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‣ Um modelo de processo de apoio ao desenvolvimento de software baseado em componentes, orientado a qualidade, e centrado em um repositório. ; A quality oriented repository-centred process model to support component-based software development.

Faria, Henrique Rocha de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2005 Português
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A Engenharia de Software Baseada em Componentes (ESBC) envolve os processos de desenvolvimento de software a partir de partes embutidas prontas, a fim de se obter produtividade, reduzindo-se custos e tempo de lançamento no mercado, garantindo (e melhorando) a qualidade intrínseca de produtos de software, bem como flexibilidade de implementação, manutenção e integração de sistemas. O ciclo de vida de um componente de software, projetado para uma determinada arquitetura, para ser reutilizado e reciclado dentro de uma infra-estrutura de componentes, e para satisfazer atributos de qualidade, dependerá de um ambiente que permita que seu código evolua de maneira controlada; que suas interfaces sejam publicadas através de documentos; e que seus artefatos estejam sempre acessíveis por partes interessadas, como desenvolvedores, projetistas e arquitetos de software, gerentes de projeto, usuários etc. Isto sugere a organização de um processo que apóie a reutilização de componentes através de um repositório comum, justificando esforços de se projetar, implementar, testar e instalar estes componentes em diferentes soluções. Este trabalho tem a intenção de definir e descrever, através da linguagem e dos elementos de um meta-modelo...

‣ A case study of concurrent engineering application on the development of parts for the white goods industry in Brazil

Canciglieri Jr., Osiris; De Sampaio, R. J B; Kovalchuk, J. P B; De Souza, Teófilo Miguel
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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This classical way to manage product development processes for massive production seems to be changing: high pressure for cost reduction, higher quality standards, markets reaching for innovation lead to the necessity of new tools for development control. Into this, and learning from the automotive and aerospace industries factories from other segments are starting to understand and apply manufacturing and assembly oriented projects to ease the task of generate goods and from this obtain at least a part of the expected results. This paper is intended to demonstrate the applicability of the concepts of Concurrent Engineering and DFM/DFA (Design for Manufacturing and Assembly) in the development of products and parts for the White Goods industry in Brazil (major appliances as refrigerators, cookers and washing machines), showing one case concerning the development and releasing of a component. Finally is demonstrated in a short term how was reached a solution that could provide cost savings and reduction on the time to delivery using those techniques.

‣ Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Photochemical Efficiency of Photosystem II in the Adaxial and Abaxial Parts of the Succulent Leaves of Kalanchoë daigremontiana Grown at Four Photon Flux Densities 1

Winter, Klaus; Awender, Gabriele
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1989 Português
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Kalanchoë daigremontiana, a species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism, was grown at four photon flux densities (1300, 400, 60, and 25 micromole photons per square meter per second). In leaves which had developed at 1300 and 400 micromole photons per square meter per second, CO2 was mainly incorporated through the lower, shaded leaf surfaces, and the chlorenchyma adjacent to the lower surfaces showed a higher degree of nocturnal acid synthesis than the chlorenchyma adjacent to the upper surfaces. In leaves acclimated to 60 and 25 micromole photons per square meter per second, the gradient in CAM activity was reversed, i.e. more CO2 was taken up through the upper than through the lower surfaces and nocturnal acidification was higher in the tissue next to the upper surfaces. Total net carbon gain and total nocturnal acid synthesis were highest in leaves which had developed at 400 micromole photons per square meter per second. Chlorophyll content was markedly reduced in leaves which had developed at 1300 micromole photons per square meter per second, especially in the exposed adaxial parts. There was also a sustained reduction in photosystem II photochemical efficiency as indicated by measurements of the ratio of variable over maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence. These findings suggest that...

