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‣ Study of utilization of petrol engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and catalytic converter to reduce consumption and NOx emission

De Araújo Porto, Fernando Silva; Bailona, Baltazar Agenor; Camargo, José Rui; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella; Lukasiunas, Marco Donizeti
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.974478%
Study of consumption rate and gaseous pollutant emission from engine tests simulating real work conditions, using spark point manually controlled and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diverse proportion levels. The objective of this work is to re-examine the potential of the EGR conception, a well-known method of combustion control, employed together electronic fuel injection and three-way catalytic converter closed-loop control at a spark ignition engine, verifying the performance characteristics and technical availability of this conception to improve pollution control, fuel economy at low torque drive condition and to improve the engine exhaust components useful life. The pollutant emissions and consumption levels under operational conditions simulations were analysed and compared with the expected by concerning theory and real tests performed by EGR equipped engines by factory. Copyright © 2006 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

‣ Distributional Impact Analysis of the Energy Price Reform in Turkey

Zhang, Fan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.048975%
A pricing reform in Turkey increased the residential electricity tariff by more than 50 percent in 2008. The reform, aimed at encouraging energy efficiency and private investment, sparked considerable policy debate about its potential impact on household welfare. This paper estimates a short-run residential electricity demand function for evaluating the distributional consequences of the tariff reform. The model allows heterogeneity in household price sensitivities and is estimated using a national sample of 18,671 Turkish households. The model also addresses the common problem of missing data in survey research. The study reveals a highly skewed distribution of price elasticities in the population, with rich households three times more responsive in adjusting consumption to price changes than the poor. This is most likely because the poor are close to their minimum electricity consumption levels and have fewer coping options. In addition, the welfare loss of the poorest quintile -- measured by the consumer surplus change as a percentage of income -- is 2.9 times of that of the wealthiest.

‣ Methods of Household Consumption Measurement Through Surveys : Experimental Results from Tanzania

Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Friedman, Jed; Gibson, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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47.22288%
Consumption expenditure has long been the preferred measure of household living standards. However, accurate measurement is a challenge and household expenditure surveys vary widely across many dimensions, including the level of reporting, the length of the reference period, and the degree of commodity detail. These variations occur both across countries and also over time within countries. There is little current understanding of the implications of such changes for spatially and temporally consistent measurement of household consumption and poverty. A field experiment in Tanzania tests eight alternative methods to measure household consumption on a sample of 4,000 households. There are significant differences between consumption reported by the benchmark personal diary and other diary and recall formats. Under-reporting is particularly relevant in illiterate households and for urban respondents completing household diaries; recall modules measure lower consumption than a personal diary, with larger gaps among poorer households and households with more adult members. Variations in reporting accuracy by household characteristics are also discussed and differences in measured poverty as a result of survey design are explored. The study concludes with recommendations for methods of survey based consumption measurement in low-income countries.

‣ Social Impacts of Climate Change in Bolivia : A Municipal Level Analysis of the Effects of Recent Climate Change on Life Expectancy, Consumption, Poverty and Inequality

Andersen, Lykke E.; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.719287%
This paper analyzes the direct evidence of climate change in Bolivia during the past 60 years, and estimates how these changes have affected life expectancy and consumption levels for each of the 311 municipalities in Bolivia. Contrary to the predictions of most general circulation models, the evidence shows a consistent cooling trend of about 0.2°C per decade over all highland areas, slight and scattered evidence of warming in the lowlands, and no systematic changes in precipitation. The estimations indicate that the 1°C cooling experienced in the already cold highlands over the past five decades likely has reduced consumption possibilities by about 2-3 percent in these areas. Since the much richer population in the lowlands have benefitted slightly from recent climate change, the simulations suggest that recent climate change has contributed to an increase in inequality and poverty in Bolivia. Poor and indigenous peoples in the highlands are among the most severely affected populations. No statistically significant effect on life expectancy was found.

