Página 1 dos resultados de 8 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

‣ Monitorização do desempenho energético e ambiental de um veículo híbrido

Bastos, Luiz Márcio Henriques
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.082383%
Os problemas relacionados com o consumo energético e emissões de poluentes relativos ao sector dos transportes representam seguramente a maior preocupação ao nível europeu no que respeita a cumprimento do Protocolo de Quioto e à poluição atmosférica. Uma das formas de resolver/minimizar este problema é através da aposta em novas tecnologias, como os combustíveis alternativos e modos alternativos de propulsão. Os veículos híbridos (gasolina / eléctrico) constituem uma das novas opções tecnológicas com uma penetração efectiva no mercado. O facto de estes veículos possuírem um motor eléctrico juntamente com um motor de combustão interna, bem como sistemas de aproveitamento de energia (dos quais é exemplo o sistema de travagem regenerativa), faz esperar que os consumos de energia sejam mais baixos. A presente Dissertação consistiu na realização experimental de ensaios em banco de rolos e em estrada, com a medição de consumo de energia e análise do desempenho do veículo através de perfis de velocidades e curvas de rendimento para diversas situações de circulação de um veículo. As situações abordadas foram: paragens e arranques sucessivos (“pára-arranca”), circulação em rotundas, diversos perfis de velocidades para três tipos de condução (suave...

‣ Environmental impact of road transport in Portugal and effects of hydrogen technologies penetration

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: International Workshop,Advances in Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy Publicador: International Workshop,Advances in Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 15/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.241733%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth due to the of vehicle fleets increase and a strong investment in road infrastructure and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs).With introduction, in this sector, of a new renewable fuel, like hydrogen, a reduction of the reported pollutant is foreseen. In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. The software chosen to calculate the emissions associated to road transport is the COPERT program (version IV) since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption.

‣ Penetration of hydrogen technologies: study on the environmental impact of road transport in Portugal

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 24/09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.082383%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption. Passenger cars, light duty vehicles and public transport buses are the vehicles categories in which the hydrogen technology is foreseen. The hydrogen penetration rates (moderate and high) are extracted from the European Project HYWAYS. Two trends are then considered, which give penetration rates of 40.0 % and 74.5 % in 2050 for the moderate and high scenarios respectively.

‣ A Preliminary Study to Evaluate Emissions Factors by Real and Micro Simulated Driving Cycle

DELLA RAGIONE Livia; MECCARIELLO Giovanni; PUNZO Vincenzo; CIUFFO BIAGIO
Fonte: SAE International Publicador: SAE International
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.241733%
Transport activities contribute significantly to the air pollution and its impact on emissions is a key element in the evaluation of any transport policy or plan. Calculation of emissions has therefore gained institutional importance in the European Community. To obtain emission factors several methods make use of only vehicle mean velocity, which can be easily obtained by vehicle flow and density in the road. Among them it is worth mentioning COPERT IV (Ntziachristos et al.,2006), MOBILE (US EPA, 2006), INFRAS (Keller et al., 2004), MEET (Joumard et al.,1999) models that are widely used in the practice. It is possible to refine the calculations by applying some correction factors to take into account the effect of specific elements (cold start, new technology, age of vehicle). Recently in ARTEMIS project (Joumard et al., 2007), a new statistical approach has been developed capable to consider more attributes than the simple mean speed to characterize driving behaviour, not only in the determination of driving cycles but also in the emission modelling. In this context, a meso scale emission model, named KEM, Kinematic Emission Model, able to calculate emission factor was developed by Rapone et al. (2005-2007). However, it is necessary to consider that the input to this model is...