‣ A QUANTITATIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL THEORY OF THE ELECTROLYTE PERMEABILITY OF MOSAIC MEMBRANES COMPOSED OF SELECTIVELY ANION-PERMEABLE AND SELECTIVELY CATION-PERMEABLE PARTS, AND ITS EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION : II. A QUANTITATIVE TEST OF THE THEORY IN MODEL SYSTEMS WHICH DO NOT INVOLVE THE USE OF AUXILIARY ELECTRODES

Neihof, Rex; Sollner, Karl
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/1955 Português
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The theory of the electrolyte permeability of mosaic membranes composed of ideally anion-selective and ideally cation-selective parts in juxtaposition is tested in a model which consists of an all-electrolytic cyclic arrangement of four component parts: dilute solution/anion-selective membrane/concentrated solution/cation-selective membrane/dilute solution. In this system cations move from the concentrated to the dilute solution across the cation-selective membrane and an equivalent number of anions move through the anion-selective membrane. This movement of ions corresponds to a flow of current in the system. According to the theory, the number of equivalents of electrolyte which penetrate in any given time across the membranes must be identical with the number of faradays of electricity which flow during the same period. The system is essentially a combination of two menbrane-concentration cells arranged in series in a short-circuited state without the presence of electrodes. Experimentally the magnitude of the current was determined by measuring with probe electrodes the potential across an element of the circuit whose resistance was known and constant. The number of faradays of electricity (determined from time-current data) flowing in the system during a measured time was compared with the analytically determined number of equivalents of electrolyte which moved across the membranes during the same period. In a variety of experimental systems the two values show a 1:1 ratio with a mean deviation of ± 1.8 per cent.

‣ Global shape processing: Which parts form the whole?

Bell, Jason; Hancock, Sarah; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.; Peirce, Jonathan W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2010 Português
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Research suggests that detection of low-frequency radial frequency (RF) patterns involves global shape processing and that points of maximum curvature (corners) contribute more than points of minimum curvature (sides). However, this has only been tested with stimuli presented at the threshold of discriminability from a circle. We used RF pattern adaptation to (a) examine whether a supra-threshold RF pattern is processed as a global shape and (b) determine what the critical features are for representing its shape. We measured the perceived amplitude shift of an RF test pattern after prolonged exposure either to a higher amplitude pattern or to various combinations of its parts (concave maxima, convex maxima, inflections). We found greater shifts in perceived amplitude after adaptation to a “whole” pattern than after adaptation to its component parts, which alternated to produce equal net contrast. Furthermore, when adapting to specific parts of the shape in isolation, we found that each part generated a similar magnitude aftereffect. Although the whole is clearly greater than the sum of the parts, we find that concave maxima, convex maxima, and inflections contribute equally to global shape processing, a fact that is only apparent when using a supra-threshold appearance-based task.

‣ Engineering robust control of two-component system phosphotransfer using modular scaffolds

Whitaker, Weston R.; Davis, Stephanie A.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dueber, John E.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Synthetic biology applies engineering principles to facilitate the predictable design of biological systems. Biological systems composed of modular parts with clearly defined interactions are generally easier to manipulate than complex systems exhibiting a large number of subtle interactions. However, recreating the function of a naturally complex system with simple modular parts can increase fragility. Here, inspired by scaffold-directed signaling in higher organisms, we modularize prokaryotic signal transduction to allow programmable redirection of phosphate flux from a histidine kinase to response regulators based on targeting by eukaryotic protein–protein interaction domains. Although scaffold-directed colocalization alone was sufficient to direct signaling between components, this minimal system suffered from high sensitivity to changing expression levels of each component. To address this fragility, we demonstrate how to engineer autoinhibition into the kinase so that phosphotransfer is possible only upon binding to the scaffold. This system, in which scaffold performs the dual functions of activating this autoinhibited kinase and directing flux to the cotargeted response regulator, was significantly more robust to varying component concentrations. Thus...

‣ The Dilemma of Choosing a Reference Character for Measuring Sexual Size Dimorphism, Sexual Body Component Dimorphism, and Character Scaling: Cryptic Dimorphism and Allometry in the Scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis

Fox, Gerad A.; Cooper, Allen M.; Hayes, William K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/03/2015 Português
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Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions...

