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‣ Does adaptive strategy for delayed seed dispersion affect extinction probability of a desert species? an assessment using the population viability analysis and glass house experiment

Mathur,Manish
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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36.880322%
Canopy seed bank is an important adaptive evolutionary trait that provides various types of protection to the seeds. However, costing of such evolutionary trait on plant survival is largely unknown. Present investigation provided a new insight on the serotonious habit of Blepharis sindica associated with its endangerment status. Extinction probabilities of two available population of B. sindica were quantified using two types of census data, i.e., fruiting body number and actual population size. Population Viability Analysis (PVA) revealed that delayed seed release tendency (higher fruiting body number) was not synchronized with actual ground conditions (lower population size). PVA analysis based on actual population size indicated that both the available populations would vanish within 20 years. The mean time of extinction calculated from both type census data indicated its extinction within 48 years. For assessing the conservation criteria, a glass house experiment was carried out with different soil types and compositions. Pure sand and higher proportions of sand -silt were more suitable compared to clay; further, gravelly surface was the most unsuitable habitat for this species. Collection of the seeds from mature fruits/capsule and their sowing with moderate moisture availability with sandy soil could be recommended.

‣ Gender differences in ankylosing spondylitis-associated cumulative healthcare utilization: a population-based cohort study

Chen,Hsin-Hua; Chen,Tzeng-Ji; Chen,Yi-Ming; Ying-Ming,Chiu; Chen,Der-Yuan
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.330142%
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases with gender differences in prevalence and clinical presentation. This study aimed to examine whether such gender differences are correlated with cumulative healthcare utilization in Taiwan. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Research Database supplied claim records of one million individuals from 1996 to 2007. Selected cases included patients aged >16 years. Certified rheumatologists diagnosed the patients in three or more visits and gave prescriptions for AS. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the influence of gender on cumulative healthcare utilization associated with AS. RESULTS: The study included 228 women and 636 men. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, men had more cumulative outpatient visits associated with AS (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 -2.23; p = 0.008). Men also exhibited a trend for higher frequency of AS-related hospitalization (p = 0.054). CONCLUSION: Men are more likely to have high cumulative AS-associated healthcare utilization than women. Further investigation of the causal factors is warranted.

‣ Evolutionary Toxicology: Population-Level Effects of Chronic Contaminant Exposure on the Marsh Frogs (Rana ridibunda) of Azerbaijan

Matson, Cole W.; Lambert, Megan M.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Autenrieth, Robin L.; Donnelly, Kirby C.; Islamzadeh, Arif; Politov, Dmitri I.; Bickham, John W.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.78485%
We used molecular methods and population genetic analyses to study the effects of chronic contaminant exposure in marsh frogs from Sumgayit, Azerbaijan. Marsh frogs inhabiting wetlands in Sumgayit are exposed to complex mixtures of chemical contaminants, including petroleum products, pesticides, heavy metals, and many other industrial chemicals. Previous results documented elevated estimates of genetic damage in marsh frogs from the two most heavily contaminated sites. Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequence data, the Sumgayit region has reduced levels of genetic diversity, likely due to environmental degradation. The Sumgayit region also acts as an ecological sink, with levels of gene flow into the region exceeding gene flow out of the region. Additionally, localized mtDNA heteroplasmy and diversity patterns suggest that one of the most severely contaminated sites in Sumgayit is acting as a source of new mutations resulting from an increased mutation rate. This study provides an integrated method for assessing the cumulative population impacts of chronic contaminant exposure by studying both population genetic and evolutionary effects.

‣ Cumulative incidence of rheumatic fever in an endemic region: a guide to the susceptibility of the population?

