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‣ Fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis entre beneficiários da saúde suplementar: resultados do inquérito telefônico Vigitel, Brasil, 2008; Prevalence of risk health behavior among members of private health insurance plans: results from the 2008 national telephone survey Vigitel, Brazil

MALTA, Deborah Carvalho; OLIVEIRA, Martha Regina de; MOURA, Erly Catarina de; SILVA, Sara Araújo; ZOUAIN, Cláudia Soares; SANTOS, Fausto Pereira dos; MORAIS NETO, Otaliba Libanio de; PENNA, Gerson de Oliveira
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a distribuição dos principais fatores de risco (FR) e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) entre os beneficiários de planos de saúde. Foi utilizada amostra aleatória de adultos com 18 ou mais anos de idade nas capitais brasileiras, analisando-se frequências de FR em 28.640 indivíduos em 2008. Homens mostraram alta prevalência dos seguintes fatores de risco: tabaco, sobrepeso, baixo consumo de frutas e legumes, maior consumo de carnes gordurosas e álcool, enquanto mulheres mostraram maior prevalência de pressão arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia e osteoporose. Homens praticam mais atividade física e mulheres consomem mais frutas e vegetais. Homens com maior escolaridade apresentam maior frequência de sobrepeso, consumo de carnes com gorduras e dislipidemia. Entre mulheres, tabaco, sobrepeso, obesidade e doenças autorreferidas decrescem com aumento da escolaridade, enquanto o consumo de frutas e legumes, atividade física, mamografia e exame de papanicolau aumentam com a escolaridade. CONCLUSÃO: a população usuária de planos de saúde constitui cerca de 26% da população brasileira, e o estudo atual visa acumular evidências para atuação em ações de promoção da saúde para esse público.; This article aims at estimating the prevalence of adults engaging in protective and risk health behaviors among members of private health insurance plans. It was used a random sample of individuals over the age of 18 living in the Brazilian state capitals collected on 28...

‣ Programas de estabilização e o consumo de bens duráveis; Stabilization plans and durable goods consumption

Jardim, Eduardo Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2010 Português
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Este trabalho desenvolve um modelo para explicar a expansão de consumo que freqüentemente sucede planos de estabilização baseados em congelamento de preços ou câmbio. A perspectiva adotada centra no consumo de bens duráveis e na dificuldade dos domicílios de proteger seus ativos da inflação. Uma redução repentina da inflação leva a uma queda do preço efetivo do bem de consumo durável, o que gera a expansão de consumo. O modelo é calibrado para o Brasil do período do plano Cruzado e são realizadas simulações supondo uma estabilização de preços permanente, uma com duração de 10 meses e outra de 3 meses. As duas primeiras apresentam uma expansão próxima, mas superior ao observado nos dados. A terceira simulação, porém, mostra uma expansão em torno de um quarto do observado. Também são discutidas variações no tempo médio de poupança para aquisição do bem durável e no consumo de bens não-duráveis.; This thesis presents a model to explain consumption booms after inflation stabilization plans centered on price and exchange rate controls. The focus is directed to durable goods and the difficulty for households to protect themselves from inflation. A sudden decrease in the inflation rate reduces durable goods effective price of consumption...

‣ Analysis of action plans and coping plans for reducing salt consumption among women with hypertension

Agondi,Rúbia de Freitas; Gallani,Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; Cornélio,Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues,Roberta Cunha Matheus
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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This cross-sectional study, based in implementation intention theory, describes action plans developed by women with hypertension (n=49) to add no more than 4g of salt per day to food and to reduce consumption of salty foods, as well as describing the barriers perceived and the coping strategies adopted for putting the action plans into practice. The plans were categorized according to similarities and were submitted to frequency analysis. The majority of the action and coping plans had to do with the effectuation of the behavior involving adding up to 4g of salt per day per person to food. The action strategies were aimed at quantifying the salt added, and the main obstacles were related to the reduced palatability of the food made with less salt. The coping plans have to do with preparing foods separately and to using natural seasonings instead of salt. This data can help the nurse to design activities for clinical education, with a view to reducing salt consumption among patients who prepare their own food.

