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‣ Evolução de cromossomos sexuais em Eigenmannia virescens (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes); Evolution of sex chromosomes in the genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes)

Henning, Frederico
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2007 Português
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Cromossomos sexuais evoluíram repetidas vezes independentemente nos grandes grupos de vertebrados. Sistemas sexuais altamente diferenciados e antigos são caracterizados por grandes diferenças morfológicas e de conteúdo gênico entre os dois cromossomos homólogos onde a recombinação é restrita a uma pequena região homóloga. Os sistemas recentes característicos de peixes caracterizam-se pela similaridade entre os cromossomos X e Y (ou Z e W), nos quais as diferenças observadas freqüentemente envolvem a presença de heterocromatina, translocações e inversões. A recombinação ocorre entre o par sexual na maior parte de sua extensão, sendo inibida apenas na região diretamente relacionada com a determinação sexual. Notavelmente, sistemas diferentes de determinação podem ser encontrados em espécies, ou mesmo populações. O gênero Eigenmannia compreende grupos de espécies crípticas do ponto de vista morfológico que exibem variação no número cromossômico e podem apresentar sistemas sexuais XY ou ZW, incluindo sistemas múltiplos (com translocação Y-autossomo). Estes sistemas estão entre os mais recentes descritos (<16ma) e estão dispostos de forma desordenada em árvores de relações filogenéticas, sugerindo origens múltiplas. No presente estudo...

‣ Evolução cromossômica: estudo da variabilidade cariotípica em Platyrrhini e das homeologias e sintenias com cromossomos humanos; Chromosome evolution: Karyotype variability in Platyrrhini and studies of sinteny and homologies between human chromosomes

Iughetti, Cristiani Gifalli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2008 Português
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Estudamos os cariótipos de espécimes de macacos brasileiros (Platyrrhini, Primates) com técnicas citogenéticas tradicionais e de FISH com as sondas totais dos cromossomos 14, 15 e X humanos e do cromossomo Y de Brachyteles arachnoides obtida por microdissecção cromossômica. Vinte e quatro espécimes de Alouatta guariba clamitans, doze machos e doze fêmeas foram estudados. Para os machos, encontramos um número diplóide de 2n = 49, devido à ausência aparente do cromossomo Y provavelmente decorrente de uma translocação Y-autossomo, e 2n = 46 cromossomos, com variação nas fórmulas cromossômicas com 17, 19, 20, 21 ou 24 cromossomos metacêntricos ou submetacêntricos e 22, 28, 29, 30 ou 32 acrocêntricos. Para as fêmeas, uma variabilidade maior no número diplóide foi observada com 46, 48 e 50 cromossomos e as fórmulas cromossômicas encontradas mostraram 18, 19, 20, 21, 27 ou 28 cromossomos metacêntricos ou submetacêntricos e 18, 19, 27, 30, 31 e 32 acrocêntricos. Os cromossomos X eram submetacêntricos. Pares heteromórficos foram observados. Uma fêmea com 48 cromossomos foi descrita pela primeira vez, este número diplóide só havia sido descrito em um único exemplar macho. A confirmação da subespécie dos indivíduos analisados se deu pela presença do par cromossômico característico de Alouatta guariba clamitans...

‣ Caracterização citogenética molecular de cromossomos marcadores extranumerários; Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

Laus, Ana Carolina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2008 Português
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Rearranjos cromossômicos envolvendo a presença de cromossomos marcadores extranumerário são achados citogenéticos freqüentes em pacientes que apresentam deficiência mental, alterações de crescimento, dismorfias e/ou malformações. A presença desse material é responsável por trissomia ou tetrassomia parcial de determinadas regiões cromossômicas, causando quadros clínicos distintos e inespecíficos. A variabilidade fenotípica está relacionada principalmente com os diferentes graus de mosaicismo, os genes presentes na região adicional, o cromossomo de origem, entre outros fatores. Sendo assim, a caracterização desse material cromossômico é de importância fundamental para a determinação do prognóstico e do aconselhamento genético dos pacientes e suas famílias. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise de cromossomos marcadores extranumerários por meio de técnicas de citogenética convencional e molecular. Foram selecionados onze pacientes que são acompanhados pelo o Serviço de Genética Médica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto USP, todos com diagnóstico citogenético convencional por bandeamentos GTG de cromossomo marcador extranumerário. Para determinação da origem e caracterização dos cromossomos marcadores foram aplicadas as técnicas de Cariótipo Espectral (SKY) e de Hibridação in situ Fluorescente (FISH). Em dez pacientes foi possível determinar a origem e composição dos marcadores. Dois pacientes apresentam cromossomos marcadores identificados como duplicações invertidas do cromossomo 15...

