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‣ Identification and molecular characterization of Carnation mottle virus Brazilian isolates from carnation

Alexandre,Maria AV; Duarte,Ligia ML; Ramos,Alyne F; Harakava,Ricardo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 Português
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Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), associated with carnation plants showing or not symptoms, was identified by host range, serology and molecular analysis of the coat protein gene. Seven samples were assayed by biological and serological tests. Two of them, one from São Paulo and another from Minas Gerais states, Brazil, which presented higher absorbance values in DAS-ELISA, were selected for molecular studies. Foliar samples were submitted to total RNA extraction, RT-PCR with specific primers, and amplicons obtained were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the PAUP program after determining the nucleotide substitution model. The identity percentages between Brazilian sequences were 99%. When sequences of CP carnation isolates from other countries were compared, the identity ranged from 96-99%. CarMV isolates from São Paulo and Minas Gerais states are the first sequences obtained in Brazil, and analysis showed that they belong to the PK group and showed only two amino acids changes at positions 61 and 260. The virus presents a high genetic stability and it is readily mechanically transmitted from infected to healthy plants. This is the first report of CarMV in Minas Gerais state, of CP nucleotide sequences from Brazilian CarMV isolates...

‣ The strands of both polarities of a small circular RNA from carnation self-cleave in vitro through alternative double- and single-hammerhead structures.

Hernández, C; Daròs, J A; Elena, S F; Moya, A; Flores, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/1992 Português
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The sequence of a circular RNA from carnation has been determined and found to consist of 275 nucleotide residues adopting a branched secondary structure of minimum free energy. Both plus and minus strands of this RNA can form the hammerhead structures proposed to mediate the in vitro self-cleavage of a number of small infectious plant RNAs and the transcript of satellite 2 DNA from the newt. Minus full- and partial-length transcripts of the carnation circular RNA including the hammerhead structure showed self-cleavage during transcription and after purification, indicating the involvement of a single-hammerhead structure in the self-cleavage reaction. In the case of the plus transcripts only a dimeric RNA, but not a monomeric one, self-cleaved efficiently during transcription and after purification, strongly supporting the implication in this process of a double-hammerhead structure theoretically more stable than the corresponding single cleavage domain. However, a plus monomeric transcript self-cleaved after purification at a slow rate in a concentration-independent reaction which most probably occurs through an intramolecular mechanism. Comparative sequence analysis has revealed that the circular RNA from carnation shares similarities with some representative members of the viroid and viroid-like satellites RNAs from plants...

‣ Role of Cytokinins in Carnation Flower Senescence 1

Eisinger, William
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1977 Português
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Stem and leaf tissues of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) plants appear to contain a natural antisenescence factor since removal of most of these tissues from cut carnation flowers hastened their senescence. However, kinetin (5-10 μg/ml) significantly delayed senescence of flowers with stem and leaf tissues removed. In addition, the life span of cut flowers with intact (30-cm) stems was increased with kinetin treatment. Peak ethylene production by presenescent flowers was reduced 55% or more with kinetin treatment and was delayed by 1 day. Kinetin-treated flowers were less responsive to applied ethylene (100 μl/l for 3 hours) than untreated flowers. Possible natural roles of cytokinins in carnation flower senescence are discussed.

‣ Inhibition of Ethylene Biosynthesis in Carnation Petals by Cytokinin 1

Mor, Yoram; Spiegelstein, Hanna; Halevy, Abraham H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1983 Português
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Pretreatment of detached carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus cv White Sim) for 24 hours with 0.1 millimolar of the cytokinins n6-benzyl-adenine (BA), kinetin, and zeatin blocked the conversion of externally supplied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene and delayed petal senescence by 8 days. The normal enhanced wilting and increase in endogenous levels of ACC and ethylene production following exposure of petals to ethylene (16 μl/l for 10 hours), were not observed in BA-pretreated petals. In carnation foliage leaves pretreated with 0.1 mm BA, a reduction rather than inhibition of the conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene was observed. This indicates that foliage leaves respond to cytokinins in a different way than petals. A constant 24-hour treatment with BA (0.1 mm) was not able to reduce ethylene production of senescing carnation petals, while 2 mm aminoxyacetic acid, a known inhibitor of ACC synthesis, or 10 mm propyl gallate, a free radical scavenger, decreased ethylene production significantly.