‣ Emiss?o de metano por bovinos nelore submetidos a diferentes planos nutricionais; Methane emission by Nellore submitted to different nutritional plans

Cota, Olinta Leone
Fonte: UFVJM Publicador: UFVJM
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta e mensurar a emiss?o de metano de bovinos Nelore submetidos a diferentes planos nutricionais. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia - Sert?ozinho?SP. Para tal, no ano de 2012, em sistema de confinamento, 47 bovinos da ra?a Nelore foram utilizados e receberam dieta ? base de silagem de milho durante 35 dias, no per?odo de novembro e dezembro do mesmo ano. Ap?s o confinamento, esses mesmos animais foram alocados em piquetes de Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu, no per?odo das ?guas, nos meses de dezembro, janeiro, e fevereiro, por per?odo experimental de 44 dias, e submetidos ?s mesmas avalia??es. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo o plano nutricional de cada per?odo avaliado constituiu um tratamento e cada animal uma repeti??o. Para determina??o da excre??o fecal e a partir dela obter-se o consumo de mat?ria seca do pasto, foi fornecido aos animais o indicador ?xido cr?mico e o indicador di?xido de tit?nio para a estimativa do consumo individual de suplemento. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas por 3 dias consecutivos, em hor?rios predeterminados e amostras dos ingredientes e do pasto foram coletadas e amostradas durante o per?odo experimental e todas conservadas congeladas para posteriores an?lises bromatol?gicas. Para obten??o das estimativas dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da mat?ria seca (DMS) e dos nutrientes (DN)...

‣ India - Improving Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services : Lessons from Business Plans for Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Haryana and International Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The purpose of this report is to distill lessons learnt for improving Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services in India, by reference to the recent WSS business plans prepared for the three states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Haryana and from various studies carried out by the World Bank on international good practices in urban water service delivery. The report culls out the core elements of the WSS reform program and proposes how such reforms might be implemented. The intended audience for this report is policy makers at the national and state levels, sector professionals and practitioners. The report identifies the key elements of a state-wide program for improving WSS services and accountability on the basis of the following three pillars: i) policies and institutions: appropriate policies and institutional arrangements that clarify the roles and responsibilities of key actors, and which create service providers that are efficient, accountable and customer focused with sufficient autonomy to manage their affairs in a professional manner; ii) infrastructure and financing: medium term infrastructure development program with appropriate financial frameworks that encourage service providers to rely increasingly on user fees and...

‣ Income Risk, Income Mobility and Welfare

Krebs, Tom; Krishna, Pravin; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper develops a framework for the quantitative analysis of individual income dynamics, mobility and welfare. Individual income is assumed to follow a stochastic process with two (unobserved) components, component representing measurement error or transitory income shocks and an Autoregressive (AR(1)) component representing persistent changes in income. The analysis uses a tractable consumption-saving model with labor income risk and incomplete markets to relate income dynamics to consumption and welfare, and derive analytical expressions for income mobility and welfare as a function of the various parameters of the underlying income process. The empirical application of the framework using data on individual incomes from Mexico provides striking results. Much of measured income mobility is driven by measurement error or transitory income shocks and therefore (almost) welfare-neutral. A smaller part of measured income mobility is due to either welfare-reducing income risk or welfare-enhancing catching-up of low-income individuals with high-income individuals...