‣ Uncertainty Estimates and Guidance for Road Transport Emission Calculations

KOURIDIS Charis; GKATZOFLIAS Dimitris; KIOUTSOUKIS Ioannis; NTZIACHRISTOS Leonidas; PASTORELLO Cinzia; DILARA Panagiota
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.148247%
This is the final report of a study on the characterization of the sensitivity and quantification of the uncertainty of road transport calculations performed with COPERT 4. Two case studies were examined: one referring to Italy which is considered as a country with very good knowledge of the operating vehicle stock and the total activity in its territory. The second situation refers to Poland, where some of the older vehicle technologies do not follow the European classification and this increases the uncertainty in the calculations. Other differences between the countries include the difference in ambient conditions and the much younger stock of the fleet in Italy compared to Poland. The report provides the uncertainty ranges of the COPERT 4 emission factors and modelling parameters. It also characterizes the uncertainty of the input data for Italy and Poland. The most influential variables were also identified, using a screening technique (Morris) and Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of the calculations was quantified by performing over 6000 simulation runs per country. The results of the simulations have been also used to provide guidance for road transport inventory calculations, following the methods proposed in the EMEP/EEA Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook.; JRC.DDG.H.4-Transport and air quality

‣ Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors

KOUSOULIDOU MARINA; FONTARAS GEORGIOS; NTZIACHRISTOS Leonidas; BONNEL Pierre; SAMARAS Zissis; DILARA Panagiota
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.331128%
This paper discusses the development and validation of passenger car emission factors, using real world operation data. In total, six passenger cars of different technologies were studied. The tested vehicles were operated under various driving conditions and over two different routes in the region of Lombardia, Italy. These routes were specifically defined in order to provide a range of driving conditions, including urban, rural and highway driving. Tailpipe emissions and exhaust gas flows were measured on-board the vehicle, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)In addition, all vehicles were tested over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) with the same PEMS equipment. . The testing of gasoline vehicles showed that emissions are well below the emission standards and do not raise any concern. However, the testing of diesel vehicles both under real-world driving conditions and over the NEDC brought to the surface important concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern diesel vehicles, since they seem to comply with the corresponding emission standard over the type-approval cycle, but they constantly exceed the specified limit when tested under real-world driving conditions. Results from real-world operation revealed that there is a significant deviation from the NOx emission standard limit (especially for the newly introduced Euro 5 technology). These observations raise concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern vehicles and their impact on urban air-quality. The emission factors originally measured on the road are also compared to the corresponding COPERT average speed emission factors. In general...

‣ Parque automóvel: comparação com veículos envolvidos em acidentes

Oliveira, Cláudio André Marques de
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.082383%
A presente Dissertação de Mestrado insere-se no âmbito de um projeto de investigação intitulado “SAFENV: Compromisso entre Segurança e Emissões para o Tráfego Rodoviário” (TDC/SEN-TRA/113499/2009), financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) e pelo Fundo Social Europeu (FSE) no âmbito do III Quadro Comunitário de apoio. Os seus dois objetivos principais consistiram no estudo da evolução do parque automóvel português, no período compreendido entre 1990 e 2010, com ênfase nos veículos ligeiros e na análise do efeito dos atributos dos veículos nas suas emissões e consumos. A análise da evolução do parque automóvel português (PAP) começou a ser efetuada com recurso a dados estatísticos existentes. Posteriormente, com o intuito de complementar esse estudo, procedeu-se à análise de uma amostra de veículos reais envolvidos em acidentes de viação, denominada “amostra BSR” (Base de dados de Segurança Rodoviária). O estudo dos veículos da amostra BSR incluiu a análise dos perfis evolutivos das suas características técnicas e a estimativa dos seus consumos e emissões através do modelo Copert 4. Neste estudo, constatou-se que o parque automóvel português, nas últimas duas décadas...

‣ Environmental impact assessment of the penetration of hydrogen technologies in Portugal's road transport

Travassos, Maria Antónia; Sá, A. I. Correia de; Luz, Paulo P. da; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.082383%
Road traffic is one of the transportation sectors with faster growth and also one of the most important emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this work, an analysis of the environmental benefits resulting from the introduction of hydrogen on road transport in Portugal is made. Impact is analyzed mainly looking at the pollutant emissions provided by road transport at the point of use. Emissions associated to road transport have been estimated using the software COPERT (version 4), since it provides a detailed methodology for each specific pollutant related to the vehicle fleet of a region or country, as well as the driving conditions and fuel consumption. Passenger cars, light duty vehicles and public transport buses are the vehicles categories in which the hydrogen technology is foreseen. The hydrogen penetration rates (moderate and high) are extracted from the European Project HYWAYS. Two trends are then considered, which give penetration rates of 40.0 % and 74.5 % in 2050 for the moderate and high scenarios respectively.