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‣ Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

HECK, Julia E.; BERTHILLER, Julien; VACCARELLA, Salvatore; WINN, Deborah M.; SMITH, Elaine M.; SHAN`GINA, Oxana; SCHWARTZ, Stephen M.; PURDUE, Mark P.; PILARSKA, Agnieszka; ELUF-NETO, Jose; MENEZES, Ana; MCCLEAN, Michael D.; MATOS, Elena; KOIFMAN, Sergio;
Fonte: OXFORD UNIV PRESS Publicador: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case-control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral-anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09...

‣ Interaction between Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

HASHIBE, Mia; BRENNAN, Paul; CHUANG, Shu-Chun; BOCCIA, Stefania; CASTELLSAGUE, Xavier; CHEN, Chu; CURADO, Maria Paula; MASO, Luigino Dal; DAUDT, Alexander W.; FABIANOVA, Eleonora; FERNANDEZ, Leticia; WÜNSCH-FILHO, Victor; FRANCESCHI, Silvia; HAYES, Richa
Fonte: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH Publicador: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The magnitude of risk conferred by the interaction between tobacco and alcohol use on the risk of head and neck cancers is not clear because studies have used various methods to quantify the excess head and neck cancer burden. Methods: We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 17 European and American case-control studies (11,221 cases and 16,168 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. We estimated the multiplicative interaction parameter (psi) and population attributable risks (PAR). Results: A greater than multiplicative joint effect between ever tobacco and alcohol use was observed for head and neck cancer risk (psi = 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-3.04). The PAR for tobacco or alcohol was 72% (95% confidence interval, 61-79%) for head and neck cancer, of which 4% was due to alcohol alone, 33% was due to tobacco alone, and 35% was due to tobacco and alcohol combined. The total PAR differed by subsite (64% for oral cavity cancer, 72% for pharyngeal cancer, 89% for laryngeal cancer), by sex (74% for men, 57% for women), by age (33% for cases < 45 years, 73% for cases > 60 years), and by region (84% in Europe, 51% in North America, 83% in Latin America). Conclusions: Our results confirm that the joint effect between tobacco and alcohol use is greater than multiplicative on head and neck cancer risk. However...

‣ Involuntary smoking and head and neck cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

LEE, Yuan-Chin Amy; BOFFETTA, Paolo; STURGIS, Erich M.; WEI, Qingyi; ZHANG, Zuo-Feng; MUSCAT, Joshua; LAZARUS, Philip; MATOS, Elena; HAYES, Richard B.; WINN, Deborah M.; ZARIDZE, David; WÜNSCH-FILHO, Victor; ELUF-NETO, Jose; KOIFMAN, Sergio; MATES, Dana;
Fonte: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH Publicador: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although active tobacco smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, involuntary smoking has not been adequately evaluated because of the relatively low statistical power in previous studies. We took advantage of data pooled in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium to evaluate the role of involuntary smoking in head and neck carcinogenesis. Involuntary smoking exposure data were pooled across six case-control studies in Central Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated for 542 cases and 2,197 controls who reported never using tobacco, and the heterogeneity among the study-specific ORs was assessed. In addition, stratified analyses were done by subsite. No effect of ever involuntary smoking exposure either at home or at work was observed for head and neck cancer overall. However, long duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home and at work was associated with an increased risk (OR for >15 years at home, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12-2.28; P(trend) <0-01; OR for >15 years at work, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.30; P(trend) = 0.13). The effect of duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home was stronger for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than for other subsites. An association between involuntary smoking exposure and the risk of head and neck cancer...

‣ Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Jenab, Mazda; Heck, Julia E.; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Castellsague, Xavier; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Winn, Deborah M.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso
Fonte: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT Publicador: SPRINGER; DORDRECHT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups, and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random-effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97).; International Agency for Research on Cancer; International Agency for Research on Cancer; US National Institutes of Health (NIH)...

