, sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, risk factors, income, and insurance were collected in a telephone interview for a random sample of 2030 Black and White adults in inner-city Boston. Rates of care-seeking for symptoms, amounts of delay in seeking care, and rates of receipt of care were compared for Blacks and Whites after adjustment for other characteristics. RESULTS. Before and after adjustment for other factors, Blacks and Whites were equally likely to seek care. Average delay time was shorter for Blacks, particularly Black women. With the exception of a lower rate of referral to cardiologists among Blacks, receipt of care was similar for Blacks and Whites who sought medical attention for symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. In an urban population of Blacks and Whites who were similar in socioeconomic status and access to medical care, there were few racial differences in coronary heart disease-related care patterns.

‣ Dissection of a continuous distribution: red cell galactokinase activity in blacks.

Spielman, R S; Harris, H; Melliman, W J; Gershowitz, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1978 Português
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A significant difference between blacks and whites in the distribution of red cell galactokinase (GALK) has been found by Tedesco et al. [2]. From the shapes of the distributions, it was inferred that whites are essentially all homozygous for one allele (GALKA), but blacks are polymorphic. A second allele (GALKP), for lower GALK activity, is presented at high frequency in blacks but rare or absent in whites. This paper presents a method which, assuming the genetic model presented, estimates the genotype composition of the black sample. We make some reasonable biochemical assumptions and fit a mixture of three normal distributions to the black data to obtain an estimate of p, the frequency of GALKA in blacks. The fit of the model to the data is excellent and the best estimate of p is .217 +/- .025. Since admixture of white genes in blacks from the United States is known to be about 20%, the value of p implies that virtually all GALKA alleles were introduced by admixture, and that the ancestral black population was monomorphic for GALKP. If whites are indeed monomorphic for GALKA, they differ from unmixed blacks by a full gene substitution at the locus for GALK.

‣ Differential mortality in New York City (1988-1992). Part One: excess mortality among non-Hispanic blacks.

Fang, J.; Madhavan, S.; Cohen, H.; Alderman, M. H.
Fonte: New York Academy of Medicine Publicador: New York Academy of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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To determine the distribution of mortality for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites in New York City, death certificates issued in New York City during 1988 through 1992, and the relevant 1990 US census data for New York City, have been examined. Age-adjusted death rates for blacks and whites by gender and cause of death were computed based on the US population in 1940. Also, standard mortality ratios and excess mortality were calculated using the New York City mortality rate as reference. The results showed that New York City blacks had higher age-adjusted death rates than whites regardless of cause, including stroke, AIDS, homicide, and diabetes. The rate for New York City blacks was also higher than the US total for both genders. Using New York City mortality rates as a reference, more than 80% of excess deaths in blacks occurred before age 65. Injury/poisoning was the leading cause of excess death (20.1%) in black males, while in black females, cardiovascular disease was the largest single cause of excess deaths (24.8%). The higher death rates, especially premature death, of blacks in New York City are related to conditions such as violence, substance abuse, and AIDS, for which prevention rather than medical care is the more likely solution...

‣ Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in relation to genetic admixture among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks of Caribbean origin.

Tull, Eugene S.; Thurland, Ann
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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The tendency to develop insulin resistance and dyslipidemia varies between black Africans, white Europeans, and Amerindian racial groups. Genetic admixture of these three racial groups has resulted in hybrid populations of Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. The current study was undertaken to examine the relationship of white European admixture to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks of Caribbean origin. The study population included 224 Hispanics and 684 non-Hispanic blacks without a history of diabetes who were recruited between 1995 and 1999 on the island of St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. For each participant, anthropometric measurements were performed, and a fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, and serum lipids (triglycerides, HDL cholesterol). Genetic admixture was determined from grandparent race data. Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks to have dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (measured by HOMA-IR method). White European admixture was significantly and inversely associated with insulin resistance among Hispanics. There was no significant relationship between white European admixture and insulin resistance or dyslipidemia among non-Hispanic blacks. Individuals who classified themselves as Hispanic blacks appeared to have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease than Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic blacks.

