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‣ A estratégia fundiária dos movimentos populares na produção autogestionária da moradia; The land strategy from housing popular movements in the collective self-managed housing production

Rodrigues, Evaniza Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2013 Português
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Os movimentos populares de luta por moradia, que defendem a proposta autogestionária, atuam no Brasil desde a década de 80, e são protagonistas da recente construção legal e institucional da política urbana e habitacional brasileira. Os programas Crédito Solidário e Minha Casa Minha Vida Entidades, frutos de uma trajetória de mobilização e pressão desses movimentos, reconhecem a atuação de entidades sociais, cooperativas e movimentos populares como agentes promotores de empreendimentos habitacionais, com recursos públicos federais. O acesso à terra urbanizada e bem localizada para a habitação popular tem estado na pauta dos movimentos de reforma urbana que para isso têm desenvolvido ações diretas, como ocupações e mobilizações públicas, iniciativas legislativas e ações institucionais, como a participação em conselhos de políticas públicas. Entretanto o conjunto de instrumentos colocados à disposição da sociedade para regular o uso do território ainda não foram efetivamente implantados. Assim, a ausência de política fundiária, em nível local e nacional aliada à abundância de recursos públicos e privados disponíveis para o setor da construção civil e a financeirização da produção da moradia e da cidade fazem com que a busca por áreas disponíveis para a produção habitacional de interesse social seja cada vez mais difícil. Tal tarefa se torna ainda mais árdua para os movimentos sociais. O Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida consagra um modelo de produção habitacional calcada em um modelo único de acesso...

‣ Successful strategies for the implementation of land reform : a peasants’ account from the Philippines

Côté, Denis J.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Entre 1988 et 2008, les Philippines ont mis en oeuvre le Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) qui visait à redistribuer 9 million d‟hectares de terres agricoles aux paysans sans terre. En dépit des échappatoires du programme et d‟une structure sociale très inégale qui freinent sa mise en oeuvre, ce modèle de réforme agraire présente des résultats surprenants alors que 82% des terres ont été redistribuées. Concernant les terres plus litigieuses appartenant à des intérêts privés, Borras soutient que le succès surprenant de plusieurs cas de luttes agraires s‟explique par l‟utilisation de la stratégie bibingka qui consiste à appliquer de la pression par le bas et par le haut afin de forcer la redistribution. Sa théorie cependant ne donne que peu de détails concernant les éléments qui rendent un cas plus ou moins litigieux. Elle ne traite pas non plus de la manière dont les éléments structurels et l‟action collective interagissent pour influencer le résultat des luttes agraires. Dans ce mémoire, nous nous attardons d‟abord à la manière dont certains éléments structurels – le type de récolte et le type de relation de production - influencent le degré de résistance des propriétaires terriens face aux processus du CARP...

‣ Can a Market-Assisted Land Redistribution Program Improve the Lives of the Poor? Evidence from Malawi

Datar, Gayatri; Del Carpio, Ximena; Hoffman, Vivian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper uses a rural household survey dataset collected in 2006 and 2008 to investigate the impact of a market-based land resettlement project in southern Malawi. The program provided a conditional cash and land transfer to poor families to relocate to larger plots of farm land. The average treatment effect of the program is estimated using a difference-in-difference matching technique based on propensity score matching; qualitative information complement the analysis to ensure unobservable characteristics do not bias the findings. As expected, the results show a significant effect on landholdings and agricultural production, with land size increasing and maize production increasing by more than 100 kilograms relative to the control. However, the impacts on food security and asset holdings were mixed. Households that relocated great distances had systematically lower impacts than those households that stayed within their district of origin because they had to adapt to unfamiliar agro-ecological, cultural...

‣ Farmer and Farm Worker Perceptions of Land Reform and Sustainable Agriculture in Tajikistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of operational efforts in farmland restructuring and sustainable agricultural land management on vulnerability amongst rural households in Tajikistan; and to provide context and improve strategies for current operations in land reform, rural growth and sustainable land management given the challenges of economic transition, institutional, economic and environmental fragility, and the emerging risks of climate change. Low levels of assets and capabilities, as well as unsupportive institutional arrangements, constrain the options of the rural poor. Rural vulnerability both affects, and is affected by, household and community access to and use of land and other natural resources. Considerable theoretical literature can be found on the relationship between environmental management of agricultural production and rural vulnerability. This study examines the results and synergies of operational, field-level interventions in land tenure, sustainable land management and agricultural production. Limited management control over farmland...

