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‣ Leptospiral glycolipoprotein as a candidate antigen for serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis

BLANCO, R. M.; TAKEI, K.; ROMERO, E. C.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aims: Development of a simple, specific, rapid and inexpensive Dot-ELISA test for early diagnosis of human leptospirosis. Methods and Results: Serum samples from 90 patients diagnosed with leptospirosis were analysed by Dot-ELISA test incorporating Glycolipoprotein (GLP) antigen from serovars Copenhageni and Patoc. Results were compared with those obtained with microscopic agglutination test, currently, the gold standard reference serological method. Serum samples from healthy blood bank donors and patients diagnosed with diseases other than leptospirosis were used as negative controls. The specificities of both GLP-based assays were 97 center dot 1% and 100% with serum samples from patients with other diseases and with serum samples from healthy control group, respectively. With serum samples from patients with acute leptospirosis, sensitivity was 76 center dot 6% with Dot-ELISA Copenhageni and 90 center dot 0% with Dot-ELISA Patoc. With serum samples from patients in convalescence, sensitivity was 100% with both GLP-based assays. Conclusions: This Dot-ELISA provides a candidate antigen for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis during all phases of illness and could be a good alternative method for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis. Significance and Impact of the Study: The Dot-ELISA test is simple...

‣ Candidate loci chromosome 3 mapped for Santos syndrome (OMIM 613005)

Alves, L. U.; Aguiar, Renata Soares Thiele de; Santos, S.; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Netto, Regina Celia Mingroni
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genática - SBG; Águas de Lindóia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genática - SBG; Águas de Lindóia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Santos et al. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 146A: 3126-31, 2008) described an apparently new syndrome in six members of a family living in a remote area in Northeastern Brazil. is syndrome is characterized by short stature due to a marked decrease in the length of the lower limbs (predominantly mesomelic with bular agenesis/marked hypoplasia), grossly malformed/deformed clubfeet with severe oligodactyly, upper limbs with acromial dimples and variable motion limitation of the forearms and/or hands, severe nail hypoplasia/anonychia sometimes associated with mild brachydactyly and occasionally with pre-axial polydactyly. is syndrome, named as “Santos syndrome”, (OMIM 613005), is distinct from other previously described conditions exhibiting bular agenesis/hipoplasia. Autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance was suggested for this disorder but autosomal recessive inheritance is also possible given the exceptionally high levels of inbreeding in the region the a ected were ascertained. Linkage analysis was performed, based on results of genotyping by SNP-array (500 K - Illumina/ Agilent) in samples from six a ected individuals. After multiple point LOD scores calculations, two candidate regions on chromosome 3 were found to be statistically signi cant under the recessive model hypothesis...

‣ Avaliação pré-clínica da farmacocinética e da toxicidade aguda em roedores do candidato a fármaco antitumoral LaSOM 65; Pre-clinical evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity in rodents of the anticancer candidate LaSOM 65

Torres, Bruna Gaelzer Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Objetivo: Contribuir para o desenvolvimento do candidato a antitumoral (LaSOM 65) através da avaliação farmacocinética pré-clínica em roedores de diferentes doses pelas vias i.v., p.o e i.p. e avaliação da toxicidade aguda do composto. Metodologia: LaSOM 65 foi administrado a ratos Wistar nas doses de 1 mg/kg i.v. bolus (n = 8), 10 e 30 mg/kg p.o. e 30 e 90 mg/kg i.p. (n = 6/grupo). As concentrações plasmáticas foram quantificadas por CL-UV em método desenvolvido e validado. A ligação às proteínas foi determinada por ultrafiltração e a distribuição tecidual foi avaliada por homogeneizado de tecido após administração i.v. de 1 mg/kg (n = 3 animais/ponto de coleta). Para o ensaio de toxicidade aguda, dose única de 1, 2,5 e 5 mg/kg i.v. e 50, 100 e 150 mg/kg p.o. de LaSOM 65 foi administrada aos animais. Ganho de peso, massa relativa dos tecidos, determinação de parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos e uma observação clínica detalhada foram realizados para a avaliação de possíveis efeitos tóxicos. Resultados e Discussão: LaSOM 65 apresentou farmacocinética linear na faixa de dose de 1 a 30 mg/kg (i.v., p.o. e i.p.). Após dose i.v. apresentou um CL = 0,85 ± 0,18 L/h/kg, t1/2 = 1,8 ± 0,7 h e Vd = 1...