‣ Energy Efficiency Study in Lebanon

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The purpose of this report is to assess the status of past and current energy efficiency initiatives in Lebanon and, in conjunction with key stakeholders, prepare an Energy Efficiency Action Plan, implementation of this Action Plan in the near future. The identified EE programs have been developed based on available data and information gathered during our one-week field mission and the best practices in similar countries with comparable backgrounds. The savings and investments for each proposed program have been evaluated outlining the impacts of the expected emission reductions and of the expected primary energy savings. The major design phases of each program, their implementation, monitoring plans, and evaluation have been defined. Program financing sources have been recommended and enumerated for possible consideration during the development phase. The role of the various stakeholders has also been determined for each program with general recommendations and suggestions for the successful implementation of the programs. Actions plans are recommended...

‣ Dutch Disease and Spending Strategies in a Resource-Rich Low-income Country : The Case of Niger

Go, Delfin S.; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen; Utz, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper examines spending plans suggested by the recent literature regarding Dutch disease and examines their implications to Niger relative to its expanding mineral sector. The key to the benefits of significant mineral revenue lies with the productivity and supply responses of spending. If significant output gain is ensured, then there is little difference across the spending plans in their effects on real consumption. The overshooting of relative prices of the non-tradable sector or the shrinking share of traded sectors in gross domestic product is also ameliorated with greater supply flexibility. Growth paths of alternative spending strategies differ markedly in timing and pattern when spending does not raise productivity. As a caution against expectations that exaggerate the benefits of mineral revenue under all circumstances, the more aggressive spending plan may result in a boom-bust cycle if fiscal adjustments and debt repayments are necessary for any significant borrowing against future revenue and productivity gains are not realized. Using extractive industries revenue for transfers to households would have a greater effect on poverty reduction in the short and medium term but the long-run gains from investment in human and physical capital are likely to offset the initial lack of pro-poor bias. Different strategies differ significantly with regard to risks and required technical implementation capacity and political capacity to sustain a chosen course of action.

‣ Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy : Path to Low Carbon Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
Português
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The report is divided into seven chapters. Chapter one discusses India's current carbon footprint, the drivers that will contribute to growth in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, the objectives of the study, and the scope and methodology of the analytical approach. Chapter two provides an overview of each of the sectors covered by the study, along with their respective specific challenges and past performance, and the modeling approach adopted in the study. Chapters three, four, and five provide the specific assumptions and findings of the three scenarios: (1) scenario one, alternatively called five year plans scenario, assumes full implementation of the five year plans and other projections and plans by the government of India; (2) scenario two, alternatively called delayed implementation, more closely follows historical performance in implementation of the five year plans; (3) scenario three, or all-out stretch scenario, adds to scenario one additional steps to increase energy efficiency and low-carbon energy sources Sensitivity analysis is conducted on each scenario. Chapter six provides a brief comparison of the results of the three scenarios...

‣ Islamic Republic of Iran - Health Sector Review : Volume 2. Background Sections

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has stated its commitment to improving the health and nutritional status of the population as articulated in the Interim Country Assistance Strategy (CAS), which lists as priorities addressing nutritional deficiencies, expanding coverage of basic health services, and improving efficiency of the health system and the quality of service at all levels. This health sector review is consistent with this in that it provides the platform and evidence base for such reform. It is also in-line with part three of the current Fourth Five-Year Plan, which includes health development, human security and social justice priority, the reduction of illness from malnutrition, increasing public health service coverage, and increasing access to quality health services while reducing the financial burden on the families. The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive review and diagnostic of the performance of the health sector in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The government is quite advanced in the type of analysis it already undertakes on various aspects of the sector (e.g....

‣ Republic of Yemen - Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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From what was historically known as 'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity. Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable household budget surveys are available. The period between the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures the effect of the economic reform programs launched since 1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the vulnerable poor through public action...

‣ Yemen Poverty Assessment : Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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From what was historically known as 'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity. Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable household budget surveys are available. The period between the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures the effect of the economic reform programs launched since 1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the vulnerable poor through public action...

‣ Yemen Poverty Assessment : Volume 3. Poverty Maps

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.50994%
From what was historically known as 'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity. Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable household budget surveys are available. The period between the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures the effect of the economic reform programs launched since 1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the vulnerable poor through public action...