Carapetis, J. R.; Currie, B. J.; Mathews, J. D.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 Português
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27.330142%
Aboriginal Australians in northern Australia are subject to endemic infection with group A streptococci, with correspondingly high rates of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. For 12 communities with good ascertainment, the estimated lifetime cumulative incidence of acute rheumatic fever was approximately 5.7%, whereas over the whole population, with less adequate ascertainment, the cumulative incidence was only 2.7%. The corresponding prevalences of established rheumatic heart disease were substantially less than the cumulative incidences of acute rheumatic fever, at least in part because of poor ascertainment. The cumulative incidence of acute rheumatic fever estimates the proportion of susceptible individuals in endemically exposed populations. Our figures of 2.7-5.7% susceptible are consistent with others in the literature. Such comparisons suggest that the major part of the variation in rheumatic fever incidence between populations is due to differences in streptococcal exposure and treatment, rather than to any difference in (genetic) susceptibility.

‣ Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

Wason, Susan C.; Smith, Thomas J.; Perry, Melissa J.; Levy, Jonathan I.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.330142%
Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids) and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet). We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model...

‣ When Dread Risks Are More Dreadful than Continuous Risks: Comparing Cumulative Population Losses over Time

Bodemer, Nicolai; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Galesic, Mirta
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/06/2013 Português
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47.17007%
People show higher sensitivity to dread risks, rare events that kill many people at once, compared with continuous risks, relatively frequent events that kill many people over a longer period of time. The different reaction to dread risks is often considered a bias: If the continuous risk causes the same number of fatalities, it should not be perceived as less dreadful. We test the hypothesis that a dread risk may have a stronger negative impact on the cumulative population size over time in comparison with a continuous risk causing the same number of fatalities. This difference should be particularly strong when the risky event affects children and young adults who would have produced future offspring if they had survived longer. We conducted a series of simulations, with varying assumptions about population size, population growth, age group affected by risky event, and the underlying demographic model. Results show that dread risks affect the population more severely over time than continuous risks that cause the same number of fatalities, suggesting that fearing a dread risk more than a continuous risk is an ecologically rational strategy.

‣ Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.26444%
Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and groups are more vulnerable to environmental risks than the general population. However, vulnerability has received little specific attention in the risk assessment literature. Objective: Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmental risks. Discussion: The literature provides substantial evidence on single environmental factors and simple conditions that increase vulnerability or reduce resilience for humans and ecologic systems. This observation is especially true for individual people and populations of wildlife. Little research directly addresses the topic of vulnerability in cumulative risk situations...

‣ Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

Perry, Melissa J.; Wason, Susan Chemerynski; Smith, Thomas J.; Levy, Jonathan Ian
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.330142%
Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids) and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet). We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model...

‣ Global Income Distribution : From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession

Lakner, Christoph; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.826938%
The paper presents a newly compiled and improved database of national household surveys between 1988 and 2008. In 2008, the global Gini index is around 70.5 percent having declined by approximately 2 Gini points over this twenty year period. When it is adjusted for the likely under-reporting of top incomes in surveys by using the gap between national accounts consumption and survey means in combination with a Pareto-type imputation of the upper tail, the estimate is a much higher global Gini of almost 76 percent. With such an adjustment the downward trend in the Gini almost disappears. Tracking the evolution of individual country-deciles shows the underlying elements that drive the changes in the global distribution: China has graduated from the bottom ranks, modifying the overall shape of the global income distribution in the process and creating an important global "median" class that has transformed a twin-peaked 1988 global distribution into an almost single-peaked one now. The "winners" were country-deciles that in 1988 were around the median of the global income distribution...

‣ Poverty and the Spatial Distribution of Rural Population

Barbier, Edward B.; Hochard, Jacob P.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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37.223447%
According to global spatial data sets in 2000 more than one-third of the rural population in developing countries was located on less favored agricultural land and areas. Less favored agricultural lands are susceptible to low productivity and degradation, because their agricultural potential is constrained biophysically by terrain, poor soil quality, or limited rainfall. Less favored agricultural areas include less favored agricultural lands plus favorable agricultural land that is remote, that is, land in rural areas with high agricultural potential but with limited access. The paper presents tests of whether these spatial distributions of rural population influence poverty directly or indirectly via income growth in 83 developing countries from 2000 to 2012. The analysis finds no evidence of a direct impact on poverty, but there is a significant indirect impact via the elasticity of poverty reduction with respect to growth. Reducing poverty requires targeting rural populations in less favored lands and remote areas...