‣ Endoglycanase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hemicelluloses during Development of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Petals 1

de Vetten, Nicolaas C.; Huber, Donald J.; Gross, Kenneth C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1991 Português
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Large molecular-size hemicelluloses, including xyloglucan, decreased in quantity during development of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) petals, along with a relative increase in polymers with an average size of 10 kilodaltons. An enzyme extract from senescing petal tissue depolymerized the large molecular-size hemicelluloses in a pattern similar to that occurring in vivo during petal development. The products generated in vitro were composed of polymeric and monomeric components, the latter consisting primarily of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The 10 kilodalton hemicelluloses were resistant to in vitro enzymic hydrolysis. Glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size polymers provided evidence for the presence of xyloglucan with smaller amounts of arabinoxylan and arabinan. The 10 kilodalton polymers were enriched in mannosyl and 4-linked glucosyl residues, presumably derived from glucomannan. During petal development or enzymic hydrolysis, no change was observed in the relative glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size hemicelluloses. The in vitro activity of carnation petal enzymes active toward native hemicelluloses increased threefold at the onset of senescence and declined slightly thereafter. Gel chromatography revealed 23 and 12 kilodalton proteins with hemicellulase activity. The enzymes hydrolyzed the large molecular-size hemicelluloses extensively and without formation of monomers. Endoxylanase activity was detected in the partially purified enzyme preparation. Xyloglucan was depolymerized in the absence of cellulase activity...

‣ Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and characterized in carnation. The expression pattern of this gene was seen to depend on the organ, the cultivar and the time of cold storage. The variations observed in its expression could be related with the rooting ability of different carnation cultivars.

‣ Differential expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization in petals of opening carnation flowers

Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Flower opening is an event accompanied by morphological changes in petals which include elongation, expansion, and outward-curving. Petal cell growth is a fundamental process that underlies such phenomena, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Suppression subtractive hybridization was performed between petals during the early elongation period (stage 1) and during the opening period (stage 5) in carnation flowers and a pair of subtraction libraries abundant in differentially expressed genes was constructed at each stage. 393 cDNA clones picked up by differential screening out of 1728 clones were sequenced and 235 different cDNA fragments were identified, among which 211 did not match any known nucleotide sequence of carnation genes in the databases. BLASTX search of nucleotide sequences revealed that putative functions of the translational products can be classified into several categories including transcription, signalling, cell wall modification, lipid metabolism, and transport. Open reading frames of 15 selected genes were successfully determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Time-course analysis of these genes by real-time RT-PCR showed that transcript levels of several genes correlatively fluctuate in petals of opening carnation flowers...

‣ Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening

Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1–DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1–DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening.

‣ Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise)

Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms tested. On the basis of in vitro antagonistic activities, the best strains were selected and used in field trial to study the influence of these strains on the growth of carnation. Results have shown marked effect on growth parameters and disease incidence has also been reduced significantly.

‣ A Quantitative Framework for Flower Phenotyping in Cultivated Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/12/2013 Português
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Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features...

‣ Sequence Analysis of the Genome of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yosh
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. ‘Francesco’ was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568 887 315 bp, consisting of 45 088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16 644 bp and 60 737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1 287 144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp.

‣ Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings

Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A.; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2015 Português
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Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders’ rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

‣ Brief communication. The Evergreen gene is essential for flower initiation in carnation

Scovel, G; Altshuler, T; Liu, Z; Vainstein, A
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
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One of the leading cut-flower crops in the world, the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) has been subjected to intense breeding efforts for the past few hundred years. As an ornamental crop, flowering and flower architecture are major breeding targets that are constantly in demand. In an ongoing breeding program aimed at improving these characteristics, two mutants heterozygous for a mutation in a gene termed evergreen (e) were identified. In these mutants, spike-like clusters of bracteoles subtend each flower. Genetic analysis of the mutants confirmed the semidominant nature of this nuclear mutation and that the two original mutants were allelic at the evergreen locus. In homozygous mutant plants, a more severe phenotype was observed. Flower formation was completely blocked and spike-like clusters of bracteoles did not subtend any flowers. Morphological characterization of mutant plants revealed that vegetative growth and inflorescence structure are not affected by the mutant allele. In plants heterozygous for the evergreen mutation, fertility, petal and pistil length, calyx diameter, and stamen number were not affected. However, flowers from these heterozygous plants had a reduced number of petals...

‣ Report on the single-laboratory validation of a PCR-based Detection Method for Identification of Florigene™ IFD-25958-3 GM Carnation -Validation Report and Validated Method

SAVINI Cristian; BRUSTIO Roberta; BOGNI Alessia; MAZZARA Marco; KREYSA JOACHIM
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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In the context of the application for marketing submitted by Florigene Pty Ltd for a genetically modified carnation line (C/NL/09/01) IFD-25958-3, the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) has carried out a single-laboratory validation to assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method for detecting and identifying the carnation GM line IFD-25958-3. This report describes the results of tests carried out by the EU-RL GMFF on control samples provided by the method developer and according to the detection method described by the applicant. The taxon-specific method correctly detects the endogenous gene target in genomic DNA of a conventional carnation line (negative control) and in the genomic DNA of the GM carnation line; the same method can also detect the GM target DNA in IFD-25958-3 GM line (positive control) in the experimental conditions described in this report. The Limit of Detection (LOD) of the method has been estimated to be at least 50 copies for the taxon-specific gene and at least 100 copies for the GM insert, based on haploid genome copy number.; JRC.I.3-Molecular Biology and Genomics

‣ Report on the Single-Laboratory Validation of a DNA Extraction Method from Carnation Leaves - Validation Report and Validated Method