‣ Heat Tariff Reform and Social Impact Mitigation : Recommendations for a Sustainable District Heating Sector in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
Português
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The Government of the Republic of Belarus (GoB) plans to increase district heating (DH) tariffs to cost-recovery levels and gradually phase out subsidies, replacing them with social assistance programs. Residential DH tariffs in Belarus are currently at roughly 10-21 percent of cost-recovery levels. DH subsidies are highly regressive, add costs to business, and create significant fiscal risks and macroeconomic vulnerabilities. The purpose of this report is to analyze the social, sectoral, and fiscal impacts of the proposed tariff reform, and to identify and recommend measures to mitigate adverse impacts of DH tariff increases on the households. The analysis shows that: 1) the burden of higher DH tariffs will fall most heavily on low-income groups; 2) the current system of subsidies is unfair, benefitting wealthy customers more than the poor; 3) cross-subsidies undermine the competitiveness of industries in Belarus; and underpriced residential heat places an increasing fiscal burden on the GoB and risks macroeconomic instability. The analysis shows that a negative social impact is manageable if a tariff increase is accompanied by countervailing measures to compensate for the loss of purchasing power...

‣ Practical Guidance for Defining a Smart Grid Modernization Strategy : The Case of Distribution

Madrigal, Marcelino; Uluski, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This report provides some practical guidance on how utilities can define their own smart grid vision, identify priorities, and structure investment plans. While most of these strategic aspects apply to any area of the electricity grid, the document focuses on the segment of distribution. The guidance includes key building blocks that are needed to modernize the distribution grid and provides examples of grid modernization projects. Potential benefits that can be achieved (in monetary terms) for a given investment range are also discussed. The concept of the smart grid is relevant to any grid regardless of its stage of development. What varies are the magnitude and type of the incremental steps toward modernization that will be required to achieve a specific smart grid vision. Importantly, a utility that is at a relatively low level of grid modernization may leap frog one or more levels of modernization to achieve some of the benefits offered by the highest levels of grid modernization. Smart grids impact electric distribution systems significantly and sometimes more than any other part of the electric power grid. In developing countries...

‣ Transparency and Social Accountability in the Egyptian Power Sector

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The World Bank's initiatives of social accountability and transparency over the past two decades are increasingly founded on the notion that transparency and social accountability of public institutions are essential for stimulating economic growth. Social accountability refers to the responsiveness of the state to the needs of its citizens, and encompasses a broad range of actions and mechanisms such as tracking of public expenditures, monitoring of public service delivery, and working with citizen advisory boards. Transparency entails access to and effective use of information by citizens, civil society organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local communities, and the private sector. To achieve this objective, the World Bank and Egypt Egyptian Electric Utility and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency (ERA) - in consultation with Kantor management consultant - finds it necessary to establish systems and procedures for: (a) proactively disclosing information about the power sector's quality of service...

‣ Impacto de variáveis meteorológicas nos padrões de consumo de água no noroeste de Portugal; The impact of meteorological variables on the water consumption patterns in the northwest Portugal

Oliveira, Diana Isabel da Silva
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil; Na conjuntura atual, é da maior importância a definição de planos estratégicos no respeitante aos sistemas de abastecimento de água, garantindo a regularização na distribuição da mesma e uma melhor gestão dos recursos hídricos. A projeção dos consumos de água é um grande fator de ponderação na atividade das entidades responsáveis, permitindo uma gestão da água integrada e flexível a ocorrências naturais ou operacionais. A variação meteorológica surge como um dos fatores de maior influência no comportamento dos consumos de água. A relação entre ambos os parâmetros permite tirar ilações sobre o impacto causado pela variação da temperatura, da humidade relativa do ar e da precipitação sobre os volumes de água consumidos em dada região. O presente estudo tem em vista a concretização de modelos de projeção de consumos de água com base em variáveis meteorológicas. A amostra estatística assenta em dados cronológicos de volumes de água facultados pela concessionária Águas do Noroeste e em registos meteorológicos referentes à temperatura, humidade relativa do ar e precipitação. No decorrer da investigação foi realizada uma análise estatística individual das variáveis envolvidas e do grau de relacionamento das mesmas entre si. A sua interpretação permitiu estabelecer o contraste entre os diversos municípios do noroeste. O método de projeção adotado foi a regressão linear múltipla...