‣ A Standard Parts List for Biological Circuitry

Arkin, Adam P; Endy, Drew
Fonte: DARPA White Paper Publicador: DARPA White Paper
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 36833 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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One of the hallmarks of biochemical circuits found in nature is analog, asymmetric, asynchronous design. That is, there is little standardization of parts, e.g. all the promoters have different strengths and kinetics, transcription factors are designed to have different effects at different loci, and each enzymatic reaction has its own idiosyncratic mechanism and rates. In addition, all of the heterogeneous circuit elements are executing their functions concurrently and asynchronously. Biological circuits are seemingly designed to deal with the fluctuating delays, different time-scales and energy requirements associated with each component process of the overall network. These factors also make design of novel biochemical circuitry from existent parts difficult to achieve. Without standardization, the qualitative design methods used in other engineering fields are simply inapplicable. The de facto design methodology for biological circuitry is natural selection. Rational design of biological systems by humans has remained restricted to rather small or hit-or-miss efforts and has often relied on the ability to "select" for biochemical parts that fulfill some criteria. In practice however biological-designers are rare, and solutions are usually realized through an expensive stepwise trial and error approach or through mutation and selection. Furthermore...

‣ Income Risk, Income Mobility and Welfare

Krebs, Tom; Krishna, Pravin; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper develops a framework for the quantitative analysis of individual income dynamics, mobility and welfare. Individual income is assumed to follow a stochastic process with two (unobserved) components, component representing measurement error or transitory income shocks and an Autoregressive (AR(1)) component representing persistent changes in income. The analysis uses a tractable consumption-saving model with labor income risk and incomplete markets to relate income dynamics to consumption and welfare, and derive analytical expressions for income mobility and welfare as a function of the various parameters of the underlying income process. The empirical application of the framework using data on individual incomes from Mexico provides striking results. Much of measured income mobility is driven by measurement error or transitory income shocks and therefore (almost) welfare-neutral. A smaller part of measured income mobility is due to either welfare-reducing income risk or welfare-enhancing catching-up of low-income individuals with high-income individuals...

‣ A complex systems approach to important biological problems.

Berryman, Matthew John
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 319443 bytes; 2941665 bytes; 344632 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Complex systems are those which exhibit one or more of the following inter-related behaviours: 1. Nonlinear behaviour: the component parts do not act in linear ways, that is the superposition of the actions of the parts is not the output of the system. 2. Emergent behaviour: the output of the system may be inexpressible in terms of the rules or equations of the component parts. 3. Self-organisation: order appears from the chaotic interactions of individuals and the rules they obey. 4. Layers of description: in which a rule may apply at some higher levels of description but not at lower layers. 5. Adaptation: in which the environment becomes encoded in the rules governing the structure and/or behaviour of the parts (in this case strictly agents) that undergo selection in which those that are by some measure better become more numerous than those that are not as “fit”. A single cell is a complex system: we cannot explain all of its behaviour as simply the sum of its parts. Similarly, DNA structures, social networks, cancers, the brain, and living beings are intricate complex systems. This thesis tackles all of these topics from a complex systems approach. I have skirted some of the philosophical issues of complex systems and mainly focussed on appropriate tools to analyse these systems...

‣ A method for computing lower confidence limits on system reliability using component failure data with unequal sample sizes

Borsting, Jack Raymond; Woods, W. Max
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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A method is presented for constructing system reliability using component failure data when the sample sizes for testing on the component parts differ greatly. The procedure can be applied to weapons systems as easily as subsystems. No assumptions about failure distributions are made. The accuracy of the procedure was examined by computer simulations and in this manner the procedure has demonstrated high accuracy for cases of practical interest.

‣ A method for computing series system reliability with unequal component sample sizes

Borsting, Jack Raymond; Woods, W. Max
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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A method is presented for constructing system reliability using component failure data when the sample sizes for testing on the component parts differ greatly. The procedure can be applied to weapons systems as easily as subsystems. No assumptions about failure distributions are made. The accuracy of the procedure was examined by computer simulations and in this manner the procedure has demonstrated high accuracy for cases of practical interest.