‣ Land Policies and Evolving Farm Structures in Transition Countries

Lerman, Zvi; Csaki, Csaba; Feder, Gershon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors review the role of land policies in the evolving farm structure of transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). They show how different policies for land property rights, degrees of control of land rental and sale markets, and procedures for restructuring former collective or state farms resulted in significantly different farm structures in CEE countries compared with those in the CIS. In particular, secure land rights, greater emphasis on indivualization of land, and more liberal land market policies in CEE generated a farming sector with a relatively large share of family farms and viable corporate farms. On the other hand, limited tenure security, ineffective individualization of land rights, and restrictive land policies in most of the CIS produced a farming structure dominated by large and generally nonviable jointly-owned farms that function much like the old collective farms. Family farms are slow to emerge in transition countries with inadequate land policies. The agricultural sector in countries dominated by inefficient farm organizations is characterized by low productivity and misallocation of resources.

‣ The Nexus between Gender, Collective Action for Public Goods, and Agriculture : Evidence from Malawi

McCarthy, Nancy; Kilic, Talip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Across the developing world, public goods exert significant impacts on the local rural economy in general and agricultural productivity and welfare outcomes in particular. Economic and social-cultural heterogeneity have, however, long been documented as detrimental to collective capacity to provide public goods. In particular, women are often under-represented in local leadership and decision-making processes, as are young adults and minority ethnic groups. While democratic principles dictate that broad civic engagement by women and other groups could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of local governance and increase public goods provision, the empirical evidence on these hypotheses is scant. This paper develops a theoretical model highlighting the complexity of constructing a "fair" schedule of individual contributions, given heterogeneity in costs and benefits that accrue to people depending, for instance, on their gender, age, ethnicity, and education. The model demonstrates that representative leadership and broad participation in community organizations can mitigate the negative impacts of heterogeneity on collective capacity to provide public goods. Nationally-representative household survey data from Malawi...

‣ Tajikistan - Autonomous Adaptation to Climate Change : Economic Opportunities and Institutional Constraints for Farming Households

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Climate change presents significant threats to sustainable poverty reduction in Tajikistan. The primary impacts on rural livelihoods are expected to stem from reduced water quantity and quality (affecting agriculture), and increased frequency and severity of disasters. Options for farming households to autonomously adapt (and thereby move from climate vulnerability to resilience) include adoption of on-farm and off-farm measures. Farmland restructuring and the promotion of innovative rural production and land management measures have the potential to incentivize productivity and sustainable practices and reduce vulnerability, but achieving these objectives will rest on the behavioral responses of beneficiaries. In this context, assessing existing practices, as well as understanding institutional constraints to adaptation is crucial to improving economic opportunities for Tajik households and reducing vulnerability through well-designed interventions. This note examines the role of institutional factors (land tenure...

‣ Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon?

Bluffstone, Randy; Somanathan, Eswaran; Jha, Prakash; Luintel, Harisharan; Bista, Rajesh; Paudel, Naya; Adhikari, Bhim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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This paper estimate the effects of collective action in Nepal’s community forests on four ecological measures of forest quality. Forest user group collective action is identified through membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme, pending membership in the program, and existence of a forest user group whose leaders can identify the year the group was formed. This last, broad category is important, because many community forest user groups outside the program show significant evidence of important collective action. The study finds that presumed open access forests have only 21 to 57 percent of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. In several models, program forests sequester more carbon than communities outside the program. This implies that paying new program groups for carbon sequestration credits under the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing may be especially appropriate. However, marginal carbon sequestration effects of program participation are smaller and less consistent than those from two broader measures of collective action. The main finding is that within the existing institutional environment...

‣ Property entitlements and land reform in upland Thai catchments

Attwater, Roger
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 90493 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Issues involved in processes of land reform in degraded upland catchment areas in Thailand include property entitlements over local resource complexes, and the roles of local communities in relation to State agency and commercial stakeholders. An inquiry into collaborative action between stakeholders in an upland Thai catchment has been used as an example of the process of defining property entitlements to the bundles of opportunities for management.