‣ Cytogenetic analysis of A- and B-chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus (Teleostei, Prochilodontidae) using different restriction enzyme banding and staining methods

Maistro, E. L.; Oliveira, C.; Foresti, F.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 119-125
Português
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Different cytogenetic techniques were used to analyse the chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus with the main objective of comparing the base composition of A- and B-chromosomes. The results of digestion of chromosomes with 10 different restriction endonucleases (REs), silver staining, CMA(3) staining and C-banding indicated the existence of different classes of highly repetitive DNA in the A-set and also suggested the existence of compositional differences between the chromatin of A- and B-chromosomes. The 5-BrdU incorporation technique showed a late replicating pattern in all B-chromosomes and in some heterochromatic pericentromeric regions of A-chromosomes. The cleavage with RE BamHI produced a band pattern in all chromosomes of P. lineatus which permitted the tentative pairing of homologues in the karyotype of this species. We concluded that the combined use of the above techniques can contribute to the correct identification of chromosomes and the karyotypic analysis in fishes. on the basis of the results, some aspects of chromosome structure and the origin of the B-chromosomes in P. lineatus are discussed.

‣ Identification and description of distinct B chromosomes in Cyphocharax modestus (Characiformes, Curimatidae)

Santos, Lessandra Viviane de Rosa; Foresti, Fausto; Martins, Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Wasko, Adriane Pinto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 265-269
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Cytogenetic analyses were performed in Cyphocharax modestus, collected at Paranapanema River and Tietê River (São Paulo State, Brazil). A karyotype with 2n = 54 chromosomes was observed in the animals from both Brazilian freshwater river systems. One to four B chromosomes were also detected in individuals from the Paranapanema River, which represents the probable first report of more than a single supernumerary element in a species of the Curimatidae group. C-banding revealed centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin blocks in several chromosomes of the normal karyotype complement of C. modestus. Moreover, while some B chromosomes were characterized by the complete absence of C-bands, others were totally heterochromatic. Although there was a prevalence of B chromosomes in males of C. modestus, at least one supernumerary element was found in males and/or females of several other populations of the species, which suggests that the presence of these chromosomes seems to represent a general trait of C. modestus. A possible origin of the described B chromosomes may be related to the occurrence of a chromosome non-disjunction followed by the loss of euchromatic segments...

‣ Cytogenetic characterization of distinct B chromosomes in a population of the fish Astyanax bockmanni (Teleostei, Characiformes)

Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Pansonato-Alves, Jose Carlos; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio
Fonte: Univ Florence Botany Inst Publicador: Univ Florence Botany Inst
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 229-233
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 10/06919-8; Processo FAPESP: 11/15007-5; Individuals of Astyanax bockmanni from one population belonging to the Paranapanema River basin, southeastern Brazil, were cytogenetically examined. In the present paper, we report a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, with some individuals bearing additional chromosomes, characterized as different variants of B chromosomes. The B microchromosome of acrocentric morphology (B-a) was the most frequent type in this population (77.7%). Two other variants were identified as metacentric B chromosomes, but of distinct sizes, characterized as macrochromosome (B-M) and microchromosome (B-m). Conspicuous heterochromatic blocks were observed in the terminal regions of some chromosomes of the standard karyotype and partially heterochromatic blocks were detected in all B chromosomes. 18S ribosomal RNA genes were distributed in the terminal region of several chromosomes, but were not located on the B chromosomes.