‣ An assessment of critical factors affecting the selection of various acquisition alternatives used to resolve component nonavailability

O'Day, Sean P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The ability to maintain and sustain the Army during peacetime operations and wartime utilization requirements, depends greatly on the availability of repair and space parts. The readiness of aging systems in the Army's inventory is threatened by the component nonavailability problems. This thesis focuses on situations in which contracting officers and items managers are faced with critical factors affecting their decisions as to which acquisition alternative they chose. This study identifies and defines the component nonavailability issues, discusses why they occur, reviews current spare parts acquisition techniques, presents advantages and disadvantages associated with each acquisition alternative, and discusses and analyzes the critical factors that affect the decision making process. The researcher also proposes the use of the Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program to address the problems of high costs, growing leadtimes, and diminishing sources for spare parts.; http://archive.org/details/assessmentofcrit00oday; Captain, United States Army

‣ Influence of cognition on product component country of origin evaluation

Karunaratna, A.; Quester, P.
Fonte: MCB University Press Publicador: MCB University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how need for cognition (NFC), a personality trait, influenced the way consumers used information about product components in forming overall evaluations of motor vehicles. Design/methodology/approach – The study used interviews from a convenience sample of 445 visitors to a motor vehicle show over a three-day period using a choice-based conjoint analysis study design. Findings – The NFC scale used in this study focused on abstract thinking. Results showed that consumers' responses to components from different countries changed their overall purchase intentions, and nationalism appeared to play a strong role in consumer attitudes to components. Consumers exhibiting high levels of NFC were more engaged in more complex assessment of the country of origin (COO) cue in their product evaluation than those who have less NFC. Practical implications – Manufacturers sourcing components from low labour cost countries need to be cautious. Even trusted brands may be sullied by components sourced from countries with negative stereotypes. Originality/value – Research on product component systems and the use of choice-based conjoint analysis in this context are novel contributions to COO research.; Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited

‣ Regulated Efficiency, World Trade Organization Accession, and the Motor Vehicle Sector in China

Francois, Joseph F.; Spinanger, Dean
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
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This article is concerned with the interaction of regulated efficiency and World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and its impact on China's motor vehicle sector. The analysis is conducted using a 23 sector-25 region computable general equilibrium model. Regulatory reform and internal restructuring are found to be critical. Restructuring is represented by a cost reduction following from consolidation and rationalization that moves costs toward global norms. Without restructuring, WTO accession means a surge of final imports, though imports of parts could well fall as production moves offshore. However, with restructuring, the final assembly industry can be made competitive by world standards, with a strengthened position for the industry.

‣ Method to obtain hybrid rapid tools with elementary component assembly

RIVETTE, Mickaël; MOGNOL, Pascal; HASCOET, Jean-Yves
Fonte: emerald Publicador: emerald
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M. Rivette, P. Mognol, J.Y. Hascoet, (2013) "Method to obtain hybrid rapid tools with elementary component assembly", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp.77 - 87 DOI : 10.1108/13552541311302923; Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to obtain hybrid rapid tools with elementary component assembly. Design/methodology/approach – The authors' method proposes a functional representational model, starting with the product features, analyzed from three points of view: a feasibility analysis; a manufacturing analysis; and an assembly and synthesis analysis. This method, based on CAD STEP AP-224 data, makes it possible to obtain an exhaustive list of solutions for the module. The work is illustrated with an industrial example. To construct the Assembly Identity Card (AIC) and test the various parameters that influence the quality of the injected parts, a hybrid injection mold has been produced. The methodology associated with the use of this AIC uses a “representation graph”, which makes it possible to propose a set of valid solutions for assembling the various tooling modules. This method is validated by industrial example. Findings – The product part is decomposed into a multi-component prototype (MCP)...

‣ Biochemical characterization of the component parts of intestinal mucin from patients with cystic fibrosis.