‣ Candidate positioning data

Stewart, Charles; Snyder, James; Ansolabehere, Stephen
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 32538 bytes; application/octet-stream
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This data set contains estimated left-right candidate coordinates necessary to replicate the analysis in Ansolabehere, Snyder, and Stewart, "Candidate Positioning in U.S. House Elections," American Journal of Political Science 45(1): 136-159. See the article for details. The data fields are state (postal code), district, name, party (1=dem, 2=rep), location, imputed location.

‣ To Adapt or Not to Adapt, That is the Question: Will Candidate Genes Reveal Differences in Genetic Variation Between Black-Legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Colonies?

Rusheleau, Danielle
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) within the Canadian Arctic appear to be thriving as the number of breeding individuals has increased. However, colonies from the United Kingdom and Atlantic Canada appear to be stressed, as the number of individuals has declined. Functional genetic variation is important because genetic diversity is positively correlated with population’s fitness and adaptive potential. My purpose was to determine 1) if populations fitness correlated with functional variation; 2) if a measure of population differentiation (Fst) is significantly greater than zero at functional genes; and 3) if colonies show evidence of local adaptations. Seven candidate genes related to stress response and immunity (hemoglobin alpha, hemoglobin beta, inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (IAP-1) and Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) TLR1A, TLR1B, TLR2, TLR4) were sequenced for 78 kittiwakes from four colonies, one in the Canadian Arctic, two from Atlantic Canada and one from the United Kingdom. Non-synonymous mutations were found in all candidate genes expect hemoglobin beta. Also, Newfoundland had a significant heterozygote deficiency at hemoglobin alpha and IAP-1. Isle of May in the United Kingdom had a significant heterozygote deficiency at IAP-1 and TLR4. These results suggest that a decrease in genetic diversity may have contributed to the decline in populations at Newfoundland and the Isle of May. Therefore...

‣ Kandidatengene für Alkoholabhängigkeit und ihr Zusammenhang mit zerebralen Krampfanfällen im Rahmen der Alkoholentgiftung; Candidate genes for alcoholdependence and their association with cerebral seizures during the alcohol withdrawal

Maurer, Sandra
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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Die Alkoholabhängigkeit unterliegt einer multifaktoriellen Pathogenese mit polygenetischer Beteiligung. Von großer Bedeutung für das Verständnis von Abhängigkeit und Entzugserscheinungen sind u.a. die Transmitter GABA und Dopamin. Gene, die mit der Wirkung oder dem Metabolismus von Dopamin und GABA in Zusammenhang stehen, können daher als Kandidatengene für Alkoholabhängigkeit angesehen werden. In dieser Studie wurde untersucht, ob genetische Polymorphismen des DAT1 und des GABBR1 mit schweren Entzugserscheinungen bei Alkoholabhängigen insbesondere mit dem Alkoholentzugskrampfanfall (n = 71) oder mit der Diagnose Alkoholabhängigkeit (n = 221) assoziiert sind. Beim Vergleich der Gruppe von Alkoholikern mit gesunden Kontrollpersonen konnte ein signifikant häufigeres Auftreten des DAT1-Allels A9 bei alkoholabhängigen Individuen gefunden werden (p = 0,0056). Beim Vergleich der Trinkmenge mit dem Auftreten des DAT1-Allels A9 konnte kein signifikanter Zusammenhang beschrieben werden (p = 0,7224).; Alcoholdependence is a heterogeneous syndrom with multifactorial pathogenesis. The neurotransmitter GABA and Dopamin may mediate important aspects for the comprehension of dependence and withdrawal symptoms. This genes, associated with effects or metabolism of Dopamin and GABA...