‣ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in blacks and whites: pulmonary function norms and risk factors.

Gillum, R. F.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1991 Português
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are significant causes of illness and death in blacks. Racial differences in normal values of pulmonary function tests must be considered in both patient care and research. Assessment of risk factors is an important part of COPD management and prevention. An extensive review of data from the National Center for Health Statistics and from other population-based studies confirmed lower lung volumes in blacks compared to whites. However, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was not lower in blacks; racial differences in flow rates were inconsistently reported. Thoracic dimensions were smaller in blacks than in whites in healthy populations. The cause and the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of these racial differences are unknown. Population-based studies in blacks have firmly established only age and cigarette smoking as risk factors for COPD other than asthma. In 1987, 43% of black men aged 45 and older smoked cigarettes compared to only 30% of white men. Further research is needed on racial differences in pulmonary function and the effects of multiple risk factors to enhance understanding of COPD etiology and prevention. More vigorous smoking prevention and cessation efforts should be targeted for blacks by physicians and public health organizations.

‣ Stress, coping, and depression: testing new hypotheses in a prospectively studied general population sample of U.S. born Whites and Blacks

Keyes, K.M.; Barnes, D.; Bates, L.M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low...

‣ Comparison of HIV/AIDS Rates Between U.S.-Born Blacks and African-Born Blacks in Utah, 2000 – 2009

Ashton, Crystal; Bernhardt, Scott A; Lowe, Mike; Mietchen, Matthew; Johnston, Jim
Fonte: Bentham Open Publicador: Bentham Open
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2012 Português
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The Utah Department of Health currently groups African-born blacks with U.S.-born blacks when reporting HIV/AIDS surveillance data. Studies suggest that categorizing HIV/AIDS cases in this manner may mask important epidemiological trends, and the distinct differences between these two populations warrant disaggregating data prior to reporting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the HIV/AIDS positive populations in U.S. and African-born blacks in Utah and evaluate the need for disaggregating the two groups. A total of 1,111 cases were identified through the statewide electronic HIV/AIDS Reporting System from 2000 - 2009. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV diagnosis for African-born blacks, U.S.-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. Secondary analysis included HIV diagnosis by age, sex, African region of nativity, transmission risk factors, and differences in late diagnosis of HIV infection. U.S.-born whites accounted for 914 (82.3%) cases, and had the lowest annual prevalence (4/100,000). Conversely, African-born and U.S.- born blacks had the highest prevalence, 162/100,000 and 24/100,000 respectively. African-born blacks made up 0.25% of the total population, but accounted for 7.9% of all HIV/AIDS cases. African-born black males were more likely to report “no reported risk” for HIV transmission than U.S.-born black males. Of African-born blacks...

‣ Race-Specific Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study

Lipworth, Loren; Okafor, Henry; Mumma, Michael T.; Edwards, Todd L.; Roden, Dan M.; Blot, William J.; Darbar, Dawood
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Despite a greater burden of traditional risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF) is less common among black than whites for reasons that are unclear. We have examined race- and gender-specific influences of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric and medical factors on AF in a large cohort of blacks and whites. Among white and black participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study age 65 and older receiving Medicare coverage from 1999–2008 (n=8,836), we ascertained diagnoses of AF (ICD-9 CM 427.3). Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute AF odds ratios (ORs) associated with participant characteristics, including histories of hypertension, diabetes, stroke and myocardial infarction/coronary artery bypass graft surgery, ascertained at cohort entry. Over an average of 5.7 years of Medicare coverage, AF was diagnosed among 1,062 participants. AF prevalence was significantly lower among blacks (11%) than whites (15%; P<.0001). ORs for AF rose with age, were higher among men, the tall and obese, and among persons with each of the comorbid conditions, but the AF deficit among blacks compared with whites persisted upon adjustment for these factors (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.55–0.73). The patterns of AF risk were similar for blacks and whites...