JACCHIA SARA; BOGNI Alessia; SAVINI Cristian; MAZZARA Marco; KREYSA JOACHIM
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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In the context of the application for marketing submitted by Florigene Pty Ltd for a genetically modified carnation line (C/NL/09/01) IFD-25958-3, the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) has carried out a single-laboratory validation to assess the performance of a DNA extraction protocol to extract genomic DNA from carnation plant leaves for subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection methods and its applicability on the samples provided by the applicant. This report describes the results of tests carried out by the EU-RL GMFF on samples provided by the method developer and according to the DNA extraction method described by the applicant. The data reported confirm that the extraction method, applied to samples of carnation leaves, produces DNA of suitable quantity and quality for subsequent PCR-based methods.; JRC.I.3-Molecular Biology and Genomics

‣ Report on the Single-laboratory Validation of a PCR-based Detection Method for Identification of Florigene™ 26407 GM Carnation

SAVINI Cristian; PINSKI Gregor; MAZZARA Marco; KREYSA JOACHIM
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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Suntory Holdings Ltd has submitted an application for marketing (C/NL/09/02) of a genetically modified carnation line 26407 (Unique identifier: IFD-26407-2). In this context, the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) was asked to carry out a singlelaboratory validation of the performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detecting and identifying the carnation GM line 26407, developed by the applicant. This report describes the results of this validation, carried out by the EU-RL GMFF with control samples provided by the applicant. The method is a duplex end-point PCR, where a carnation (taxon) target and a transgenic sequence are detected simultaneously. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method has been established to be at least 10 copies for the taxon-specific target and between 50 and 10 copies for the GM target, based on haploid genome copy number. The event-specificity of the method was assessed by the applicant as being sufficient. The EU-RL could verify that the taxon-specific primers correctly detect the endogenous gene target in genomic DNA of a conventional carnation line (negative control) and in the genomic DNA of the GM carnation line, while the GM target is detected by the GM specific primers only in genomic DNA of 26407 GM line (positive control).; JRC.I.3-Molecular Biology and Genomics

‣ Reducing properties, energy efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism in hyperhydric and normal carnation shoots cultured in vitro: a hypoxia stress?

Saher, Shady; Fernández-García, N.; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 100864 bytes; application/msword
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10 pages, 6 figures.; Hyperhydricity is considered as a physiological disorder that can be induced by different stressing conditions. In the present work we have studied the metabolic and energetic states of hyperhydric carnation shoots. We have evaluated the hypothesis that hypoxia stress is the main factor affecting the metabolism of hyperhydric leaves. Our results indicate a low level of ATP in hyperhydric tissues, but only slight modifications in pyridine nucleotide contents. Concurrently, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity in hyperhydric leaves was increased but glucokinase (GK; EC 2.7.1.2) activity was unchanged. We have observed that the metabolism of pyruvate was altered in hyperhydric tissues by the induction of pyruvate synthesis via NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40). The enzymes of the fermentative metabolism pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) were highly increased in hyperhydric leaves. Sucrose metabolism was modified in hyperhydric leaves with a high increase in the activity of both synthesis and catabolic enzymes. The analysis of the sucrose, glucose and fructose contents indicated that all of these sugars were accumulated in hyperhydric leaves. However...

‣ Pectin methyl esterases and pectins in normal and hyperhydric shoots of carnation cultured in vitro.

Saher, Shady; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 100864 bytes; application/msword
Português
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5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables.; Control and hyperhydric micropropagated plantlets from three carnation cultivars have been used to study their pectin composition and the activity of pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11). Pectins are a highly heterogeneous group of polymers that contribute to cell adhesion, cell wall architecture, and cell wall mechanical strength. Pectins control cell wall porosity and cell wall ionic status and are implicated in intercellular space development. The degree of esterification of pectins is controlled by the activity of cell wall PMEs; their different actions can affect the properties of the cell wall, which have been considered important with respect to controlling the development of hyperhydricity. The total pectins of hyperhydric leaves of the three varieties were significantly reduced in comparison with controls. The pectate fraction was significantly increased in hyperhydric leaves of all varieties while soluble pectins and protopectins were significantly lower. The PME activity of hyperhydric leaves was higher (4–10 times) compared to controls of the three varieties. Isoelectric focusing of PME isozymes revealed the presence of three isoforms; neutral PME activity was the major isozyme in control and hyperhydric leaves of the three varieties...

‣ Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) in vitro; Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) in vitro

Cuzzuol, G.R.F.; Gallo, L.A.; Almeida, M. de; Crocomo, O.J.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1995 Português
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Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP), baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA), 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.; Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP), low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio...

‣ A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

Eloy,Madalena; Cruz,Leonor
Fonte: Sociedade de Ciências Agrárias de Portugal Publicador: Sociedade de Ciências Agrárias de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenicity tests on china pink plants, re-isolation of the pathogen from inoculated plants and further PCR testing confirmed the identification of the bacterium. Infected plants came from an open air nursery and the whole production was destroyed to avoid dissemination of the pathogen.