‣ Fetal and maternal candidate single nucleotide polymorphism associations with Cerebral Palsy: a case-control study

O'Callaghan, M.; MacLennan, A.; Gibson, C.; McMichael, G.; Haan, E.; Broadbent, J.; Goldwater, P.; Painter, J.; Montgomery, G.; Dekker, G.
Fonte: Amer Acad Pediatrics Publicador: Amer Acad Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested associations between certain genetic variants and susceptibility to cerebral palsy (CP). This study was designed to assess established and novel maternal and child genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for CP along with their interactions. METHODS: DNA from 587 case and 1154 control mother-child pairs was analyzed. A panel of 35 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined and included SNPs in genes associated with (1) thrombophilia, (2) inflammation, and (3) risk factors for CP (eg, preterm birth). Comparisons were specified a priori and made by using a χ(2) test. RESULTS: There were 40 fetal and 28 maternal associations with CP when analyzed by CP subtype, gestational age, genotypes of apolipoprotein E, and haplotypes of mannose-binding-lectin. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, no fetal or maternal candidate SNP was associated with CP or its subtypes. Only fetal carriage of prothrombin gene mutation remained marginally associated with hemiplegia in term infants born to mothers with a reported infection during pregnancy. Odds ratio directions of fetal SNP associations were compared with previously reported studies and confirmed no trend toward association. CONCLUSIONS: Except for the prothrombin gene mutation...

‣ Revision of Madagascar's Dwarf Lemurs (Cheirogaleidae:Cheirogaleus): Designation of Species, Candidate Species Status and Geographic Boundaries Based on Molecular and Morphological Data

Lei, Runhua; Frasier, Cynthia L.; McLain, Adam T.; Taylor, Justin M.; Bailey, Carolyn A.; Engberg, Shannon E.; Ginter, Azure L.; Randriamampionona, Richard; Groves, Colin P.; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Louis, Jr Edward E.
Fonte: Primate Specialist Group Publicador: Primate Specialist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The genus Cheirogaleus, the dwarf lemurs, is a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. The dwarf lemurs are taxonomically grouped in the family Cheirogaleidae (Infraorder: Lemuriformes) along with the genera Microcebus, Mirza, Allocebus, and Phaner. The taxonomic history of the genus Cheirogaleus has been controversial since its inception due to a paucity of evidence in support of some proposed species. In this study, we addressed this issue by expanding the geographic breadth of samples by 91 individuals and built upon existing mitochondrial (cytb and COII) and nuclear (FIBA and vWF) DNA datasets to better resolve the phylogeny of Cheirogaleus. The mitochondrial gene fragments D-loop and PAST as well as the CFTR-PAIRB nuclear loci were also sequenced. In agreement with previous genetic studies, numerous deep divergences were resolved in the C. major, C. minor and C. medius lineages. Four of these lineages were segregated as new species, seven were identified as confirmed candidate species, and four were designated as unconfirmed candidate species based on comparative mitochondrial DNA sequence data gleaned from the literature or this study. Additionally, C. thomasi was resurrected. Given the widespread distribution of the genus Cheirogaleus throughout Madagascar...

‣ Genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and risk for Crohn's disease in children: a candidate gene study

Costea, Irina C.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Contexte - La prévalence de la maladie de Crohn (MC), une maladie inflammatoire chronique du tube digestif, chez les enfants canadiens se situe parmi les plus élevées au monde. Les interactions entre les réponses immunes innées et acquises aux microbes de l'hôte pourraient être à la base de la transition de l’inflammation physiologique à une inflammation pathologique. Le leucotriène B4 (LTB4) est un modulateur clé de l'inflammation et a été associé à la MC. Nous avons postulé que les principaux gènes impliqués dans la voie métabolique du LTB4 pourrait conférer une susceptibilité accrue à l'apparition précoce de la MC. Dans cette étude, nous avons exploré les associations potentielles entre les variantes de l'ADN des gènes ALOX5 et CYP4F2 et la survenue précoce de la MC. Nous avons également examiné si les gènes sélectionnés montraient des effets parent-d'origine, influençaient les phénotypes cliniques de la MC et s'il existait des interactions gène-gène qui modifieraient la susceptibilité à développer la MC chez l’enfant. Méthodes – Dans le cadre d’une étude de cas-parents et de cas-témoins, des cas confirmés, leurs parents et des contrôles ont été recrutés à partir de trois cliniques de gastro-entérologie à travers le Canada. Les associations entre les polymorphismes de remplacement d'un nucléotide simple (SNP) dans les gènes CYP4F2 et ALOX5 ont été examinées. Les associations allélique et génotypiques ont été examinées à partir d’une analyse du génotype conditionnel à la parenté (CPG) pour le résultats cas-parents et à l’aide de table de contingence et de régression logistique pour les données de cas-contrôles. Les interactions gène-gène ont été explorées à l'aide de méthodes de réduction multi-factorielles de dimensionnalité (MDR). Résultats – L’étude de cas-parents a été menée sur 160 trios. L’analyse CPG pour 14 tag-SNP (10 dans la CYP4F2 et 4 dans le gène ALOX5) a révélé la présence d’associations alléliques ou génotypique significatives entre 3 tag-SNP dans le gène CYP4F2 (rs1272...

