The transition to adulthood is marked by new roles and responsibilities in such interrelated domains as education, employment, and family formation. This study investigates the capacity of adolescents on the verge of emancipation from the child welfare system to navigate this transition. To explore heterogeneity in adolescents’ preparation for independent living, person-oriented methods are applied to a large, representative sample of youth about to exit foster care. The analysis suggests four subpopulations defined by distinctive profiles on indicators reflecting multiple domains of life experience. Identifying the particular needs and challenges of subpopulations has implications for efforts to match adolescents aging out of the child welfare system with appropriate services.
Parents referred to the child welfare system following maltreatment allegations are often ill-prepared to constructively address child disruptive behaviors, despite the high prevalence of these behaviors among this population. Evidence-based parent-mediated interventions are effective in improving parenting skills; however, they are rarely offered within the child welfare system. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the fit and acceptability of one parent-mediated training program (Pathways Triple P) to case managers and parents within this system of care. We implemented Pathways Triple P and subsequently interviewed referring case managers and parents who had participated in the program. Case managers felt the program would work well within the existing child welfare system and would help them to better serve parents. They felt the program had potential to improve parenting skills and prevent future maltreatment. Parents appreciated the program’s use of diverse methods, and the variety of parenting techniques taught. In keeping with case manager expectations, participants reported that their enhanced parenting skills and new ability to use non-physical discipline resulted in a better home life. We conclude that Pathways Triple P fits well within the child welfare system and is acceptable to both case managers and parents within this system.
Caregivers serve as gatekeepers for children while in the child welfare system, but few studies have focused on the caregiver and the factors that influence the use of mental health services for the children under their care. The purpose of this study was to examine the child’s mental health need, the caregiver’s level of stress, depression, and social support, and the utilization of mental health services by children using the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (i.e., birth parent, relative caregiver, and foster parent). Data comes from the Patterns of Care (POC) study of five public sectors of care. The present study examined parents/caregivers and youth from the child welfare sector. Findings suggest that while birth parents were more likely to endorse more risk factors for themselves, and the children under their care had a higher level of mental health need, they were the least likely to utilize mental health services for the children under their care. Implications for the child welfare and mental health systems are discussed.
This study examined the impact of intensive case management (ICM) on decreasing child welfare system involvement in a sample of substance-dependent parenting women who participated in a welfare demonstration study comparing ICM to usual screen-and-refer models employed in welfare settings. Previous research established the effectiveness of ICM in both increasing engagement in substance abuse treatment and in promoting abstinence, and the current study tested whether ICM had downstream impacts on child welfare outcomes not directly targeted by the intervention. The sample included 302 mothers recruited from welfare offices and their 888 minor children. Child welfare outcomes were available from administrative records for four years following study entry and included incident reports and out-of-home child placements. An initial positive effect of ICM was found on child placements, but its impact lessened over time and was likely due to the increased contact with case managers that occurred early in the study. Overall, minimal benefits of ICM were found, suggesting that while ICM was effective in the areas of treatment engagement and abstinence, there were no downstream benefits for child welfare outcomes. Implications of findings in terms of increased need for cross-system collaboration are discussed.
While child welfare services are intended, in part, to diminish maltreatment’s negative impact on adolescents’ development, there is evidence that receiving child welfare services affects adolescents’ substance use adversely. The literature on the extent and correlates of this problem is still emerging. The present study aims to fill part of this gap by examining the association between baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors on engagement in substance use behavior over a period of 36 months for child welfare involved youth. It further compares substance use behavior between youth placed in out-of-home care and those who remained with their biological families. Data come from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a national probability study of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. The sample for this analysis was restricted to 827 youth who were 11 years or older at baseline data collection. Key findings include a high rate of social substance use (47.7%) and illicit substance use (17.4%). There was a limited role of protective factors in mitigating risk behavior for social substance use (caregiver connectedness; OR=0.51, p<0.05). Avoiding foster care placement was a protective factor for illicit substance use (OR=0.43...