‣ Incidence of metastatic breast cancer in an Australian population-based cohort of women with non-metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis

Lord, S.; Marinovich, M.; Patterson, J.; Wilcken, N.; Kiely, B.; Gebski, V.; Crossing, S.; Roder, D.; Gattellari, M.; Houssami, N.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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37.307708%
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in Australian women with an initial diagnosis of non-metastatic breast cancer. Design, setting and participants: A population-based cohort study of all women with non-metastatic breast cancer registered on the New South Wales Central Cancer Register (CCR) in 2001 and 2002 who received care in a NSW hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 5-year cumulative incidence of MBC; prognostic factors for MBC. RESULTS: MBC was recorded within 5 years in 218 of 4137 women with localised node-negative disease (5-year cumulative incidence, 5.3%; 95% CI, 4.6%– 6.0%); and 455 of 2507 women with regional disease (5-year cumulative incidence, 18.1%; 95% CI, 16.7%–19.7%). The hazard rate for developing MBC was highest in the second year after the initial diagnosis of breast cancer. Determinants of increased risk of MBC were regional disease at diagnosis, age less than 50 years and living in an area of lower socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: Our Australian population-based estimates are valuable when communicating average MBC risks to patients and planning clinical services and trials. Women with node-negative disease have a low risk of developing MBC, consistent with outcomes of adjuvant clinical trials. Regional disease at diagnosis remains an important prognostic factor.; Sarah J. Lord...

‣ On the determinants of population structure in antigenically diverse pathogens

Gomes, M. G. M.; Medley, G. F.; Nokes, D. J.
Fonte: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian Publicador: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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Many pathogens exhibit antigenic diversity and elicit strain-specific immune responses. This potential for cross-immunity structure in the host resource motivates the development of mathematical models, stressing competition for susceptible hosts in driving pathogen population dynamics and genetics. Here we establish that certain model formulations exhibit characteristics of prototype pattern-forming systems, with pathogen population structure emerging as three possible patterns: (i) incidence is steady and homogeneous; (ii) incidence is steady but heterogeneous; and (iii) incidence shows oscillatory dynamics, with travelling waves in strain-space. Results are robust to strain number, but sensitive to the mechanism of cumulative immunity

‣ Regional variability in population acute myocardial infarction cumulative incidence and mortality rates in Spain 1997 and 1998

Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Aldasoro, Elena; Tormo, María José; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Segura Fragoso, Antonio; Fiol, Miquel; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Pérez, Gloria; Arteagoitia, José María; Cirera, Lluis; Cabadés, Adolfo; Vega, Gemma; Aye
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.330142%
[Abstract] Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) incidence and mortality display a high geographic variation. Aims: The objective of the present study was to analyze MI mortality, cumulative incidence rate variability in seven regions of Spain from 1997 to 1998. Methods and Results: Standardized methods were used to identify, find, register, and classify MI cases that were classified as definite, possible, insufficient-dataMI, and non-MI. The total population of the seven monitored regions was 7,364,682 inhabitants. Of the 11,256 cases fulfilling eligibility criteria to investigate, 10,660 were selected to calculate MI rates: 6554 (61.5%)non-fatal definite MI, 1179 (11.1%)fatal definite MI, 1859 (17.4%)fatal possible MI, 1068 (10.0%)fatal cases with insufficient data. The IBERICA 25–74 years age-standardized cumulative incidence rates for men and women, were 207 (range: 175–252) and 45 (range: 36–65) per 100,000, respectively. The age-standardized mortality rates for men and women, were 73 (range: 62–94) and 20 (range: 13–29) per 100,000, respectively. Age-standardized case-fatality was 31.4 and 24.2% in men aged 25–74 and 35–64 years, respectively, and 32.7 and 27.0%, respectively, in women. Conclusions: MI cumulative incidence and mortality rates are low compared with other industrialized countries but...