‣ Results of prostate cancer screening in non-symptomatic men

Antonopoulos, I. M.; Pompeo, A. C. L.; El Hayek, O. R.; Sarkis, A. S.; Alfer, W.; Arap, S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 227-234
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Objectives: To verify prostate cancer prevalence in non-symptomatic men between 50 and 70 years old as well as cancer characteristics. Material and Methods: 2815 non-symptomatic men had total PSA and digital rectal examination performed between March 1998 and April 1998. Racial distribution was: 2331 Caucasians (83.9%), 373 Blacks (13.4%) and 75 Asiatic (2.7%). PSA was normal in 2554 (91.4%), 4 to 10 in 177 (6.3%) and greater than 10 in 64 (2.3%). DRE was normal in 2419 (86.3%), suspicious in 347 (12.4%) and characteristic for cancer in 37 (1.3%). Men with abnormal DRE and/or PSA had transrectal prostate biopsy indicated. Results: 461 biopsies were done and 78 tumors was detected (prevalence = 2.8%). Prevalence was progressively higher with age (p < 0.001), PSA level (p < 0.0001) and DRE findings (p = 0.0216). Cancer prevalence in Blacks was 1.65 times higher than in Caucasians (p > 0.05) and 94.9% of detected tumors were moderately or poorly differentiated. Sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and total accuracy for PSA were respectively: 66.6%; 89.7%; 51.7%; 94.2% and 86.5%. For DRE, the respective values were: 49.1%; 79.4%; 50.9%; 78.3% and 70.3%. Conclusions: prostate cancer prevalence in the studied population (2.8%) was similar to that of other countries populations. Cancer prevalence in blacks was 1.65 times higher than in Caucasians (difference was not statistically significant). Cancer prevalence becomes higher with aging. The association of DRE and PSA is of paramount importance for cancer diagnosis. The great majority of detected tumors (94.9%) was moderately and poorly differentiated. Brazil probably needs regional studies to better characterize prostate cancer epidemiology due to population heterogeneity.

‣ False-Positive Results in Cancer Epidemiology: A Plea for Epistemological Modesty

Boffetta, Paolo; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Tarone, Robert E.; Lipworth, Loren; Blot, William J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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False-positive results are inherent in the scientific process of testing hypotheses concerning the determinants of cancer and other human illnesses. Although much of what is known about the etiology of human cancers has arisen from well-conducted epidemiological studies, epidemiology has been increasingly criticized for producing findings that are often sensationalized in the media and fail to be upheld in subsequent studies. Herein we describe examples from cancer epidemiology of likely false-positive findings and discuss conditions under which such results may occur. We suggest general guidelines or principles, including the endorsement of editorial policies requiring the prominent listing of study caveats, which may help reduce the reporting of misleading results. Increased epistemological humility regarding findings in epidemiology would go a long way to diminishing the detrimental effects of false-positive results on the allocation of limited research resources, on the advancement of knowledge of the causes and prevention of cancer, and on the scientific reputation of epidemiology and would help to prevent oversimplified interpretations of results by the media and the public.

‣ Report of the Integrative Molecular Cancer Epidemiology International Symposium, Lyon, France

Raimondi, S
Fonte: Cancer Intelligence Publicador: Cancer Intelligence
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2008 Português
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An International Symposium on Integrative Molecular Cancer Epidemiology took place in Lyon, France, on 3–5 July 2008. The Symposium focused on aetiological and mechanistic aspects of molecular and genetic cancer epidemiology research and was divided into the following three sections: Molecular epidemiology—application of novel molecular markers to cancer epidemiology.Genomic epidemiology in the era of whole genome scan.Integrative molecular epidemiology: visions for the future.

‣ Frontiers in Cancer Epidemiology: A Challenge to the Research Community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute

Khoury, Muin J.; Freedman, Andrew N.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harvey, Nonye; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C.; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D.; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is develop scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop, in December, 2012, to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing Web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

‣ “Drivers” of Translational Cancer Epidemiology in the 21st Century: Needs and Opportunities

Lam, Tram Kim; Spitz, Margaret; Schully, Sheri D.; Khoury, Muin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift--propelled by an urgent need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries into healthcare and population health benefits. As part of a strategic planning process for cancer epidemiologic research, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is leading a “longitudinal” meeting with members of the research community to engage in an on-going dialogue to help shape and invigorate the field. Here, we review a translational framework influenced by “drivers” that we believe have begun guiding cancer epidemiology towards translation in the past few years and are most likely to drive the field further in the next decade. The drivers include: (1) collaboration and team science; (2) technology; (3) multi-level analyses and interventions; and (4) knowledge integration from basic, clinical and population sciences. Using the global prevention of cervical cancer as an example of a public health endeavor to anchor the conversation, we discuss how these drivers can guide epidemiology from discovery to population health impact, along the translational research continuum.

‣ Epigenetic Research in Cancer Epidemiology: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges

Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L.; Schully, Sheri D.; Nelson, Stefanie; Su, L. Joseph; Ross, Sharon; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI’s grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

‣ Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa, Daniele; Stein, Angelika; Dostal, Lucie; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C.; Allen, Naomi E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; T
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n = 11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer ((OR_{allele}) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.94, p = 1.3×(10^{−3}) for rs546950 and ((OR_{allele}) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.93, p = 5.6×(10^{−4}) for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion...