This study uses data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to provide estimates of sexual risk behaviors for 877 youth, age 11–14 at baseline, in the child welfare system. It examines the association between baseline psychosocial risk and protective factors on engagement in sexual risk behaviors after 36 months. It further compares rates of sexual risk behaviors between youth placed in out-of-home care and those who remained with their biological family. Key findings include a high rate of pregnancy, a high percentage of youth who initiated sexual activity at or before age 13 as well as a limited role of protective factors in moderating sexual risk behaviors. A history of placement into out-of-home care is not significantly associated with greater engagement in sexual risk behaviors. Implications for intervention development and child welfare policy for this population are discussed.
There is a strong movement toward implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) in child welfare systems. The SafeCare parenting model is one of few parent-training models that addresses child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment. Here, the authors describe initial findings from a statewide effort to implement the EBP, SafeCare®, into a state child welfare system. A total of 50 agencies participated in training, with 295 individuals entering training to implement SafeCare. Analyses were conducted to describe the trainee sample, describe initial training and implementation indicators, and to examine correlates of initial training performance and implementation indicators. The quality of SafeCare uptake during training and implementation was high with trainees performing very well on training quizzes and role-plays, and demonstrating high fidelity when implementing SafeCare in the field (performing over 90% of expected behaviors). However, the quantity of implementation was generally low, with relatively few providers (only about 25%) implementing the model following workshop training. There were no significant predictors of training or implementation performance, once corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. The Discussion focuses on challenges to large-scale system-wide implementation of EBP.
The high needs of youth involved in the child welfare system and the poor long-term outcomes of former foster youth represent a significant systemic challenge. As part of a process to adapt an evidence-based parenting program for a child welfare population, we conducted a series of focus groups with child welfare staff, foster caregivers, and young adults who were involved in the foster system as teens. From these focus groups we learned that, although there is a need for evidence-based parenting programs for families involved in the child welfare setting, one of the significant barriers to program implementation is the lack of meaningful connection between caregivers and youth in their care. We will provide an in-depth discussion on the proposed adaptations to make Staying Connected more relevant for foster families, including the addition of skills training to help overcome some of the barriers to connection. Staying Connected holds the promise of cultivating more supportive home environments that have the capacity to nurture youths’ healthy development, including the avoidance of high-risk behaviors.
The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems that are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base needed to further refine practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.
Fonte: Harvard UniversityPublicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
This article argues that what we call the “child welfare” system has traditionally focused more on adult than on child welfare, placing greater emphasis on family preservation than warranted. It argues further that while the system purports to value research as a guide to policy, research is too often designed to serve predefined ideological goals, and to advance family preservation rather than examining what policies best serve child interests. It shows how these themes played out in two recent conferences sponsored by the author’s Child Advocacy Program at Harvard Law School. The first conference addressed claims made by the “Racial Disproportionality Movement,” and showed that actual black and white maltreatment rates closely track official rates, indicating that a child-friendly system would focus not on claimed racial discrimination but on reducing actual maltreatment. The second revealed the existence of many promising prevention and protection strategies, but also the ongoing power of the adult rights agenda and the constraints it puts on promising reforms and truly illuminating research. We could do better by children. But to do so we must transform the values that guide the child welfare system, honor child rights equally with adult...
Fonte: Harvard UniversityPublicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
This article, a revised speech, contends that what we call the child welfare system is skewed in an adult-rights direction, and is often quite hostile to child interests. The field is characterized by an unusual amount of social science research, which should be helpful in guiding policy. However that research is similarly skewed in an adult-rights direction. This is largely because the same entities fund the research as fund policy advocacy, and they have promoted research designed to validate the kinds of family preservation policies they favor, policies that are often inconsistent with child best interests. We need to develop new mechanisms to fund the kind of truly independent research that would illuminate the child-best-interest issues, and enable policy-makers to design a truly child-friendly child welfare system.
Differential Response (DR) represents the most important child welfare initiative of the day, with DR programs rapidly expanding throughout the country. It would radically change our child welfare system, diverting the great majority of Child Protective Services (CPS) cases to an entirely voluntary system. This article describes the serious risks DR poses for children, and the flawed research being used to promote DR as “evidence-based.” It puts the DR movement in historical context, as one of a series of extreme family preservation movements supported by a corrupt merger of advocacy with research. It argues for reform that would honor children’s rights, confront the problems of poverty underlying child maltreatment in a serious way, and expand rather than reduce the capacity of CPS to address child maltreatment. It calls for a change in the dynamics of child welfare research and policy so that we can avoid history endlessly repeating itself.