This paper draws upon recent conceptual advances concerning property entitlements, particularly as these relate to common-pool resources, and the complex bundle of opportunities for collective and collaborative management in upland catchments. A processual view of collective and collaborative action is the way in which interests are expressed as claims and ultimately translated into entitlements which specify rights to streams of benefits, and associated duties, in relation to a particular resource complex. Social and bureaucratic institutions will influence the way in which stakeholders can participate and interact in this process.

Soft systems methodology was used as a guide for a process aimed at identifying mutually beneficial improvements in management between village...

‣ [Works on the Australian Aborigines by Charles P. Mountford]; Aboriginal paintings from Australia; Records of the American-Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land. Vol. 1, Art, myth and symbolism; Ayers Rock : its people, their beliefs and their art; Conception beliefs of the Australian Aborigines [manuscript]; Nomads of the Australian desert [manuscript]; Rainbow serpent myths of Australia; Tiwi : their art, myth and ceremony; Winbaraku and the myth of Jarapiri

Mountford, Charles P. (Charles Pearcy), 1890-1976; American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land (1948); International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (9th : 1973 : Chicago, Ill.)
Fonte: 1976 Publicador: 1976
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 3318358 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1976 Português
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A collection of monographs, created by a dedicated amateur ethnologist and anthropologist. Mountford developed his appreciation of Australian Aboriginal people and their customs, beliefs and art over many years of expeditions, making it his life's work. Although he didn't receive formal qualifications until later in life, Mountford conducted numerous expeditions to central Australia and Arnhem Land, including north east Arnhem Land. He was determined to record Aboriginal culture.; Thesis (D.Litt.)--University of Adelaide, 1976; Collective title supplied by cataloguer.; Includes bibliographical references and indexes.; Charles Pearcy Mountford (1890-1976), OBE, Dip. Anthrop. (Cantab), MA (Adel.), D. Litt (Melbourne and Adelaide), was an ethnologist and anthropologist who advanced from amateur status to become an important figure in the field of anthropology in Australia. He was born at Hallett in 1890. His field work was conducted in South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory from 1925-1963. His published works were based on the journals and photographs he made on these expeditions. Mountford was a founding member, and later president of the Anthropological Society of SA; and founder of the Australian Anthropological Society in 1936.; 8 v. :; Title page...

‣ The Foi Incorporated Land Group: law and custom in group definition and collective action in the Kutubu oil project area, PNG

Weiner, James
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 89137 bytes; 368 bytes; 368 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
Português
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Introduction:......In this paper I examine the genesis and progress of the incorporated land group (ILG) in Papua New Guinea. The ILG is a legal entity empowered by legislation passed in 1974 to give legal and formal recognition, protection and powers to customary landowning groups in PNG. Foi and Fasu clans and Gulf Province clans in the Kutubu oil project area, at the instigation of the Chevron Niugini Company (CNGL) the managing partner of the Kutubu Joint Venture, have become incorporated under the Papua New Guinea Land Group Incorporation Act (1974) and have been receiving royalty payments from the sale of petroleum. The Incorporated Land Group has been viewed by the Company as the best mechanism with which to: · establish stability and remove ambiguity over ownership of territory · establish acceptable mechanisms for the selection of landowner representatives · effectively channel royalty and other petroleum-derived revenues to landowners · build upon what is perceived as a customary social unit of long standing in Papua New Guinea and thus capitalize upon the stability of customary cultural units (Power n.d., emphasis added). But since the original round of ILG registrations, there have been numerous applications for new ILG status from sub-groups within these original ILGs incorporated in the early 90's. In 1998...

‣ China - Integrating Land Policy Reforms II : Strengthening Land Rights for Equitable Growth and Social Harmony

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This report evaluates the legal framework for rural land rights, the regulations of rural housing sites, the effects of land requisition on farmers who lose land, and some selected issues affecting urban land rights. The focus of this report is how to enhance property rights in a number of different contexts. The report makes a series of specific policy recommendations for rural agricultural land, rural housing land, to protect rights in the context of requisitions, and for urban land rights that include: strengthening farmers' rights over rural agricultural land, strengthening rights over rural housing land, improving requisition procedures and outcomes, and strengthening urban land use rights and administration.