‣ ELDERLY BLACKS HAVE A BLUNTED SYMPATHETIC NEURAL RESPONSIVENESS BUT GREATER PRESSOR RESPONSE TO ORTHOSTASIS THAN ELDERLY WHITES

Okada, Yoshiyuki; Galbreath, M. Melyn; Jarvis, Sara S.; Bivens, Tiffany B.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Neural control of blood pressure (BP) has been reported to differ between young blacks and whites. We hypothesized that elderly blacks have enhanced sympathetic neural responses during orthostasis compared with elderly whites. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arm-cuff BP, and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously, and cardiac output (Qc), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured intermittently during supine and 5-min 60° upright tilt in 10 blacks [65 (4; SD) yrs (4 women)] and 20 whites [68 (6) yrs (8 women)]. We found that MSNA burst frequency was similar between blacks and whites in the supine position [44 (10) vs 42 (7) bursts/min] and during upright tilt [59 (11) vs 60 (9) bursts/min; P=0.846 for race, <0.001 for posture, and =0.622 for interaction]. However, upright total MSNA was smaller in blacks than whites [162 (39) vs 243 (112)%; P=0.003]. Systolic BP, HR, Qc and SV were not different between groups. Diastolic BP was similar in the supine position, increased in all subjects during tilting; upright diastolic BP was greater in blacks than whites [80 (10) vs 71 (7) mmHg; P=0.008]. TPR did not differ between blacks and whites in the supine position or during upright tilt (P=0.354 for race...

‣ Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Among Three Ethnic Subgroups of US Blacks: A Qualitative Study

Gwede, Clement K.; Jean-Francois, Emmanuel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Tarver, Will L.; Thomas, Kamilah B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.;
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently associated with one of the highest burdens of morbidity and mortality among American men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities are well documented and the subject of intense research and intervention. Our understanding of disparities related to awareness and perceptions about causes, risk, factors, and screening for CRC among subgroups of blacks in the United States is limited. This may be in part because grouping. US-born blacks and foreign-born blacks as one homogeneous group obscures possible within-group differences. This study aimed to explore the cultural perceptions of CRC among 3 ethnic subgroups of blacks: African Americans (US born), foreign-born blacks from English-speaking Caribbean countries, and Haitian-born blacks. The study was informed by a community-based participatory research approach, using a cross-sectional mixed qualitative and quantitative methods design. A total of 62 individuals from the 3 ethnic subgroups participated in semistructured, in-depth qualitative and structured quantitative interviews. Qualitative findings revealed no stark differences among the 3 ethnic subgroups in their overall perceptions of cancer as well as their attitudes related to barriers, motivation...

‣ Race, Immigration, and the U.S. Labor Market : Contrasting the Outcomes of Foreign Born and Native Blacks

de Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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It is generally expected that immigrants do not fare as well as the native-born in the U.S. labor market. The literature also documents that Blacks experience lower labor market outcomes than Whites. This paper innovates by studying the interaction between race and immigration. The study compares the labor market outcomes of four racial groups in the United States (Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics) interacted with their foreign born status, using the Integrated Public Use Micro Data Series data for the 2000 Census. Among women and for labor market outcomes such as labor force participation, employment, and personal income, the foreign born are doing worse than the native born from the same racial background, with the exception of Blacks. Among men, for labor force participation and employment, foreign-born Blacks are doing better than native Blacks. The paper tests different possible explanations for this "reversal" of the advantage of natives over immigrants among Blacks. It considers citizenship...