The objective of this study is to 1)
review the situation and trends in terms of child welfare
outcomes in Russia; 2) review and evaluate social policy
responses; 3) identify major issues and challenges; and 4)
propose policies and measures that would improve child
well-being outcomes. The study consists of two parts. the
first part reviews child welfare outcomes during the 1990s,
focusing on child poverty and vulnerability, as well as
health, education, and nutrition status. Chapter 2 links
child well-being outcomes to the protracted economic crisis
and related labor market developments, high inequality,
rapid demographic and family formation changes, as well as
generally insufficient, severely fiscally constrained and
ineffective policy responses. Chapter 3 examines public
policy responses in social protection, health and education,
focusing on safety nets particularly policies targeting
families and children. the second part of the study focuses
on two groups of children identified as particularly
vulnerable in Russia: children deprived of birth family
upbringing and children with disabilities. the chapter on
the former highlights their growing numbers against a
continued decline in the child population...
This discussion paper presents the results from the second year (Stage Two) of the Kuranda community case study for the project on Indigenous families and the welfare system. Twenty-nine key reference people were interviewed about the factors influencing the delivery of welfare income by government to Indigenous families for the care of children.
Many of the key findings of the initial 1999 survey were confirmed in this follow-up study. Families and households remain highly dependent on income support via the CDEP scheme or benefits and pensions. The key role played by older women in the care of children was emphasised once again. The additional year of data enabled the documentation of the high level of mobility within the community. Between the 1999 and 2000 surveys, 84 individuals or 47 per cent of the 1999 survey participants had changed their place of residence. Some of these people moved as individuals and others as part of a family group. The results emphasise the importance of the extended family network in the care of children.
The results raise a number of important issues for policy and service delivery. The fact that child-care is family-based rather than household-based needs to be recognised in the delivery of services to children. Many children have multiple carers who are in need of financial support for the period in which they are responsible for a child. There therefore needs to be flexibility in the arrangements so that the relevant family payments are going to the person actually caring for a child. The paper emphasises the need for a holistic approach to delivering assistance to children. This includes the importance of increasing the opportunities for employment and training among Indigenous adults...
This dissertation examines changes in the mode of governance in the contemporary United States using societal responses to child abuse as an example. The phrase "child abuse" is only forty years old yet it has become the center of large public bureaucracies in every state. The history of the child welfare is reviewed with particular attention to the increased legal protection for abused and neglected children and how these rights reorganized the responsibilities of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services.
The ethnographic section details the crisis in the Illinois child welfare system after the death of a three-year old child in 1993. The creation of an Inspector General's Office is documented and several of their reform initiatives are considered in some detail, including the development of a Code of Ethics and the use of mediation in servicing families. One conclusion is that traditional agency-based services are being displaced by services offered within networks of providers. These network structures are built around a specific subject, the "child at risk." The implications of these developments for modes of governance in contemporary society are examined.
This was a qualitative research study involving Aboriginal offenders at a Federal institution in the Ontario Region. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the Aboriginal offenders‘ perspectives on their experiences that led to their incarceration. The major research questions guiding this study include:
1. What experiences do Aboriginal offenders feel contributed to their incarceration?
2. What do Aboriginal offenders feel could have prevented their incarceration?
3. How do Aboriginal offenders describe their experiences with the Residential School and child welfare systems?
4. What are the Aboriginal offenders' perspectives on their experiences with CSC‘s healing and intervention programs?
One of the goals of this study was to provide information to CSC to improve the reintegration programs and help Aboriginal offenders become law abiding citizens. The data was collected from individual interviews, which was analyzed in detail to develop themes.
The analyses sought for stories that captured the depth of the experiences that led to the Aboriginal offenders‘ incarcerations.
This study provided the personal perspective of the offenders as to how the Residential School and child welfare system have impacted their lives, and offers some insight into the over-representation of Aboriginal offenders in the prison system. This study also demonstrated how the socio-economic situation of these Aboriginal offenders played a role in their path towards prison. It is important to capture the voices of the
Aboriginal offenders‘ experiences towards incarceration. Their stories offer ways to help other Aboriginal people.