‣ Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia : Options for Strengthening Land Administration

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS)
Português
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Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender equality and protecting vulnerable groups in Ethiopia. This report aims to assist the government of Ethiopia in improving the performance of its land administration system based on a detailed review and lessons from Ethiopia and other countries. The three key areas for improvements and options for improving the land administration system summarized in the action matrix below are the: a) legal and regulatory framework; b) administrative capacity and organizational set-up; and, based on these, c) provision of efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable land administration services and land management.

‣ Land in Transition : Reform and Poverty in Rural Vietnam; Dat dai trong thoi ky chuyen doi : cai cach va ngheo doi o nong thon Viet Nam

Ravallion, Martin; van de Walle, Dominique
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The policy reforms called for in the transition from a socialist command economy to a developing market economy bring both opportunities and risks to a country's citizens. In poor economies, the initial focus of reform efforts is naturally the rural sector, which is where one finds the bulk of the population and almost all the poor. Economic development will typically entail moving many rural households out of farming into more remunerative (urban and rural) non-farm activities. Reforms that shift the rural economy from the relatively rigid, control-based farming institutions found under socialist agriculture to a more flexible, market-based model in which production incentives are strong can thus play an important role in the process of economic growth. However, such reforms present a major challenge to policy makers, who are concerned that they will generate socially unacceptable inequalities in land and other dimensions relevant to people's living standards. This book studies how the changes in land institutions and land allocation required for Vietnam's agrarian transition affected people's living standards-notably that of the country's rural poor. Living standards means household command over commodities...

‣ Collective action in the management of a tropical dry forest ecosystem: effects of Mexico's property rights regime

Schroeder, Natalia; Castillo, Alicia
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Dilemmas of natural resources governance have been a central concern for scholars, policy makers and users. Major debates occur over the implications of property rights for common resources management. After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917), land was distributed mainly as Ejidos conceived as a hereditary but unalienable collective form of property. In 1992, a new Agrarian Law was decreed that allows individual ownership by removing various restrictions over the transfer of land. Scholars have examined the reform mainly focusing on land-tenure changes and environmental fragmentation. This study examines how the new ownership regime is affecting collective decision making in ejidos located in a tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystem. Information on decision making processes before and after the 1992 reform was gathered through 52 interviews conducted in four ejidos selected along a gradient including agricultural, cattle raising and TDF use. The new individualized land property system reduced collective action in ejidos but not triggered it. Collective action responses to the 1992 reform were buffered by self-organization each ejido already had. Heterogeneous users who shared a short history and showed little understanding of TDF and low dependence on its resources seemed to explain why ejidos have not been able to share a sense of community that would shape the construction of institutions for the collective management of forest resources. However...

‣ Land Conflicts and Cooperatives along Pune's Highways: Managing India's Agrarian to Urban Transition

Balakrishnan, Sai Swarna
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The past ten years has been a decade of land wars in India. Rapid urbanization is spilling beyond city boundaries into the highways connecting large cities, instigating a frenzied consolidation and conversion of agricultural lands into urban/industrial lands. This process is fraught with conflict, as different social groups compete to stake their claims on the land value increments - the increases in land value due to the change in land use from agricultural to non-agricultural - of these newly converted highway lands. Against the backdrop of conflictual land consolidation processes, this dissertation examines the unique case of the Pune highways, located in the state of Maharashtra in India. Along some of Pune’s highways, agrarian landowners – sometimes voluntarily and sometimes with the mediation of bureaucrats – are pooling their fragmented agricultural lands, converting them to urban and industrial lands, and forming collective institutions of land ownership to own and control these newly converted highway lands. In other words, agrarian landowners along these highways are not being displaced from their lands. Instead, they are capturing some or all of the land value increments, and are benefiting from the urban transition. I examine the conditions that made these collective institutions possible in the Pune region...

‣ Formas de ação coletiva: reflexões a partir dos conflitos por terra em Magé, RJ; Forms of collective action: thoughts on the land disputes in Magé, Rio de Janeiro