‣ Consumption of Fish Products across the Lifespan and Prostate Cancer Risk

Torfadottir, Johanna E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Mucci, Lorelei Ann; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Adami, Hans-Olov; Stamp
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: To examine whether fish and fish oil consumption across the lifespan is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Design: The study was nested among 2268 men aged 67–96 years in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. In 2002 to 2006, dietary habits were assessed, for early life, midlife and later life using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality through 2009 via linkage to nationwide cancer- and mortality registers. Adjusting for potential confounders, we used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer according to fish and fish oil consumption. Results: Among the 2268 men, we ascertained 214 prevalent and 133 incident prostate cancer cases, of which 63 had advanced disease. High fish consumption in early- and midlife was not associated with overall or advanced prostate cancer. High intake of salted or smoked fish was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer both in early life (95% CI: 1.08, 3.62) and in later life (95% CI: 1.04, 5.00). Men consuming fish oil in later life had a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer [HR (95%CI): 0.43 (0.19, 0.95)], no association was found for early life or midlife consumption. Conclusions: Salted or smoked fish may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer...

‣ Polymorphisms of MUC16 (CA125) and MUC1 (CA15.3) in Relation to Ovarian Cancer Risk and Survival

Williams, Kristina A.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Titus, Linda J.; Cramer, Daniel W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: To examine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in MUC16 (CA125) and MUC1 (CA15.3) in relation to ovarian cancer risk and survival. Methods: We genotyped germline variants of MUC16 (rs2547065, rs1559168, rs12984471, rs2121133) and MUC1 (rs2070803, rs4072037, rs1045253) using samples collected from 758 ovarian cancer cases and 788 controls enrolled in the New England Case-Control Study between 2003 and 2008. We calculated age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease risk using unconditional and polytomous logistic regression and hazard ratios (HR) for survival using Cox proportional hazard ratios. In a subset of cases, we compared log-normalized CA125 values by genotype using generalized linear models. Results: Cases homozygous for the variant allele of MUC16 SNP, rs12984471, had poorer overall survival (log-rank p = 0.03) and higher CA125 levels, especially cases over age 65 (p = 0.01). For MUC1 SNP, rs4072037, women homozygous for the G variant had a non-significantly decreased risk for serous invasive types but elevated risk for serous borderline tumors, mucinous borderline and invasive tumors, and endometrioid tumors. Women with the variant allele of MUC16 SNP, rs2547065, especially those who were homozygous had an elevated risk for ovarian cancer; but this association was not confirmed in an independent dataset. Conclusion: This targeted screen of seven polymorphisms of MUC16 and MUC1 genes failed to identify and confirm effects on ovarian cancer risk overall. However...

‣ Predicting the Severity and Prognosis of Trismus after Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Oral Cancer Patients by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Hsieh, Li-Chun; Chen, John W.; Wang, Li-Ying; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Liao, Li-Jen; Lo, Wu-Chia; Lin, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Chien-Fu; Kuo, Ying-Shiung; Jhuang, Jie-Yang; Tien, Hui-Ju; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To develop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators to predict trismus outcome for post-operative oral cavity cancer patients who received adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 22 patients with oral cancer treated with IMRT were studied over a two-year period. Signal abnormality scores (SA scores) were computed from Likert-type ratings of the abnormalities of nine masticator structures and compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA test between groups. Seventeen patients (77.3%) experienced different degrees of trismus during the two-year follow-up period. The SA score correlated with the trismus grade (r = 0.52, p<0.005). Patients having progressive trismus had higher mean doses of radiation to multiple structures, including the masticator and lateral pterygoid muscles, and the parotid gland (p<0.05). In addition, this group also had higher SA-masticator muscle dose product at 6 months and SA scores at 12 months (p<0.05). At the optimum cut-off points of 0.38 for the propensity score, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 93% for predicting the prognosis of the trismus patients. The SA score, as determined using MRI, can reflect the radiation injury and correlate to trismus severity. Together with the radiation dose...

‣ Epidemiological analysis of tongue cancer in South Australia for the 24-year period, 1977-2001

Lam, L.; Logan, R.; Luke, C.
Fonte: Australian Dental Assn Inc Publicador: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Background: Tongue cancer (141 ICD-9) is the most common intra-oral malignancy in Western countries. In recent decades, reported tongue cancer incidence and mortality rates have increased both in Europe and in the United States, whilst survival has not improved. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and survival trends of tongue cancer in South Australia over the 24-year period from 1977 to 2001. Methods: Population-based data for tongue cancer were provided by the Central Cancer Registry Unit of the Epidemiology Branch of the South Australian Department of Health. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for males and females were calculated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted according to time periods, age, sex and tongue sub-sites. Cox regression analysis was used to determine factors that influenced survival. Results: During this 24-year period, 611 cases of tongue cancer (398 males, 213 females) were reported, the majority of which were squamous cell carcinomas. The most common age of diagnosis was 65–69 years in males and 60–64 years in females. Fifty cases (8.18 per cent of all tongue cancer cases) occurred in patients 40 years or younger. The most common cancer sub-sites reported were ‘unspecified site’ (48.45 per cent)...