‣ Phosphorylation of Histone H3S10 in Animal Chromosomes: Is There a Uniform Pattern?

Sotero-Caio, C. G.; de Souza, M. J.; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Brasileiro-Vidal, A. C.; Guerra, M.
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 111-117
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Phosphorylation of serine 10 in histone H3 (H3S10ph) has been extensively analyzed and appears to be a conserved chromatin change associated with chromosome condensation in different eukaryotic organisms. In this work, we report the distribution of H3S10ph during meiosis in monocentric and holokinetic chromosomes of 6 insect species and in mitotic chromosomes of 7 mammalian species, aiming to investigate the labeling patterns in phylogenetically distant groups. The results indicated a very similar phosphorylation timing and distribution pattern among insects. The sex chromosomes of insects analyzed were always undercondensed and hypophosphorylated. Similarly, the micro chromosomes of the bug Pachylis aff pharaonis were also undercondensed and hypophosphorylated. Holokinetic chromosomes of bugs and monocentric chromosomes of grasshoppers and beetles displayed identical phosphorylation pattern in spite of the difference in the centromere type. Among mammals, a uniform chromosome phosphorylation was observed in marsupials, whereas bat chromosomes displayed a longitudinal banding pattern. These data indicate that, in general, the intensity of H3S10 phosphorylation in animal chromosomes is variable among the distinct chromosome types and associated with the degree of chromatin condensation at metaphase...

‣ Cytogenetic analysis of A-, B-chromosomes and ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of Characidium gomesi (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae)

Maistro, Edson Luis; Jesus, Célia Maria de; Oliveira, Claudio; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Foresti, Fausto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 181-186
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Different cytogenetic techniques were used to analyze the chromosomes of Characidium gomesi with the main objective of comparing the base composition of ZZ/ZW sex-chromosomes, B-chromosomes and the heterochromatin of A-chromosomes. The results of digestion of chromosomes with AluI restriction endonuclease (RE), silver and CMA3 staining, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 18S rDNA probe suggested the existence of compositional differences between the heterochromatin of ZZ/ZW sex-chromosomes, A- and B-chromosomes, and indicated the presence of different numbers and morphology of B-chromosomes in the samples of this population.

‣ Common Descent of B Chromosomes in Two Species of the Fish Genus Prochilodus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae)

Voltolin, T. A.; Alves, J. C. Pansonato; Senhorini, J. A.; Foresti, F.; Camacho, J. P. M.; Porto-Foresti, F.
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 206-211
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); To ascertain the origin of B chromosomes in 2 fish species of the genus Prochilodus, i.e. P. lineatus and P. nigricans, we microdissected them and generated B-specific DNA probes. These probes were used to perform chromosome painting in both species and in 3 further ones belonging to the same genus (P. argenteus, P. brevis and P. costatus). Both probes hybridized with the B chromosomes in P. lineatus and P. nigricans, but with none of the chromosomes in the 5 species. This indicates that the B chromosomes have low similarity with DNAs located in the A chromosomes and suggests the possibility that the B chromosomes in the 2 species have a common origin. The most parsimonious explanation would imply intergeneric hybridization in an ancestor of P. lineatus and P. nigricans yielding the B chromosome as a byproduct, which remained in these 2 species after their phylogenetic origin, but was perhaps lost in other Prochilodus species. This hypothesis predicts that B chromosomes are old genomic elements in this genus, and this could be tested once a species from a relative genus would be found showing homology of its A chromosomes with the B-probes employed here...