‣ Local Elections and Consumption Insurance : Evidence from Chinese Villages

Gan, Li; Xu, Lixin Colin; Yao, Yang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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47.08815%
While the literature on consumption insurance is growing fast, little research has been conducted on how rural consumption insurance is affected by democracy. In this paper the authors examine how consumption insurance of Chinese rural residents is affected if the local leader is democratically elected. Exploring a unique panel data set of 1,400 households from 1987 to 2002, they find that consumption insurance is more complete when the households are in villages with elected village leaders. Furthermore, democracy improves consumption insurance only for the poor and middle-income farmers, but not for the rich. These findings underline the importance of democratic governance for ensuring better rural consumption insurance and poverty reduction.

‣ Tracking Poverty over Time in the Absence of Comparable Consumption Data

Stifel, David; Christiaensen, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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47.023115%
Following the endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals, there is an increasing demand for methods to track poverty regularly. This paper develops an economically intuitive and inexpensive methodology to do so in the absence of regular, comparable data on household consumption. The minimum data requirements for the methodology are the availability of a household budget survey and a series of surveys with a comparable set of asset data also contained in the budget survey. The methodology is illustrated using a series of Demographic Health Surveys from Kenya.

‣ Adult Mortality and Consumption Growth in the Age of HIV/AIDS

Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Dercon, Stefan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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47.16982%
The authors use a 13-year panel of individuals in Tanzania to assess how adult mortality shocks affect both short and long-run consumption growth of surviving household members. Using unique data which tracks individuals from 1991 to 2004, they examine consumption growth, controlling for a set of initial community, household and individual characteristics. The effect is identified using the sample of households in 2004 which grew out of baseline households. The authors find robust evidence that an affected household will see consumption drop 7 percent within the first five years after the adult death. With high growth in the sample over this time period, this creates a 19 percentage point growth gap with the average household. There is some evidence of persistent effects of these shocks for up to 13 years, but these effects are imprecisely estimated and not significantly different from zero. The impact of female adult death is found to be particularly severe.

‣ The Impact of the Food Price Crisis on Consumption and Caloric Availability in Pakistan : Evidence from Repeated Cross-sectional and Panel Data

Friedman, Jed; Hong, Seo Yeon; Hou, Xiaohui
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76171%
Welfare losses from the 2008 food price crisis in Pakistan are deepening the gap between poor and non poor populations and further increasing inequality between the provinces. To estimate welfare losses, the reduction in caloric availability at household level is measured. The analysis of calorie intake by source supports the notion that rural households were shielded from the worst effects of the crisis by their capacity to grow their own food. Compensating variation estimates suggest that the average household would need 38 percent of its total precrisis expenditure to maintain precrisis consumption levels. The impact of the food price crisis (measured as the percentage of total expenditure required to restore consumption to the precrisis level) peaked at the end of 2008 to twice as high as at the start of the year. Average household caloric availability fell by almost 8 percent between 2006 and first half of 2008. Urban households were relatively worse off than rural households during the crisis. Income gains from sales of agricultural commodities produced by rural households presumably offset the negative impact of the food crisis to some degree. The drawdown of assets over 2008-10 was another important coping mechanism...

‣ Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.828013%
Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It then considers the welfare effects o f raising tariffs, with particular attention to the poor and other vulnerable groups. It concludes with potential links to agriculture, the environment, and stakeholder analysis.

‣ Explaining the Last Consumption Boom-Bust Cycle in Ireland : The Role of News and Noise Shocks

Diaz Sanchez, Jose Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.818887%
The objective of the paper is to explain the last boom and bust in consumption in Ireland by the failure of consumers to correctly distinguish permanent changes in productivity from temporary changes. It uses a business cycle model, where agents update their beliefs about long-run productivity using information -that they receive continuously- about the future state of the economy. The analysis finds that a large and prolonged disconnect between consumption and long-run productivity occurred in the years leading to the economic crisis, which led to -- over-consumption -- for several quarters. A strong downward adjustment in 2008 followed when Irish consumers finally realized their mistake.

‣ Does Livestock Ownership Affect Animal Source Foods Consumption and Child Nutritional Status? Evidence from Rural Uganda

Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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47.023115%
In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food consumption patterns and nutritional outcomes may be affected by livestock ownership in rural Uganda. The results are suggestive that promoting (small) livestock ownership has the potential to affect human nutrition in rural Uganda, but further research is needed to estimate more precisely the direction and size of these effects.