Mantle, M; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1984 Português
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Previous studies have shown that human small-intestinal mucin consists of high-Mr glycoproteins and a smaller S-S-bonded protein of 118 kDa. The major antigenic determinants of the mucin were associated with the large glycoproteins, but depended for stability on intact disulphide bonds, and were destroyed by digestion with Pronase. In the present study we isolated and analysed the component parts of mucin from patients with cystic fibrosis with special attention being paid to the peptide constituents. After reduction with 0.2 M-beta-mercaptoethanol [5 min, 100 degrees C in 1% SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)], the large glycoproteins and smaller peptide with an apparent molecular size of 118 kDa were separated by equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation in CsCl, Sepharose 4B chromatography or preparative SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The large glycoproteins contained about 70% of the protein of the native mucin. Digestion with Pronase resulted in a further loss of 'naked' protein (10% of the native mucin protein) from the C-terminal end of the glycoprotein peptide core, and left behind highly glycosylated proteins comprised mainly (70 mol%) of threonine, serine and proline. The 118 kDa component, which contained about 30% of the native mucin protein...

‣ Principal component analysis of two ultraviolet emission-lines in 18 active galactic nuclei

Turler, Marc; Courvoisier, Thierry J. -L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/1997 Português
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We apply a principal component analysis (PCA) to the spectra of each of the 18 Seyfert 1-like objects observed more than 15 times by the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE) from 1978 until the end of 1991. PCA allows us to decompose the Lyman alpha and the C IV (1549 A) emission-lines of each object into two components with uncorrelated variations. We find that the principal component describes correlated continuum and line variations, whereas the rest component reveals the line-parts that do not vary in tune with the continuum. A cross-correlation analysis in NGC 5548 reveals that variable line features in the rest component follow the continuum by about 25 days. The symmetry usually observed in the component's line profiles excludes that the velocity field of the line-emitting region is dominated by radial motion. In some objects, the principal component reveals a clearly double-peaked line profile. The results suggest that the variable line feature in the principal and the rest component is respectively emitted in the inner and outer parts of an extended broad-line region (BLR). The fraction of the line that varies together with the continuum seems to decrease significantly with increasing luminosity. We interpret this trend as a consequence of a larger BLR in more luminous objects. Finally...

‣ Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) Fruit Characterization Using Principal Component Analysis

Silva, Branca M.; Andrade, Paula B.; Martins, Rui C.; Valentão, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M.; Ferreira, Margarida A.
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
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12 pages, 4 figures, 6 tables.-- Printed version published 2005.; This paper presents a large amount of data on the composition of quince fruit with regard to phenolic compounds, organic acids, and free amino acids. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried out to characterize this fruit. The main purposes of this study were (i) the clarification of the interactions among three factorsquince fruit part, geographical origin of the fruits, and harvesting yearand the phenolic, organic acid, and free amino acid profiles; (ii) the classification of the possible differences; and (iii) the possible correlation among the contents of phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids in quince fruit. With these aims, quince pulp and peel from nine geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in three consecutive years, for a total of 48 samples, were studied. PCA was performed to assess the relationship among the different components of quince fruit phenolics, organic acids, and free amino acids. Phenolics determination was the most interesting. The difference between pulp and peel phenolic profiles was more apparent during PCA. Two PCs accounted for 81.29% of the total variability, PC1 (74.14%) and PC2 (7.15%). PC1 described the difference between the contents of caffeoylquinic acids (3-O-...

‣ Principal Component Analysis to study spatial variability of errors in the INSAT derived quantitative precipitation estimates over Indian monsoon region

ROY BHOWMIK,S. K.; SEN ROY,S.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 Português
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In this paper, Principal Component Analysis has been applied to investigate the spatial variability of errors in the INSAT derived quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) over the Indian monsoon region, using daily rainfall analysis (at the same resolution) for the period from 1 June to 30 August of summer monsoon 2001. The study shows that the QPE errors have certain spatial variability. The orographic rainfall is significantly underestimated along the Western Ghats and along the foothills of the Himalayas, where the root mean square errors are also very large. Otherwise, the performance of the QPE is reasonably good over the rest of the region. The first principal component, which explains about 5.1% of the variance, corresponds to the onset phase of the monsoon during June, when strong positive loadings dominate over the southern parts of the country. The second principal component explaining about 4.2% of the variance, has strong positive loading in the intermittent presence of the monsoon low pressure system over the east central parts of the country. The third principal component which explains 3.3% of the variance is associated with the monsoon trough at the normal position, and the fourth principal component which explains 3.1% of the variance is associated with the monsoon trough at the southern position.