‣ Cumulative Impact Assessment and Management : Guidance for the Private Sector in Emerging Markets

Cardinale, Pablo; Greig, Lorne
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The major environmental and social management challenges that we face today, climate change, loss of biodiversity, the decline of ocean fisheries, limitations on food security, the scarcity of usable freshwater resources, displacement of communities with consequent increases in urban poverty, and inviability of traditional local livelihoods, are all the result of cumulative impacts from a large number of activities that are for the most part individually insignificant, but together have had regional or even global repercussions. The importance of understanding the cumulative environmental and social impacts from multiple projects, actions, or activities, or even from the same actions over an extended period of time, located in the same geographic region or affecting the same resource (e.g., watershed, airshed) has been acknowledged for decades. In some cases, the most ecologically devastating environmental effects and subsequent social consequences may result not from the direct effects of a particular action...

‣ Twinning the Goals : How Can Promoting Shared Prosperity Help to Reduce Global Poverty?

Lakner, Christoph; Negre, Mario; Prydz, Espen Beer
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In 2013, the World Bank adopted two goals: First, reduce global extreme poverty to 3 percent by 2030. Second, promote shared prosperity defined as the income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population within a country. This paper simulates the global poverty headcount under three growth scenarios for the bottom 40 percent up to 2030. The analysis deploys a set of "shared prosperity premiums," in which the bottom 40 percent in each country grows at a differential rate from the projected growth in the mean. With no distributional change, the global headcount reaches between 6.7 and 4.7 percent in 2030, depending on the average growth scenario used for the simulations. However, if the incomes of the bottom 40 percent grow 2 percentage points faster than the mean, the World Bank's poverty goal is achieved with the global poverty falling to below 3 percent in 2030 in the scenarios which average growth rates are extrapolated from the early 2000s. While such a "shared prosperity premium" is not unprecedented in recent growth spells...

‣ Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal.

Beveridge, Rachelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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27.403179%
Cancer du poumon associé à l’exposition au nickel, au chrome VI et au cadmium dans le milieu de travail utilisant deux études populationnelles cas-témoins à Montréal. Au début des années 1990, le nickel, le chrome VI et le cadmium ont été classés en tant qu’agents cancérigènes de classe 1 par le CIRC (Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer). Cependant, les résultats des études ayant permis la classification de ces métaux n’ont pas toujours été reproduits, et d’importantes questions demeurent quant aux effets de ces métaux à de faibles niveaux d’exposition. Un plus grand nombre de recherches empiriques est donc nécessaire afin de réaffirmer la cancérogénicité de ces agents, et d’identifier les circonstances dans lesquelles ils peuvent être néfastes. L'objectif de cette étude était d'explorer la relation entre l’exposition à un des métaux (soit le nickel, le chrome VI, ou le cadmium) et les risques subséquents de développer un cancer du poumon chez des travailleurs provenant de différents milieux de travail qui sont exposés à ces métaux à de différents degrés. Deux études cas-témoins de base populationnelle menées à Montréal ont fourni les données nécessaires pour examiner la cancérogénicité de ces métaux. La première étude était menée entre 1979 et 1986 chez des hommes âgés de 35 à 70 ans ayant un cancer dans l’un de 19 sites anatomiques de cancer sélectionnés. La seconde étude était menée entre 1996 et 2001 chez des hommes et des femmes âgés de 35 à 75 ans...

