Página 1 dos resultados de 1880 itens digitais encontrados em 0.053 segundos

‣ Armenia : Poverty Update Using Revised Poverty Lines

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.786064%
This study has two objectives, the first of which is to revise the national poverty lines of Armenia. The Government of Armenia expressed its desire for revised poverty lines that more accurately reflect the current consumption and expenditure patterns of the population. The work was jointly undertaken by the client counterparts and the World Bank. The second objective of this study is to assess the changes in poverty incidence in the aftermath of the global recession. This note updates the poverty numbers using the full dataset from the 2009 Integrated Living Conditions Survey (ILCS). It estimates how much poverty incidence increased during the crisis, and draws implications for mitigation measures. All poverty indices increased during the crisis and continued to worsen during the macroeconomic recovery.

‣ Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Growth, Employment and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.734844%
This report, which has been prepared by the World Bank in cooperation with the National Statistical Committee, provides an assessment of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic using the most recent data available. The objective of this report is to understand to what extent economic growth has reduced poverty and led to improved living conditions for the population during 2000-2005. The report also attempts to answer three questions about the Kyrgyz Republic: what is the profile of poor? How has economic growth affected the level and composition of poverty? How has the labor market contributed to changes in poverty? The report is divided into two volumes. The first volume begins with this chapter which provides an international comparison of social and other key indicators of the Kyrgyz Republic followed by a profile of the poor based upon 2005 household survey data. The second chapter analyzes the linkages between growth and poverty during 2000-2005. The third chapter provides our key findings of labor market outcomes and poverty and what the implications are for policy making. The final chapter synthesizes the information from the earlier chapters and provides some policy directions. The second volume provides a more thorough analysis of labor markets. It covers developments in the labor market...

‣ Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, Profile of Living Standards in 2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.928145%
This report examines poverty issues in the Kyrgyz Republic, focusing on three areas. First, it provides a summary of the trends in poverty over the period 2000-2003 by drawing upon comparable data from the Household Budget Surveys from those years. Second, based upon the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey (KIHS ) it presents the new estimates of absolute and extreme poverty by applying updated poverty analysis methodology. Third, the report provides a profile of the poor in order to determine whether with the changes in survey instruments and sampling, there have been any major changes in the composition and location of the poor. It is organized with: an overview of the main social and infrastructure indictors of the Kyrgyz Republic against other Europe and Central Asia countries; a review of the changes in poverty over time; and an updated poverty profile using the KIHS data. Annexes both present the methodology and elaborate on methodological and statistical topics

‣ Social Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis in Latin America : Some Preliminary, and Surprisingly Optimistic, Conjectures

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.75875%
Surprisingly, the most severe economic crisis the world has seen since the great depression does not appear to have had as dramatic an impact on poverty in Latin America as might have been expected. The exceptions to this heartening assessment are the countries geographically and economically closest to the United States, chiefly Mexico. Elsewhere, although poverty statistics for 2008-09 are not yet available, the data on output, unemployment and real wages suggest relatively modest changes in poverty. There are two candidate explanations for the smaller-than-expected increases in poverty in Latin America: lower output declines, deriving from enhanced protection against external shocks; and a lower output elasticity of poverty. If the latter is indeed observed when the required data becomes available, the report conjecture that it may reflect both the lower inflation rates now prevalent in the region, and recent reforms in the social protection system. For all their faults, the social protection systems in many Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries now reach the poor rather than only the middle-classes. The note concludes arguing against complacency...

‣ Assessing Fiscal Implication of the Recent Changes in Poverty Lines and Revision of Allocation Norms of Capital Expenditures and Resources for Targeted Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.75225%
There have been important changes in the budgeting process in Vietnam since 2006 when the government of Vietnam instituted a revolutionary reform in the management and allocation of the state budget. For the period of 2007-2010, the norms include ethnic minority population data, and poverty rates. The purpose of this research assignment is to describe the evolution of budgeting mechanisms in recent years, in association with capital expenditure transferred from central to provincial budgets. This report focuses on changes in the budgeting process and allocation norms. It is also assesses whether these recent changes are pro-poor, and how they would affect availability of resources for the national targeted programs.