‣ Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

Mayrink,Wilson; Tavares,Carlos Alberto Pereira; Deus,Rosangela Barbosa de; Pinheiro,Melina Barros; Guimarães,Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Andrade,Hélida Monteiro de; Costa,Carlos Alberto da; Toledo,Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 Português
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For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac) as well as to phenol (PhVac). The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05). The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

‣ Undecidability of the existence of dictator for strongly candidate stable voting procedures in an infinite society and Cantor's diagonal argument

Tanaka,Yasuhito
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática Aplicada e Computacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática Aplicada e Computacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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The strong candidate stability theorem by Dutta et al. [ 4], one of the major theoremsof social choice theory, states that, with a finite number of voters, there exists a dictator for any voting procedure which satisfies strong candidate stability, strong unanimity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). This paper investigates a decidability problem of voting procedures in a society with an infinite number of individuals (infinite society) using Cantor's diagonal argument presented by Yanofsky [ 19] which is based on Lawvere [ 10]. We will show the following result. The problem whether a strongly candidate stable voting procedure has a dictator or has no dictator in an infinite society is undecidable. It is proved using the arguments similar to those used to prove an extended version of Cantor's theorem that there cannot be an onto function from (the set of natural numbers) to its power set (). This undecidability means that for any strongly candidate stable voting procedure we can not decide whether or not it has a dictator in finite steps by some program. A dictator of a voting procedure is a voter such that if he strictly prefers a candidate (denoted by x) to another candidate (denoted by y)...

‣ Gene-by-Temperature Interactions and Candidate Plasticity Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

Carreira, Valeria Paula; Imberti, Marcos Agustin; Mensch, Julian; Fanara, Juan Jose
Fonte: Public Library Science Publicador: Public Library Science
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Understanding the genetic architecture of any quantitative trait requires identifying the genes involved in its expression in different environmental conditions. This goal can be achieved by mutagenesis screens in genetically tractable model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster. Temperature during ontogenesis is an important environmental factor affecting development and phenotypic variation in holometabolous insects. In spite of the importance of phenotypic plasticity and genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for fitness related traits, its genetic basis has remained elusive. In this context, we analyzed five different adult morphological traits (face width, head width, thorax length, wing size and wing shape) in 42 coisogenic single P-element insertional lines of Drosophila melanogaster raised at 17°C and 25°C. Our analyses showed that all lines differed from the control for at least one trait in males or females at either temperature. However, no line showed those differences for all traits in both sexes and temperatures simultaneously. In this sense, the most pleiotropic candidate genes were CG34460, Lsd-2 and Spn. Our analyses also revealed extensive genetic variation for all the characters mostly indicated by strong GEIs. Further...

‣ Mapping and candidate gene identification of loci determining tolerance to greenbug (Schizaphis graminum, Rondani) in barley

Tocho, Erica Fernanda; Börner, A.; Lohwasser, U.; Castro, Ana Maria
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Greenbug is one of the most aggressive pests of barley and wheat. In Argentina, yield losses of wheat, barley, oat and sorghum crops caused by greenbug are chronic and at times severe. Since Marker Assisted selection for greenbug resistance genes in barley is very limited, the purpose of the current study was to map greenbug resistance genes in doubled haploid (DH) lines and to identify candidate genes. A set of DH lines of the Oregon-Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population derived from the cross between OWBDOM and OWBREC and both parental lines were screened for tolerance to greenbug. There was significant variation among the DH lines in foliar area (FA), dry weight (DW) and chlorophyll contents (Ch) between infested and control DH lines. Three main QTLs were identified. These QTLs explained 82 % of the FA, 80 % of DW and 58 % of Ch variability of infested plants. The initial and final FA and DW of controls and final DW of infested plants were associated with the same molecular markers on chromosome 2H (Vrs1, BmAc0144f, GBR259, GBS705). The final FA of infested plants was significantly linked to molecular markers on chromosome 5H (GBRO986, GBR518, GBM1483, GBR1082). The positive alleles were provided by OWBDOM. The content of chlorophyll of infested plants was associated with the marker loci Ris44...