‣ Identification and description of distinct B chromosomes in Cyphocharax modestus (Characiformes, Curimatidae)

Santos,Lessandra Viviane De Rosa; Foresti,Fausto; Martins,Cesar; Oliveira,Claudio; Wasko,Adriane Pinto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Cytogenetic analyses were performed in Cyphocharax modestus, collected at Paranapanema River and Tietê River (São Paulo State, Brazil). A karyotype with 2n = 54 chromosomes was observed in the animals from both Brazilian freshwater river systems. One to four B chromosomes were also detected in individuals from the Paranapanema River, which represents the probable first report of more than a single supernumerary element in a species of the Curimatidae group. C-banding revealed centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin blocks in several chromosomes of the normal karyotype complement of C. modestus. Moreover, while some B chromosomes were characterized by the complete absence of C-bands, others were totally heterochromatic. Although there was a prevalence of B chromosomes in males of C. modestus, at least one supernumerary element was found in males and/or females of several other populations of the species, which suggests that the presence of these chromosomes seems to represent a general trait of C. modestus. A possible origin of the described B chromosomes may be related to the occurrence of a chromosome non-disjunction followed by the loss of euchromatic segments, an event that should have occurred in chromosomes that present conspicuous centromeric heterochromatic blocks and even in chromosomes that lack C-bands in this region...

‣ Occurrence of B chromosomes in Tetragonisca Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): a new contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus

Barth,Adriane; Fernandes,Anderson; Pompolo,Silvia das Graças; Costa,Marco Antônio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34A M. T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n=18in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32A M+2A Mc and 2K = 32A M+2A Mc + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA3/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA3 positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed.

‣ Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes

Veyrunes, F.; Waters, P.; Miethke, P.; Rens, W.; McMillan, D.; Alsop, A.; Grutzner, F.; Deakin, J.; Whittington, C.; Schatzkamer, K.; Kremitzki, C.; Graves, T.; Ferguson-Smith, M.; Warren, W.; Graves, J.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-borne gene (possibly DMRT1) affects male determination. As the most basal mammal group, the egg-laying monotremes are ideal for determining how the therian XY system evolved. The platypus has an extraordinary sex chromosome complex, in which five X and five Y chromosomes pair in a translocation chain of alternating X and Y chromosomes. We used physical mapping to identify genes on the pairing regions between adjacent X and Y chromosomes. Most significantly, comparative mapping shows that, contrary to earlier reports, there is no homology between the platypus and therian X chromosomes. Orthologs of genes in the conserved region of the human X (including SOX3, the gene from which SRY evolved) all map to platypus chromosome 6, which therefore represents the ancestral autosome from which the therian X and Y pair derived. Rather, the platypus X chromosomes have substantial homology with the bird Z chromosome (including DMRT1) and to segments syntenic with this region in the human genome. Thus...

‣ Higher-order genome organization in platypus and chicken sperm and repositioning of sex chromosomes during mammalian evolution

Tsend-Ayush, E.; Dodge, N.; Mohr, J.; Casey, A.; Himmelbauer, H.; Kremitzki, C.; Schatzkamer, K.; Graves, T.; Warren, W.; Grutzner, F.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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In mammals, chromosomes occupy defined positions in sperm, whereas previous work in chicken showed random chromosome distribution. Monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are the most basal group of living mammals. They have elongated sperm like chicken and a complex sex chromosome system with homology to chicken sex chromosomes. We used platypus and chicken genomic clones to investigate genome organization in sperm. In chicken sperm, about half of the chromosomes investigated are organized non-randomly, whereas in platypus chromosome organization in sperm is almost entirely non-random. The use of genomic clones allowed us to determine chromosome orientation and chromatin compaction in sperm. We found that in both species chromosomes maintain orientation of chromosomes in sperm independent of random or non-random positioning along the sperm nucleus. The distance of loci correlated with the total length of sperm nuclei, suggesting that chromatin extension depends on sperm elongation. In platypus, most sex chromosomes cluster in the posterior region of the sperm nucleus, presumably the result of postmeiotic association of sex chromosomes. Chicken and platypus autosomes sharing homology with the human X chromosome located centrally in both species suggesting that this is the ancestral position. This suggests that in some therian mammals a more anterior position of the X chromosome has evolved independently.; Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush...

‣ Preferential Occupancy of R2 Retroelements on the B Chromosomes of the Grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

Montiel, Eugenia E.; Cabrero, Josefa; Ruiz-Est??vez, Mercedes; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.; Mart??nez Camacho, Juan Pedro; L??pez-Le??n, Mar??a Dolores
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes...