‣ The equilibrium manifolf with boundary constraints on the consumption sets

Rivera Cayupi, Jorge; Bonnisseau, Jean Marc
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.027058%
In this paper we consider a class of pure exchange economies in which the consumption plans may be restricted to be above a minimal level. This class is parameterized by the initial endowments and the constraints on the consumption. We show that the demand functions are locally Lipschitzian and almost everywhere continuously differentiable even if some constraints may be binding. We then study the equilibrium manifold that is the graph of the correspondence which associates the equilibrium price vectors to the parameters. Using an adapted definition of regularity, we show that: the set of regular economies is open and of full measure; for each regular economy, there exists a finite odd number of equilibria and for each equilibrium price, there exists a local differentiable selection of the equilibrium manifold which selects the given price vector. In the last section, we show that the above results hold true when the constraints are fixed.

‣ The equilibrium manifold with boundary constraints on the consumption sets

Rivera Cayupi, Jorge; Bonnisseau, Jean Marc
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.027058%
In this paper we consider a class of pure exchange economies in which the consumption plans may be restricted to be above a minimal level. This class is parameterized by the initial endowments and the constraints on the consumption. We show that the demand functions are locally Lipschitzian and almost everywhere continuously differentiable even if some constraints may be binding. We then study the equilibrium manifold that is the graph of the correspondence which associates the equilibrium price vectors to the parameters. Using an adapted definition of regularity, we show that: the set of regular economies is open and of full measure; for each regular economy, there exists a finite odd number of equilibria and for each equilibrium price, there exists a local differentiable selection of the equilibrium manifold which selects the given price vector. In the last section, we show that the above results hold true when the constraints are fixed.

‣ Analysis of action plans and coping plans for reducing salt consumption among women with hypertension; Análise dos planos de ação e planos de enfrentamento de obstáculos para a redução do consumo de sal entre mulheres com hipertensão arterial sistêmica; Análisis de los planes de acción y planes para hacer frente a los obstáculos a la reducción de la ingesta de sal en las mujeres hipertensas

Agondi, Rúbia de Freitas; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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Este é um estudo transversal, baseado na teoria Implementation Intentions, cujo objetivo foi descrever planos de ação desenvolvidos por mulheres hipertensas (n=49) para adicionar, no máximo, 4g de sal/dia aos alimentos e reduzir o consumo de alimentos salgados, bem como barreiras percebidas e estratégias de enfrentamento para efetivar os planos de ação. Os planos foram categorizados quanto à similaridade e submetidos à análise de frequência. A maioria dos planos de ação e enfrentamento de obstáculos referiu-se à efetivação do comportamento para adicionar, no máximo, 4g/sal/dia/pessoa aos alimentos. As estratégias de ação foram voltadas para a quantificação do sal adicionado, e os principais obstáculos foram relacionados à menor palatabilidade dos alimentos com menos sal. Os planos de enfrentamento apontaram para o preparo, em separado, dos alimentos e uso de temperos naturais em substituição ao sal. Esses dados podem auxiliar o enfermeiro para direcionar atividades clinicoeducativas, visando a redução de consumo de sal entre pacientes que preparam sua alimentação.; Este estudio transversal, basado en la teoría Implementation Intentions, describe los planes de acción desarrollados por las mujeres hipertensas (n=49) para añadir hasta 4g de sal/día a los alimentos y comer menos alimentos salados...