‣ Identificación y caracterización funcional de genes candidatos asociados a la senescencia foliar en girasol basado en perfiles transcripcionales y metabólicos; Identification and functional characterization of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in sunflower based on transcriptional and metabolic profiles

Moschen, Sebastián
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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El proceso de senescencia en plantas es un mecanismo complejo controlado por múltiples variables genéticas y ambientales que condicionan el rendimiento de los cultivos. En el caso del girasol, el segundo cultivo oleaginoso en importancia económica para nuestro país, se trata de un proceso con impacto económico que interviene en la brecha existente entre el rendimiento potencial y el rendimiento real observado, por la mayor o menor oportunidad de las plantas para mantener el sistema fotosintético activo durante periodos prolongados. Los parámetros visuales resultan tardíos para evaluar el desencadenamiento y posterior tasa de evolución de la senescencia foliar. La clorosis, la variación en el contenido de clorofila así como también la necrosis de las hojas, son detectables mucho tiempo después que la señal iniciadora de la senescencia ha sido activada. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo general el estudio del proceso de senescencia en girasol a través de distintos niveles de organización: ecofisiológico, metabolómico, transcriptómico, culminando con la integración de los diversos enfoques ómicos mediante una aproximación de biología de sistemas, con el objetivo final de identificar potenciales biomarcadores asociados al proceso de senescencia en girasol. Se condujeron distintos ensayos que fueron realizados tanto a campo...

‣ Desarrollo de marcadores funcionales y evaluación de la diversidad genética en Eucalyptus globulus con énfasis en genes potencialmente involucrados en características de calidad de la madera; Functional markers development and genetic diversity analysis in Eucalyptus globulus with emphasis in wood quality candidate genes

Acuña, Cintia Vanesa
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Eucalyptus globulus es la especie forestal con mejor aptitud papelera y para la obtención de bioenergía a partir de celulosa, mayormente plantada en regiones templadas del mundo. Los proyectos genómicos en Eucalyptus han incrementado el número de secuencias disponibles en los bancos de datos públicos. Los marcadores funcionales públicos, si bien son frecuentes en diferentes cultivos, son aún escasos en especies forestales. De allí la importancia de la búsqueda y validación de regiones SSRs en genes de interés, para ser utilizados en futuros proyectos de mejoramiento asistido por marcadores (marker assisted breeding). En este estudio, se identificaron secuencias no redundantes de ADN de Eucalyptus (genómicas y ESTs) depositadas en bancos de datos públicos para revelar secuencias microsatélites y predecir, in silico, su función putativa. Éstas fueron luego validadas en laboratorio para predecir su potencial uso en análisis de diversidad genética. A partir de 12.690 ESTs de Eucalyptus globulus publicados en NCBI se identificaron 4.924 secuencias no redundantes. De éstas, 952 unigenes (19,3%) contenían 1.140 regiones SSR. Luego del análisis bioinformático de estos EST-SSRs, se diseñaron 979 oligonucleótidos novedosos y se predijo su función putativa...

‣ Candidate Stability and Voting Correspondences

Rodríguez-Alvarez, Carmelo
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
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We study the incentives of candidates to enter or to exit elections in order to strategically affect the outcome of a voting correspondence. We extend the results of Dutta, Jackson and Le Breton (2000), who only considered single-valued voting procedures by admitting that the outcomes of voting may consist of sets of candidates. We show that, if candidates form their preferences over sets according to Expected Utility Theory and Bayesian updating, every unanimous and non dictatorial voting correspondence violates candidate stability. When candidates are restricted to use even chance prior distributions, only dictatorial or bidictatorial rules are unanimous and candidate stable. We also analyze the implications of using other extension criteria to define candidate stability that open the door to positive results.