Teixeira, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/10/2015 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2015v14n30p27Este trabalho analisa as formas de ação coletiva empregadas por um grupo de trabalhadores ruraispara conquistarem a desapropriação das terras onde viviam. A análise se baseia nos conflitos porterra envolvendo posseiros e grileiros da gleba América Fabril e Fazenda Conceição de Suruí, emMagé, no Rio de Janeiro. A maior parte da disputa – entre 1960 e 1970 – foi durante o regimecivil-militar, período considerado por parte dos estudiosos como de desmobilização política. Ocaso analisado se destaca entre os demais conflitos fundiários da época porque os trabalhadoresrurais conseguiram a desapropriação das terras em 1973 e 1974, respectivamente, e estas foramas únicas desapropriações decorrentes de conflitos no estado entre o golpe de 1964 e o fim dosanos 1970 que têm registro até o momento.  ; This paper aims to discuss certain forms of collective action used by a group of rural workers whowere threatened with eviction of the land they lived in. The analysis is based on land conflictsinvolving settlers and grabbers of two farmlands: América Fabril and Fazenda Conceição de Suruí,both in Magé, a district in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the dispute - between 1960 and1970 – was during the civil-military dictatorship...

‣ Individual Land Tenure and the Challenges of Sustainable Land Use and Management in a Semi-arid Region of China; Individual Land Tenure and the Challenges of Sustainable Land Use and Management in a Semi-arid Region of China

Zhao, Yongjun; University of Groningen
Fonte: Editora de Livros IABS Publicador: Editora de Livros IABS
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2010 Português
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China’s farmland tenure, characterised by a household responsibility system (HRS) and collective landownership, has contributed to the continuation of poverty and natural resource deterioration in semiarid regions. Incongruent with local ecological, social and political conditions, the HRS has been linked to rising social and political tensions. Drawing on ethnographic research in Guyuan County, North China, this paper provides peasants’ experiences of and views on the land issue and examines the linkages between land tenure, poverty and the governance of natural resources—grassland, forest land, farmland and water. It shows that an appropriate land tenure system can only be achieved if the fragmentation and individualization of the HRS are reformed through an innovative institutional design. The paper also contributes to a critical understanding of China’s agrarian reform by articulating the need for land tenure diversity serving the overall goal of sustainable land use and management and shaping sound statepeasant relations.; China’s farmland tenure, characterised by a household responsibility system (HRS) and collective landownership, has contributed to the continuation of poverty and natural resource deterioration in semiarid regions. Incongruent with local ecological...

‣ African indigenous land rights in a private ownership paradigm

Plessis,WJ du
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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It is often stated that indigenous law confers no property rights in land. Okoth-Ogenda reconceptualised indigenous land rights by debunking the myth that indigenous land rights systems are necessarily "communal" in nature, that "ownership" is collective and that the community as an entity makes collective decisions about the access and use of land.1 He offers a different understanding of indigenous land rights systems by looking at the social order of communities that create "reciprocal rights and obligations that this binds together, and vests power in the community members over land". To determine who will be granted access to or exercise control over land and the resources, one needs to look at these rights and obligations and the performances that arise from them. This will leave only two distinct questions: who may have access to the land (and what type of access)2 and who may control and manage the land resources on behalf of those who have access to it?3 There is a link with this reconceptualisation and the discourse of the commons. Os-trom's classification of goods leads to a definition of the commons (or common pool of resources) as "a class of resources for which exclusion is difficult and joint use involves subtractablity".4 The questions this article wishes to answer are: would it firstly be possible to classify the indigenous land rights system as a commons...

‣ Family and collective logics in land reform settlements in Unai (Minais Gerais State, Brazil)

Sabourin,Eric; Oliveira,Marcelo Nascimento de; Xavier,José Humberto Valadares
Fonte: Estudos Sociedade e Agricultura Publicador: Estudos Sociedade e Agricultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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The public policy of agrarian reform in Brazil still gives priority to collective organization of the settlement, of the services and even of the agricultural production. This collective logic is promoted and institutionalized both by the State and the agrarian reform movements. Paradoxically, the settlement is based on the concession of individual land plots to a public formed mostly by former wage-earners, in the context of the promotion of family-based economic enterprises. This paper analyzes the origins and consequences of the interaction between these logics, focusing the case of land reform settlements of the municipality of Unaí, in the state of Minas Gerais. There is a tension between the individual interest of "the new land-owner", the logic of the family and the collective logic dependent on the modalities of public policy. The obligation of familiar or communitarian solidarity is fed by the precariousness of the settlement process and by the unifying ideology and human values. The results in Unaí teach us that: a) the budgets and the instruments of public policy for agrarian reform are not adapted or suitable, and may become contradictory and lead to conflicts; b) in spite of such conditions and institutional environment...