‣ Single origin of sex chromosomes and multiple origins of B chromosomes in fish genus Characidium

Pansonato-Alves, Jos?? Carlos; Alves Serrano, ??rica; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Mart??nez Camacho, Juan Pedro; Costa Silva, Guilherme Jos?? da; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Ferreira Artoni, Roberto; Oliveira, Cl??udio; Foresti, Fausto
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Chromosome painting with DNA probes obtained from supernumerary (B) and sex chromosomes in three species of fish genus Characidium (C. gomesi, C. pterostictum and C. oiticicai) showed a close resemblance in repetitive DNA content between B and sex chromosomes in C. gomesi and C. pterostictum. This suggests an intraspecific origin for B chromosomes in these two species, probably deriving from sex chromosomes. In C. oiticicai, however, a DNA probe obtained from its B chromosome hybridized with the B but not with the A chromosomes, suggesting that the B chromosome in this species could have arisen interspecifically, although this hypothesis needs further investigation. A molecular phylogenetic analysis performed on nine Characidium species, with two mtDNA genes, showed that the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in these species is a derived condition, and that their origin could have been unique, a conclusion also supported by interspecific chromosome painting with a CgW probe derived from the W chromosome in C. gomesi. Summing up, our results indicate that whereas heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the genus Characidium appear to have had a common and unique origin, B chromosomes may have had independent origins in different species. Our results also show that molecular phylogenetic analysis is an excellent complement for cytogenetic studies by unveiling the direction of evolutionary chromosome changes.

‣ In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes

Grutzner, F.; Rens, W.; Tsend-Ayush, E.; El-Mogharbel, N.; O'Brien, P.; Jones, R.; Ferguson-Smith, M.; Graves, J.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males1, or of both sexes2–4, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants5 and insects6 but are rare in vertebrates7. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine sex and produce balanced gametes has been controversial for decades1– 4. Here we demonstrate that platypus have five malespecific chromosomes (Y chromosomes) and five chromosomes present in one copy in males and two copies in females (X chromosomes). These ten chromosomes form a multivalent chain at male meiosis, adopting an alternating pattern to segregate into XXXXX-bearing and YYYYY-bearing sperm. Which, if any, of these sex chromosomes bears one or more sex-determining genes remains unknown. The largest X chromosome, with homology to the human X chromosome, lies at one end of the chain, and a chromosome with homology to the bird Z chromosome lies near the other end. This suggests an evolutionary link between mammal and bird sex chromosome systems, which were previously thought to have evolved independently.; Frank Grützner...

‣ The multiple sex chromosomes of platypus and echidna are not completely identical and several share homology with the avian Z

Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia CM; Grutzner, Frank; Clarke, Oliver; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Skelton, Helen; Wallis, Mary C; Johnston, Steve; Veyrunes, Frederic; Graves, Jennifer AM; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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BACKGROUND Sex-determining systems have evolved independently in vertebrates. Placental mammals and marsupials have an XY system, birds have a ZW system. Reptiles and amphibians have different systems, including temperature-dependent sex determination, and XY and ZW systems that differ in origin from birds and placental mammals. Monotremes diverged early in mammalian evolution, just after the mammalian clade diverged from the sauropsid clade. Our previous studies showed that male platypus has five X and five Y chromosomes, no SRY, and DMRT1 on an X chromosome. In order to investigate monotreme sex chromosome evolution, we performed a comparative study of platypus and echidna by chromosome painting and comparative gene mapping. RESULTS Chromosome painting reveals a meiotic chain of nine sex chromosomes in the male echidna and establishes their order in the chain. Two of those differ from those in the platypus, three of the platypus sex chromosomes differ from those of the echidna and the order of several chromosomes is rearranged. Comparative gene mapping shows that, in addition to bird autosome regions, regions of bird Z chromosomes are homologous to regions in four platypus X chromosomes, that is, X1, X2, X3, X5, and in chromosome Y1. CONCLUSION Monotreme sex chromosomes are easiest to explain on the hypothesis that autosomes were added sequentially to the translocation chain...