‣ Members of the Candidate Division OP10 are spread in a variety of environments

Portillo Guisado, María del Carmen; González Grau, Juan Miguel
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
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Our planet holds a huge bacterial diversity. Most of these bacteria have only been detected by their 16S rRNA gene sequences remaining to be cultured. Many are classified within Candidate Divisions. One them is the Candidate Division OP10. Analysis of environmental 16S rRNA gene sequences available in public repositories revealed the existence of numerous sequences clustering within the Candidate Division OP10 but currently unclassified or assigned to other bacterial phyla. Newly proposed 16S rRNA sequences multiply several fold the reported sequences for the Candidate Division OP10. This study showed that the Candidate Division OP10 is a diverse and broadly distributed bacterial phylum and represents a stable microbial component in different natural environments.; The authors acknowledge funding from the Government of Andalusia (BIO288).; Peer reviewed

‣ Spatial Competition Between Two Candidates of Different Quality: The Effects of Candidate Ideology and Private Information

Aragonés, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
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This paper examines competition in a spatial model of two-candidate elections, where one candidate enjoys a quality advantage over the other candidate. The candidates care about winning and also have policy preferences. There is two-dimensional private information. Candidate ideal points as well as their tradeoffs between policy preferences and winning are private information. The distribution of this two-dimensional type is common knowledge. The location of the median voter's ideal point is uncertain, with a distribution that is commonly known by both candidates. Pure strategy equilibria always exist in this model. We characterize the effects of increased uncertainty about the median voter, the effect of candidate policy preferences, and the effects of changes in the distribution of private information. We prove that the distribution of candidate policies approaches the mixed equilibrium of Aragones and Palfrey (2002a), when both candidates' weights on policy preferences go to zero.; Aragonés acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, grant number SEC2000-1186. Palfrey acknowledges financial support from the National Science Foundation, grant number SES-0079301, and from the Institut d’Anàlisi Econòmica.

‣ The Effect of Candidate Quality on Electoral Equilibrium: An Experimental Study

Aragonés, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
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Trabajo publicado como artículo en American Political Science Review 98(1): 77-90 (2004).-- http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055404001017; When two candidates of different quality compete in a one dimensional policy space, the equilibrium outcomes are asymmetric and do not correspond to the median. There are three main effects. First, the better candidate adopts more centrist policies than the worse candidate. Second, the equilibrium is statistical, in the sense that it predicts a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single degenerate outcome. Third, the equilibrium varies systematically with the level of uncertainty about the location of the median voter. We test these three predictions using laboratory experiments, and find strong support for all three. We also observe some biases and show that they canbe explained by quantal response equilibrium.; Aragonés acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, grant number SEC2000-1186. Palfrey acknowledges financial support from the National Science Foundation, grant number SES-0079301, and from the Hacker Social Science Experimental Laboratory at Caltech.

‣ Test for positional candidate genes for body composition on pig chromosome 6

Óvilo, Cristina; Oliver, Àngels; Noguera José Luis; Clop, Àlex; Barragán, Carmen; Varona, Luis; Rodriguez Carmen; Toro, Miguel; Sánchez Bonastre, Armando; Pérez Enciso, Miguel; Silió, Luis
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 Português
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One QTL affecting backfat thickness (BF), intramuscular fat content (IMF) and eye muscle area (MA) was previously localized on porcine chromosome 6 in an F2 cross between Iberian and Landrace pigs. This work was done to study the effect of two positional candidate genes on these traits: H-FABP and LEPR genes. The QTL mapping analysis was repeated with a regression method using genotypes for seven microsatellites and two PCR-RFLPs in the H-FABP and LEPR genes. H-FABP and LEPR genes were located at 85.4 and 107 cM respectively, by linkage analysis. The effects of the candidate gene polymorphisms were analyzed in two ways. When an animal model was fitted, both genes showed significant effects on fatness traits, the H-FABP polymorphism showed significant effects on IMF and MA, and the LEPR polymorphism on BF and IMF. But when the candidate gene effect was included in a QTL regression analysis these associations were not observed, suggesting that they must not be the causal mutations responsible for the effects found. Differences in the results of both analyses showed the inadequacy of the animal model approach for the evaluation of positional candidate genes in populations with linkage disequilibrium, when the probabilities of the parental origin of the QTL alleles are not included in the model.