‣ Is Labor Income Responsible for Poverty Reduction? A Decomposition Approach

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Inchauste, Gabriela; Olivieri, Sergio; Saavedra, Jaime; Winkler, Hernan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.86427%
Demographics, labor income, public transfers, or remittances: Which factor contributes the most to observed reductions in poverty? Using counterfactual simulations, this paper accounts for the contribution labor income has made to the observed changes in poverty over the past decade for a set of 16 countries that have experienced substantial declines in poverty. In contrast to methods that focus on aggregate summary statistics, the analysis generates entire counterfactual distributions that allow assessing the contributions of different factors to observed distributional changes. Decompositions across all possible paths are calculated so the estimates are not subject to path-dependence. The analysis shows that for most countries in the sample, labor income is the most important contributor to changes in poverty. In ten of the countries, labor income explains more than half of the change in moderate poverty; in another four, it accounts for more than 40 percent of the reduction in poverty. Although public and private transfers were relatively more important in explaining the reduction in extreme poverty...

‣ When Job Earnings Are Behind Poverty Reduction

Inchauste, Gabriela; Azevedo, João Pedro; Olivieri, Sergio; Saavedra, Jaime; Winkler, Hernan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.92862%
Improvement in labor market conditions has been the main explanation behind many of the poverty success stories observed in the last decade, that is the primary conclusion of an analysis of changes in poverty by income source. Changes in labor earnings were the largest contributor to poverty reduction for a sample of 16 countries where poverty increased substantially. In 10 of these countries, labor income explained more than half of the change in poverty, and in another 4 countries, it accounted for more than 40 percent of the reduction in poverty. A declining dependency rate accounts for over a fifth of the reduction in poverty in 10 out of 16 countries, while transfers and other non-earned incomes account for more than a quarter of the reduction in poverty in 9 of these countries. A further decomposition of the contribution of labor income to poverty reduction in Bangladesh, Peru, and Thailand found that changes in individual characteristics (education, work experience, and region of residence) were important...

‣ Face of Poverty in Madagascar : Poverty, Gender, and Inequality Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.895137%
Madagascar has been entirely unsuccessful in reducing the number of its people that are poor, or extremely so, in the ten years since 2001, when poverty was already at a very high level. This well-known conclusion draws on the analysis of three successive rounds of the national household expenditure surveys (enquete periodiques aupres des menages, EPM) conducted by the Madagascar National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) in 2001, 2005, and 2010. The objective of the analysis in this report is to document the levels and changes in poverty in Madagascar, and provide a detailed review of correlates of poverty and inequality in various dimensions, including gender, age, the structure of households, and place of residence. The report is an assessment of past poverty trends, and while policy implications are highlighted in many cases, the report is focused mainly on the descriptive, rather than prescriptive. It is found that the poverty headcount did not decrease between 2001 and 2005, rising instead from 71 to 75 percent of the population...

‣ Understanding Changes in Poverty

Inchauste, Gabriela; Azevedo, João Pedro; Essama-Nssah, B.; Olivieri, Sergio; Van Nguyen, Trang; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime; Winkler, Hernan
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.04372%
Understanding Changes in Poverty brings together different methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. A simple approach quantifies the contribution of changes in demographics, employment, earnings, public transfers, and remittances to poverty reduction. A more complex approach quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction from changes in individual and household characteristics, including changes in the sectoral, occupational, and educational structure of the workforce, as well as changes in the returns to individual and household characteristics. Understanding Changes in Poverty implements these approaches and finds that labor income growth that is, growth in income per worker rather than an increase in the number of employed workers was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction in 21 countries experiencing substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Changes in demographics, public transfers, and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Further decompositions in three countries find that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments...

‣ Short- and Long-Run Impacts of Food Price Changes on Poverty

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.83939%
This study uses household models based on detailed expenditure and agricultural production data from 31 developing countries to assess the impacts of changes in global food prices on poverty in individual countries and for the world as a whole. The analysis finds that food price increases unrelated to productivity changes in developing countries raise poverty in the short run in all but a few countries with broadly-distributed agricultural resources. This result is primarily because the poor spend large shares of their incomes on food and many poor farmers are net buyers of food. In the longer run, two other important factors come into play: poor workers are likely to benefit from increases in wage rates for unskilled workers from higher food prices, and poor farmers are likely to benefit from higher agricultural profits as they raise their output. As a result, higher food prices appear to lower global poverty in the long run.

‣ Who Remained in Poverty, Who Moved Up, and Who Fell Down? An Investigation of Poverty Dynamics in Senegal in the Late 2000s

Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Lanjouw, Peter F.; Swinkels, Rob
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.719263%
Poverty estimates based on cross-section data provide static snapshots of poverty rates. Although a time series of cross-section data can offer some insights into poverty trends, it does not allow for an assessment of dynamics at the household level. Such a dynamic perspective on poverty generally calls for panel data and this kind of analysis can usefully inform poverty reduction policy, notably the design of social protection interventions. Absent actual panel data for Senegal, this paper applies new statistical methods to construct synthetic panel data from two rounds of cross-section household surveys in 2005 and 2011. These data are used to study poverty transitions. The results suggest that, in marked contrast to the picture obtained from cross-section data, there exists a great deal of mobility in and out of poverty during this period. More than half the population experiences changes in its poverty status and more than two-thirds of the extreme (food) poor move up one or two welfare categories. Factors such as rural residence...