‣ Epidemiology of Oral Cancer in Asia in the Past Decade- An Update (2000-2012)

Krishna Rao, S.; Mejia, G.; Roberts-Thomson, K.; Logan, R.
Fonte: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention Publicador: Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The prevalence of oral cancers (OC) is high in Asian countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia. Asian distinct cultural practices such as betel-quid chewing, and varying patterns of tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors that predispose to cancer of the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide an update on epidemiology of OC between 2000 and 2012. A literature search for this review was conducted on Medline for articles on OC from Asian countries. Some of the articles were also hand searched using Google. High incidence rates were reported from developing nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Sri Lanka. While an increasing trend has been observed in Pakistan, Taiwan and Thailand, a decreasing trend is seen in Philippines and Sri Lanka. The mean age of occurrence of cancer in different parts of oral cavity is usually between 51-55 years in most countries. The tongue is the leading site among oral cancers in India. The next most common sites in Asian countries include the buccal mucosa and gingiva. The 5 year survival rate has been low for OC, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol are the main reasons for the increasing incidence rates. Low socioeconomic status and diet low in nutritional value lacking vegetables and fruits contribute towards the risk. In addition...

‣ Pre-Diagnostic Leukocyte Genomic DNA Methylation and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women

Nan, Hongmei; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi; Rosner, Bernard Alfred; Fuchs, Charles Stewart; Cho, Eunyoung
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Abnormal one-carbon metabolism may lead to general genomic (global) hypomethylation, which may predispose an individual to the development of colorectal neoplasia. Methods: We evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level and the risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study of 358 colorectal cancer cases and 661 matched controls within the all-female cohort of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Among control subjects, we further examined major plasma components in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to genomic DNA methylation level. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to examine leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. Results: Overall genomic DNA methylation level was not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (p for trend, 0.45). Compared with women in the lowest quintile of methylation, the multivariate OR of colorectal cancer risk was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.82–2.13) for those in the highest quintile. We did not find significant associations between major plasma components of one-carbon metabolism or risk factors for colorectal cancer and genomic DNA methylation level (all p for trend >0.05). Also...

‣ Harold Fred Dorn and the First National Cancer Survey (1937-1939): The Founding of Modern Cancer Epidemiology

Lilienfeld, David E.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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The development of modern epidemiology, particularly cancer epidemiology, is often seen as a post–World War II phenomenon. However, the First National Cancer Survey, conducted from 1937 to 1939 as part of the newly formed National Cancer Institute's initial activities, provided the first data on the occurrence of cancer in the United States. This project was directed by a young sociologist, Harold Fred Dorn. Through Dorn, many of the methodological innovations in sociology, such as the use of surveys and observational study designs, were incorporated into modern epidemiology. I examine Dorn's training and early career in the context of the First National Cancer Survey as a means of investigating the beginnings of modern epidemiology.

‣ Association between Cutaneous Nevi and Breast Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study

Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Xuehong; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Han, Jiali
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Cutaneous nevi are suggested to be hormone-related. We hypothesized that the number of cutaneous nevi might be a phenotypic marker of plasma hormone levels and predict subsequent breast cancer risk. Methods and Findings: We followed 74,523 female nurses for 24 y (1986–2010) in the Nurses' Health Study and estimate the relative risk of breast cancer according to the number of cutaneous nevi. We adjusted for the known breast cancer risk factors in the models. During follow-up, a total of 5,483 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Compared to women with no nevi, women with more cutaneous nevi had higher risks of breast cancer (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.10 for 1–5 nevi; 1.15, 95% CI, 1.00–1.31 for 6–14 nevi, and 1.35, 95% CI, 1.04–1.74 for 15 or more nevi; p for continuous trend = 0.003). Over 24 y of follow-up, the absolute risk of developing breast cancer increased from 8.48% for women without cutaneous nevi to 8.82% (95% CI, 8.31%–9.33%) for women with 1–5 nevi, 9.75% (95% CI, 8.48%–11.11%) for women with 6–14 nevi, and 11.4% (95% CI, 8.82%–14.76%) for women with 15 or more nevi. The number of cutaneous nevi was associated with increased risk of breast cancer only among estrogen receptor (ER)–positive tumors (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio per five nevi...

‣ Collaborative Cancer Epidemiology in the 21st Century: the Model of Cancer Consortia

Burgio, Michael R.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Kaminski, Brett M.; DeRycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J.; Seminara, Daniela
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
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During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large scale, interdisciplinary cancer research and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st century epidemiology.