‣ Micro vs. macro consumption data : the cyclical properties of the consumer expenditure survey

Campos, Rodolfo G.; Reggio, Iliana; García-Píriz, Dionisio
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/07/2012 Português
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46.839067%
The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX) offers the most comprehensive consumption data at the consumer level for the United States. Several previous studies have shown a large gap between per-capita consumption from the CEX and the aggregate Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) series. While previous research has focused on consumption levels, we focus on the cyclical properties of consumption. We find that the cyclical properties of consumption expenditure data from the two sources are quantitatively very different. This result calls for caution when using CEX data for business cycle research.; This paper has benefited from comments by Thijs van Rens and by the audiences at Universidad de Vigo and at the Econometric Society European Meetings in Oslo, 2011. Paloma Corrales Asensio provided research assistance. Campos and Reggio gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (Grants ECO2009-13169 and ECO2009-11165).

‣ Micro versus macro consumption data: the cyclical properties of the consumer expenditure survey

Campos, Rodolfo G.; Reggio, Iliana; García-Píriz, Dionisio
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.839067%
The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX) offers the most comprehensive consumption data at the consumer level for the United States. Several previous studies have shown a large gap between per-capita consumption from the CEX and the aggregate Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) series. While previous research has focused on consumption levels, we focus on the cyclical properties of consumption. We find that the cyclical properties of consumption expenditure data from the two sources are quantitatively very different. This result calls for caution when using CEX data for business cycle research; Campos and Reggio gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (Grants ECO2009-13169 and ECO2009-11165)

‣ Agricultural commodity consumption trends in China - areas of interest to Australia

Wright, Angela
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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47.048735%
China's recent rapid economic growth has led to increasing urbanisation and higher per capita incomes in both urban and rural areas. This increasing affluence has led to changing patterns in . Rural diets tend to include much higher quantities of grains than urban diets which contain more protein based foods such as meat and dairy products. The growing urban population has created a shift in consumer demand towards foods that are protein-rich, higher quality, safe and convenient. Convenience and storability are also important to the increasing amount of busy urban consumers, particularly those who own refrigerators and have less time to go shopping. The agricultural commodities analysed in this report are malting barley, dairy and beef. There appears to be a relationship between higher consumer incomes and higher per capita consumption of these commodities and urbanisation plays a key role in the demand and consumption of each. The demand for malting barley used in beer production has risen over time as beer production in China has increased. Domestic production has not been able to keep up with demand therefore imports of malting barley are following an increasing trend. However, the implementation of a malting barley production framework in 2003 is likely to increase domestic production but not to the level of domestic requirements of malting barley. Therefore...

‣ Moderating Risks, Bolstering Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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47.0327%
Half a year ago, Russia's economic prospects looked uncertain. The global economy was losing momentum, the expansion in the euro area was grinding to a halt and commodity prices were beginning to fall. Yet, while output growth is slowing this year in line with weaker growth in Europe and elsewhere, Russia's latest economy performance has been solid, though aided by favorable oil prices. The economy returned to the pre-crisis peak towards the end of last year, supported by strong consumption, as growth held steady at the same rate as in 2010. In 2011, measured in current dollars, Russia's economy was the ninth biggest in the world, compared to the eleventh biggest in 2007. This year, Russia's output might exceed US$2 trillion. Equalizing for prices difference with purchasing power parity, Russia's economy is already the sixth biggest today. The current account looks strong thanks to a large surplus in the trade balance, and the Central Bank of Russia added again in 2011 to its stock of foreign reserves. Employment returned to pre-crisis levels even earlier than output...