‣ Multidimensional Poverty in Ethiopia; Changes in Overlapping Deprivations

Ambel, Alemayehu; Mehta, Parendi; Yigezu, Biratu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.77333%
This paper presents trends in monetary and nonmonetary dimensions of wellbeing in Ethiopia using data from the Household Consumption and Expenditure and Welfare Monitoring surveys implemented in 2000, 2005, and 2011. The paper provides evidence on changes in overlapping deprivations using a non-index approach to multidimensional poverty. It assesses the performance of various dimensions in education, health, and living standards, taking one indicator at a time. It then examines the overlap between different dimensions of poverty and examines how this has changed over time in Ethiopia and across rural and urban areas. It highlights that although Ethiopia’s multidimensional poverty index is very high, there have been improvements in overlapping deprivations and, as a result, the number of individuals deprived in multiple dimensions has fallen.

‣ Understanding Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka; Evidence from 2002 to 2012/13

Ceriani, Lidia; Inchauste, Gabriela; Olivieri, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.716865%
This paper quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction observed in Sri Lanka between 2002 and 2012/13. The methods adopted for the analysis generate entire counterfactual distributions to account for the contributions of demographics, labor, and non-labor incomes in explaining poverty reduction. The findings show that the most important contributor to poverty reduction was growth in labor income, stemming from an increase in the returns to salaried nonfarm workers and higher returns to self-employed farm workers. Although some of this increase in earnings may point to improvements in productivity, defined as higher units of output per worker, some of it may simply reflect increases in food and commodity prices, which have increased the marginal revenue product of labor. To the extent that there have been no increases in the volumes being produced, the observed changes in poverty are vulnerable to reversals if commodity prices were to decline significantly. Finally, although private transfers (domestic and foreign) helped to reduce poverty over the period...

‣ Repbulic of Chad Poverty Notes : Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality following the Rise of the Oil Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.889756%
Chad's chronically unstable security situation has long undermined broad-based economic growth and sustainable poverty reduction. Since independence in 1960 Chad has suffered from sporadic political violence and ongoing tensions between different factions. The country's fragile security has been further compromised by interference from neighboring states and spillover effects from regional conflicts. However, after rebel attacks in 2008 and 2009, and following the recent conclusion of a peace agreement between Chad and Sudan, the security situation in the country has remained relatively calm, presenting a valuable window of opportunity for development efforts to take root. The objective of this Poverty Note is to examine changes in poverty and inequality in Chad since the emergence of the oil sector. It will focus on the evolution of poverty indicators from the 2003 pre-oil baseline captured in the Chadian Household Consumption and Informal Sector Survey, or ECOSIT2 to the more recent findings of the 2011 ECOSIT3 and compare current monetary and nonmonetary poverty conditions in Chad with those of comparable countries. It will go on to assess the impact of oil production on the non-oil sectors of the Chadian economy. Finally...

‣ Monitoring Poverty in Uttar Pradesh : A Report on the Second Poverty and Social Monitoring Survey

Government of Uttar Pradesh; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.788413%
The report aims to provide a quick statistical update on changes in poverty and living conditions and access to services between the two periods of February and June 200, and 2002-2003, the two data points. At the same time, the Government of Uttar Pradesh requested the Bank's support for a preparation of a joint report with a wider and deeper scope of analysis focusing on determinants and changes in living conditions of the Uttar Pradesh population and assessing performance of current policies and programs with respect to their impacts on the poor. This report highlights income and poverty trends between 1993/94 and 2002/03, education trends between 1999/2000 and 2002/03, health trends in the late 1990s-early 2000), access to amenities trends between 1999/2000 and 2002/03, and government program trends between 1999/2000 and 2002/03.

‣ Bangladesh, a Middle Income Country by 2021 : What Will it Take in Terms of Poverty Reduction?