‣ Discriminating sex in South African blacks using patella dimensions

Dayal, Manisha Ramanlal; Bidmos, Mubarak Ariyo
Fonte: Amer Soc Testing Materials Publicador: Amer Soc Testing Materials
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The patella is the largest sesamoid bone that develops within the quadriceps femoris muscle tendon. Since the shape and size of the patella relies on the strength of the muscle mass, it is likely that stronger muscle masses could alter the shape and size of this bone. Given that females have a smaller build than males, it can be hypothesized that some measurements of the patella will display sexual dimorphism. A total of 120 (60 males and 60 females) patellae of South African Blacks were measured. The age range was between 18 and 70 years. Since it has been previously shown that there are no statistically significant intertribal differences in osteometric dimensions of the South African Black population group, data were collected from two large groups, the Zulu and Xhosa tribes. Only the left patellae were measured, and patellae that had any signs of pathology or abnormality were excluded from the study. Six features were measured for each patella. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) program was used to derive the equations. Stepwise and direct analyses were performed. The highest rate of classification was 85 percent, thereby making the patella useful for sex determination; however, the equations developed from this study should be used with caution in forensic cases and only when the patella is the only bone available with sexual dimorphic features. Also...

‣ Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-Class Blacks

Pittman, Cassi
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The contemporary experience of race in America demands that blacks become astute observers of their surroundings, required to read subtle social, interactional and environmental cues to determine how to appropriately engage others in order to gain respect and social acceptance. Consumption objects, whether physical or material goods or services and experiences, are symbolic tools that blacks mobilize in order to define and assert themselves wherever they may be. Market research reveals that divergent patterns of consumption exist along racial lines. Blacks outspend whites in three central categories: apparel, personal care, and electronics and technology. Sociological research on consumption, however, has inadequately addressed how race influences blacks' consumption. Claims that blacks are conspicuous consumers are pervasive in both popular and academic works, and research indicates that blacks' consumption is, at least partially explained by status considerations, yet no comprehensive, empirically grounded theory exists to account for the contextually determined, symbolic and strategic use of goods by middle and working-class blacks. In my dissertation entitled “Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-class Blacks...

‣ O predomínio dos negros nas escolas de Minas Gerais do século XIX; The majority of blacks in schools of 19th-century Minas Gerais

Fonseca, Marcus Vinícius
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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The period between 1820 and 1850 marks the beginning of the construction and structuring of a public education policy that aimed at educating the people of the province of Minas Gerais. The present article analyzes the relationship between this process and the most expressive segment within the demographic structure of the province at that time, namely, the population of free blacks. In order to conduct this analysis, we have sought reference in a census documentation that attempted to cover the whole population of Minas Gerais districts, making a record of children attending school. Based on these numbers, we built a racial profile of schools, comparing it with information gathered from other documents (teachers' lists, travelers' accounts, memoirs), which pointed to a majority of blacks in elementary schools. The interpretation we give to the presence of blacks in schools of Minas Gerais indicates that this institution was one of the elements utilized by that group to establish their position inside the social sphere. In this respect, the text highlights the fact that schooling acquired specific meanings among the black population; more specifically, it represented their insertion into the literate culture, and a way of signaling their distancing from the world of slavery...

‣ Why Can't We Win? The Double-Edged Sword of Black Success in Sports

Butler, Lex
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' thesis
Publicado em 06/05/2015 Português
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The premier sports in the United States, football and basketball, have become an avenue of social mobility for blacks. As more black athletes found success, the number of black participants increased drastically over time as evidenced by the disproportionate number of blacks in these sports as compared to in the general population. For the purpose of this study, the following questions are investigated: Why are blacks disproportionately represented, specifically, in football and basketball? What challenges has this phenomenon caused for blacks? As means of finding evidence, this research examines the history of the integration of blacks in sports and statistical data on the racial composition of sports on the intercollegiate and professional levels. Additionally, it explores the cultural influences that contribute to sport choice and athletic success in the black community. Lastly, the research addresses the numerous societal and personal challenges that black athletes, specifically, in the sports of football and basketball, face. Based on the research, blacks have a high participation rate and athletic achievement in football and basketball in comparison to other sports because of cultural influences such as socioeconomic status and black role models. Despite the success of black athletes in sports...