‣ An Alternative Unifying Measure of Welfare Gains from Risk-Sharing

Auffret, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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47.15533%
Following Lucas's (1987) standard approach, welfare gains from international risk-sharing have been measured as the percentage increase in consumption levels that leaves individuals indifferent between, autarky and risk-sharing. The author proposes to measure welfare gains as the increase in consumption growth, instead of consumption levels. When the consumption process is non-stationary, the author's proposed measure has several attractive features: it does not depend on the horizon, and it is robust to alternative specifications of the consumption stochastic processes (from geometric Brownian processes, to Orstein-Ulhenbeck mean-reverting processes), and preferences (from constant relative risk aversion preferences to Kreps-Porteus preferences). The author then uses this measure to estimate potential welfare gains from international risk-sharing for a representative U.S. consumer. The author finds that if international risk-sharing leads only to a complete elimination of aggregate consumption volatility (with no impact on consumption growth)...

‣ Does Energy Consumption Respond to Price Shocks? Evidence from a Regression-Discontinuity Design

Bastos, Paulo; Castro, Lucio; Cristia, Julian; Scartascini, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.839067%
This paper exploits unique features of a recently introduced tariff schedule for natural gas in Buenos Aires to estimate the short-run impact of price shocks on residential energy utilization. The schedule induces a nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between households' accumulated consumption and unit prices, thus generating exogenous price variation, which is exploited in a regression-discontinuity design. The results reveal that a price increase causes a prompt and significant decline in gas consumption. They also indicate that consumers respond more to recent past bills than to expected prices, which argues against the assumption that consumers have perfect awareness of complex price schedules.

‣ Guatemala - Poverty assessment : good performance at low levels; Guatemala - Evaluacion de la pobreza : buen desempeno a bajo nivel

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.153833%
This report is organized into three sections with seven chapters. The first section assesses poverty levels and changes over time within Guatemala and compares both the levels and changes to those of other countries. It summarizes the overall conditions and changes in Guatemala (chapter one); presents the country's poverty profile and analyzes the evolution of poverty over time and space using monetary and non-monetary indicators, population changes and inequality (chapter two); and benchmarks Guatemala's social progress against other countries in the region and the world (chapter three). The second section analyzes social programs and considers how existing policies and programs could improve their impact on poverty. It highlights some of the key features of social programs in education, health, and social assistance (chapter four); and estimates the potential impact of an expansion of a conditional cash transfer program on poverty (chapter five). The third section focuses on the sources of income of the poor. It documents the evolution of the sources of income examines regional specific characteristics that promote or hinder households potentials (chapter six); and carries out a preliminary analysis of shocks and vulnerability influencing household wellbeing covering the impact of hurricane Stan...

‣ On the Inefficiency of Inequality

Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.14656%
A number of studies have examined the implications of preference interdependence. This paper models individual utility as depending either on the level of other people's consumption or on the difference in consumption levels. It assumes that the impact of an increase in other people's consumption on individual utility diminishes with the level of consumption, raising individual utility when that consumption is very small and lowering it when that consumption is very large. Based on that plausible assumption, the paper shows that, whether individual utility depends on the level of other people's consumption or on the difference in consumption levels, i) welfare declines with inequality, ii) equilibrium inequality is inefficient, and iii) the optimal intervention leads to a more equal distribution. Implications for the role of development institutions are examined.

‣ Cultural convergences in world wine consumption

Dal Bianco,Andrea; ,Vasco Boatto; Caracciolo,Francesco
Fonte: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo Publicador: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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47.023115%
This paper addresses the dynamics of world wine consumption over the past 50 years in 26 countries, verifying whether or not there is a macro-tendency towards a common consumption style, despite differences in taxation, economic policies and distribution systems among countries. From an empirical point of view, the σ and β convergence hypotheses were formally tested. Model results confirm the existence of both types of convergences. Per capita consumption of wine first experienced a reduction in differences between countries and then converged toward a central value. "Traditional" countries, with historically high levels of consumption, showed a decrease in wine consumption, while emerging countries with historically lower consumption levels showed an increase. These findings not only provide further support to the theory of international convergence of wine consumption on a volume basis, as already observed by other researchers in the European market, but they also offer support for the theory in major world markets. Furthermore, convergence appears to be happening not only at a quantitative level but at qualitative level as well, and this phenomenon may very well reflect the changing tastes of worldwide consumers towards a generalized structure of wine consumption.