Gimenez, Lea; Jolliffe, Dean; Sharif, Iffath
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.823965%
The vision 2021 plan and the associated perspective plan 2010-2021, adopted by the Government of Bangladesh lay out a series of development targets for 2021. Among the core targets identified to monitor the progress toward the vision 2021 objectives is that of attaining a poverty headcount of 14 percent by 2021. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question: given Bangladesh's performance in poverty reduction over the last decades, can the author expect the proportion of the country's population living in poverty to be 14 percent by 2022? Using data from the last three household income and expenditures survey, we examine changes in poverty rates during 2000-2010, estimate net elasticity of poverty reduction to growth in per-capita expenditure, and then project poverty headcounts into the future. Our poverty projections based on the last three Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) surveys suggest that Bangladesh will achieve its Millennium Development Goal, or MDG goal of halving its poverty headcount to 28.5 percent by 2015 significantly ahead of schedule. Attaining the vision 2021 poverty target of 14 percent by 2021...

‣ Innovations in Poverty Measurement : Seven Design Lessons on the Use of Advisory Committees to Improve Official Poverty Estimates in Peru; Innovacion en la medicion de pobreza : siete lecciones de diseno sobre el uso de comites asesores para mejorar las cifras oficiales de pobreza en Peru

Vakis, Renos; Schmidt, Matthias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.73402%
Between 2004 and 2007, no annual official statistics on poverty existed in Peru. This was due to serious problems with the household survey used to estimate poverty and implemented by the National Statistical Institute (INEI). Many of the technical issues arose from changes in the survey instrument, data collection practices and delays in updating poverty measurement methodologies. This put on hold poverty analyses for more than three years, time during which little was known about changes in poverty, inequality and the effectiveness of policies to reduce poverty. Instead of providing direct technical assistance to INEI, the World Bank team proposed the creation of an external Advisory Committee (AC) whose role would be to: 1) discuss, advice and reach a consensus on the best methodology that could be used to improve and produce comparable poverty estimates in Peru; and 2) oversee the work of an inter-institutional technical team who would implement the AC's recommendations. This inter-institutional approach was aimed at helping INEI to create an environment of openness and transparency necessary to improve its credibility and relationship with its clients and the public.

‣ Guatemala - Poverty assessment : good performance at low levels; Guatemala - Evaluacion de la pobreza : buen desempeno a bajo nivel

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.9563%
This report is organized into three sections with seven chapters. The first section assesses poverty levels and changes over time within Guatemala and compares both the levels and changes to those of other countries. It summarizes the overall conditions and changes in Guatemala (chapter one); presents the country's poverty profile and analyzes the evolution of poverty over time and space using monetary and non-monetary indicators, population changes and inequality (chapter two); and benchmarks Guatemala's social progress against other countries in the region and the world (chapter three). The second section analyzes social programs and considers how existing policies and programs could improve their impact on poverty. It highlights some of the key features of social programs in education, health, and social assistance (chapter four); and estimates the potential impact of an expansion of a conditional cash transfer program on poverty (chapter five). The third section focuses on the sources of income of the poor. It documents the evolution of the sources of income examines regional specific characteristics that promote or hinder households potentials (chapter six); and carries out a preliminary analysis of shocks and vulnerability influencing household wellbeing covering the impact of hurricane Stan...

‣ FYR of Macedonia : Poverty Assessment for 2002-2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.727764%
This report provides a broad assessment of the status of living standards in FYR Macedonia during the period 2002 - 2003. This work complements the body of analysis undertaken by the Government, independent researchers, and donors on economic developments in FYR Macedonia. Instead of analyzing the successes or failures of policies in engendering growth, the report focuses its attention on examining living conditions as they stand today. Since economic growth is not an end in itself but rather a means to achieving sustained improvements in living conditions of all citizens, how good or bad outcomes are ultimately reflect the success or failure of government policies. In order to reach its ultimate objective, the report specifically sets out to do the following: (i) provide a broad perspective on how living conditions in FYR Macedonia compares to other countries in the region; (ii) determine the extent of poverty among FYR Macedonia's population and outline the profile of the poor; and (iii) analyze the linkage between growth and changes in poverty overtime.

‣ Assessing Poverty in Kenya; Evaluation de la pauvrete au Kenya

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.63213%
About half of Kenya's rural population (approximately 9 million people) was the poverty line in 1992, a proportion unchanged from 1982. In urban areas, approximately a million and a quarter persons or 30 percent of the population was below the poverty line. In the early 1980s, Kenya's social indicators were distinctly more favorable than those of most countries in the region, and there was further progress. But many indicators stagnated in the early 1990s. There are also persistent differences between rural and urban areas and between the poor and the non-poor. These are the findings of the Kenya poverty assessment (March 1995) which is one of the few studies in the region to document and measure changes in poverty indicators over a decade. Using data from a number of sources, it shows that while Kenya achieved some improvement in its social indicators, the lack of sustained per capita income growth resulted in continued poverty for an increasing number. And that the benefits of good health and education did not accrue to all.