‣ Symmetric Dimethylarginine Is Not Associated with Cumulative Inflammatory Load or Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Hodson, James; Sandoo, Aamer; Smith, Jacqueline P.; Douglas, Karen M.; Kitas, George D.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.255215%
Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) indirectly inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in high-risk patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations of cumulative inflammatory burden (assessed by serial measurements of inflammatory markers) and classical cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors with SDMA in RA patients. 201 RA patients (155 females, median age 67 (59–73)) were assessed at baseline (2006). Classical CV disease risk factors were recorded and systemic inflammation was determined by the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). At follow-up (2012) SDMA levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean SDMA levels in RA population were 0.40 (0.40–0.53) μmol/L. No significant association between SDMA and cumulative inflammatory load was established in the analysis. SDMA levels were not found to be significantly related to CV disease risk factors. We explored the potential relationship between SDMA and cumulative inflammatory burden in patients with RA and obtained negative results. SDMA did not relate to CV disease risk factors in our population and its clinical significance as a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction in patients with RA remains to be determined.

‣ Connecting the Dots: Tracking Galaxy Evolution Using Constant Cumulative Number Density at 3
Jaacks, Jason; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Nagamine, Kentaro
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26444%
Using the cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamical code GADGET-3 we make a realistic assessment of the technique of using constant cumulative number density as a tracer of galaxy evolution at high redshift. We find that over a redshift range of $3\leq z \leq7$ one can on average track the growth of the stellar mass of a population of galaxies selected from the same cumulative number density bin to within $\sim 0.20$ dex. Over the stellar mass range we probe ($10^{10.39}\leq M_s/M_\odot \leq 10^{10.75}$ at $z =$ 3 and $10^{8.48}\leq M_s/M_\odot \leq 10^{9.55}$ at $z =$ 7) one can reduce this bias by selecting galaxies based on an evolving cumulative number density. We find the cumulative number density evolution exhibits a trend towards higher values which can be quantified by simple linear formulations going as $-0.10\Delta z$ for descendants and $0.12\Delta z$ for progenitors. Utilizing such an evolving cumulative number density increases the accuracy of descendant/progenitor tracking by a factor of $\sim2$. This result is in excellent agreement, within $0.10$ dex, with abundance matching results over the same redshift range. However, we find that our more realistic cosmological hydrodynamic simulations produce a much larger scatter in descendant/progenitor stellar masses than previous studies...

‣ Gender differences in ankylosing spondylitis-associated cumulative healthcare utilization: a population-based cohort study

Chen, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Yi-Ming; Ying-Ming, Chiu; Chen, Der-Yuan
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.330142%
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases with gender differences in prevalence and clinical presentation. This study aimed to examine whether such gender differences are correlated with cumulative healthcare utilization in Taiwan. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Research Database supplied claim records of one million individuals from 1996 to 2007. Selected cases included patients aged >;16 years. Certified rheumatologists diagnosed the patients in three or more visits and gave prescriptions for AS. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the influence of gender on cumulative healthcare utilization associated with AS. RESULTS: The study included 228 women and 636 men. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, men had more cumulative outpatient visits associated with AS (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 -2.23; p = 0.008). Men also exhibited a trend for higher frequency of AS-related hospitalization (p = 0.054). CONCLUSION: Men are more likely to have high cumulative AS-associated healthcare utilization than women. Further investigation of the causal factors is warranted.

‣ Extreme population fluctuation in the Northern Pygmy Mouse (Baiomys taylori) in southeastern Texas

Abuzeineh,Alisa A.; McIntyre,Nancy E.; Holsomback,Tyla S.; Dick,Carl W.; Owen,Robert D.
Fonte: Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste Publicador: Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.241436%
The Northern Pygmy Mouse (Baiomys taylori) occurs throughout much of Mexico and into the southwestern United States, with its range currently expanding northward in the U.S. Despite documentation of species range expansion, there have been very few studies that have monitored population growth patterns in this species. During a 16-month mark-recapture study in coastal southeastern Texas, a striking fluctuation in densities of Pygmy Mouse populations was observed. The extreme population increase and decline was evaluated with respect to several biotic and abiotic variables postulated to affect rodent population levels. Highest population levels were preceded by high fruit and seed availability, and variation in 6-month cumulative precipitation totals explained 73.8% - 77.1% of the population variation in the study.