We must have Aboriginal community members involved in the lives of Aboriginal youth to prevent them from getting into trouble...
From its inception, Canada's 'Indian policy' has sought to undermine the bond between indigenous children and their communities. Each era has seen a new reason and corresponding tactic to remove indigenous children. They have been institutionalized in residential schools, placed in foster homes, provincial 'care' facilities, and adopted by Euro-Canadian families. While it is widely accepted that the forceful removal of indigenous children during the residential school era and the "Sixties Scoop" was a colonial strategy, contemporary child welfare practices seem to escape the same scrutiny. This seems to be the case even though indigenous children continue to be removed en masse and are vastly overrepresented in the Canadian child welfare system. Indeed, there are more indigenous children in 'care' today than ever before in Canadian history, including the residential school era and following the "Sixties Scoop". Given these trends the colonial effect of contemporary child welfare practices seems evident.
This project thus seeks to problematize child welfare practices in relation to indigenous peoples. In particular, it is the aim of this thesis to shed light on some of the narratives that underlie these practices. Through a critical discourse analysis this thesis illuminates how news media in Alberta and Manitoba disseminate controlling images of indigenous peoples and their children. I argue that the discourses in both provinces normalize the removal of indigenous children while naturalizing colonial control.; Thesis (Master...
In Canada, under the guise of austerity measures, the state is increasingly distancing itself from the responsibility of helping families raise their children (Vandenbeld Giles 2012; Walmsley and Tessier 2015). This distancing is evident in Canada’s provincial legal-judicial child welfare systems, where the focus on protective child services significantly outweighs preventative programming and family support. A tenant of neoliberalism, a focus on individual responsibility is evident in the increasing concern that parents are risk factors in their children’s lives (Brown 2006; Romagnoli and Wall 2012). This ideology is apparent in the constructed “bad” mother label applied to mothers involved with Canadian child welfare, where 89% of involved caregivers are biological mothers (CIS 2008:40). Focusing specifically on the Ontario child welfare system, this case study examines how manufactured ideologies of the “bad” mother become synonymous with marginalized mothers. Using the theoretical lens of Pierre Bourdieu and the material-feminist work of Angela McRobbie, the institution, practices, and policies of Ontario child welfare are discussed as both class and racially biased. Further, prescriptive ideologies of intensive mothering...
This article addresses the issue of Racial Disproportionality in child welfare - the disproportionate representation of black children in the foster care system as compared to their representation in the general population. This is now the hot issue in the child welfare world, with a powerful coalition of groups known as the Casey-CSSP Alliance claiming that Racial Disproportionality is the central problem that state and federal policy makers should address. This Alliance includes the foundations which provide virtually all the private funding available for research and advocacy in child welfare, joined by organizations and individuals who with these foundations have played a major role in shaping policy over the past decades. The Alliance takes the position that Racial Disproportionality results from discrimination by child welfare decision makers. It argues for reducing the number of black children removed to foster care to achieve what it terms "racial equity" - the removal of black children at the same rate as white children. The Alliance has already had significant impact. Child welfare leaders proclaim that this is the major issue of the day. Many states have accepted the Alliance's lead in analyzing the Racial Disproportionality problem and seeking solutions. Important federal officials and agencies have endorsed the Alliance's approach...
In 2011, researchers from the Urban Institute launched a three-year study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth; young men who have sex with men (YMSM); and young women who have sex with women (YWSW) engaged in survival sex in New York City. Working in partnership with the New York City–based organization Streetwise and Safe (SAS), researchers trained youth leaders to conduct in-depth interviews with a total of 283 youth who engaged in survival sex in New York City and self-identified as LGBTQ, YMSM, or YWSW.
In February 2015, we released the first report in this series, which focused specifically on the experiences and needs of youth engaging in survival sex. In this report, we focus on the youths’ interactions with juvenile and criminal justice systems, in addition to the child welfare system, from the perspectives of both the youths and stakeholders involved in these systems.
Locked In features data collected from youth respondents about their experiences of arrest and court involvement, in combination with in-depth interviews with 68 criminal justice, child welfare, and youth-serving professionals across 28 organizations.