‣ Un criblage ciblant de nouveaux facteurs impliqués dans l’assemblage mitotique des chromosomes dans le nématode C. elegans

Ranjan, Rajesh
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La division cellulaire est un processus fondamental des êtres vivants. À chaque division cellulaire, le matériel génétique d'une cellule mère est dupliqué et ségrégé pour produire deux cellules filles identiques; un processus nommé la mitose. Tout d'abord, la cellule doit condenser le matériel génétique pour être en mesure de séparer mécaniquement et également le matériel génétique. Une erreur dans le niveau de compaction ou dans la dynamique de la mitose occasionne une transmission inégale du matériel génétique. Il est suggéré dans la littérature que ces phénomènes pourraient causé la transformation des cellules cancéreuses. Par contre, le mécanisme moléculaire générant la coordination des changements de haut niveau de la condensation des chromosomes est encore incompris. Dans les dernières décennies, plusieurs approches expérimentales ont identifié quelques protéines conservées dans ce processus. Pour déterminer le rôle de ces facteurs dans la compaction des chromosomes, j'ai effectué un criblage par ARNi couplé à de l'imagerie à haute-résolution en temps réel chez l'embryon de C. elegans. Grâce à cette technique, j'ai découvert sept nouvelles protéines requises pour l'assemblage des chromosomes mitotiques...

‣ Aportes al conocimiento de los cromosomas holocíneticos de Hemiptera: estudios citogenéticos y evolutivos en especies de Cimicomorpha; Contributions to the knowledge of the holokinetic chromosomes of Hemiptera: cytogenetic and evolutionary studies in species of Cimicomorpha

Poggio, María Georgina
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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El presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral se basa en el estudio citogenético clásico, molecular y evolutivo de especies de insectos hematófagos y predadores pertenecientes a las familias Cimicidae y Reduviidae del infraorden Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), que se caracterizan por presentar cromosomas holocinéticos. Se analizó el complemento cromosómico, el desarrollo meiótico masculino, el contenido, distribución y composición de la heterocromatina y el número y la localización de los genes de ADN ribosomal en las siguientes especies: Acanthocrios furnarii 2n=10A+XY/XX (macho/hembra) y Psitticimex uritui 2n=28A+X1X2Y (macho) (Cimicidae: Haematosiphoninae); Brontostoma colossus 2n=28A+XY (macho) y B. discus 2n=34A+X1X2Y (macho) (Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae); Microtomus lunifer 2n=26A+2m+X1X2Y (macho) (Reduviidae: Hammacerinae); Apiomerus lanipes 2n=22A+XY (macho), Atrachelus (Atrachelus) cinereus 2n=26A+XY/XX (macho/hembra), Cosmoclopius annulosus 2n=24A+X1X2X3Y/X1X1X2X2X3X3 (macho/hembra), Graptocleptes bicolor 2n=22A+XY/XX (macho/hembra) y Zelus obscuridorsis 2n=16A+XY/XX (macho/hembra) (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae); Zelurus femoralis longispinis 2n=20A+XY/X1X2Y (macho) (Reduviidae: Reduviinae); Rhodnius prolixus 2n=20A+XY/XX (macho/hembra) y Triatoma infestans 2n=20A+XY (macho) (Reduviidae: Triatominae). El análisis citogenético clásico realizado en ejemplares de A. furnarii y P. uritui demuestra que la meiosis masculina en ambas especies es aquiasmática y de tipo collochores ...

‣ In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes

Gruetzner, Frank; Rens, Willem; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Jones, Russell C; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: Macmillan Publishers Ltd Publicador: Macmillan Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males1, or of both sexes2-1, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants5 and insects6 but are rare in vertebrates7. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine sex and produce balanced gametes has been controversial for decades1-4. Here we demonstrate that platypus have five male-specific chromosomes (Y chromosomes) and five chromosomes present in one copy in males and two copies in females (X chromosomes). These ten chromosomes form a multivalent chain at male meiosis, adopting an alternating pattern to segregate into XXXXX-bearing and YYYYY-bearing sperm. Which, if any, of these sex chromosomes bears one or more sex-determining genes remains unknown. The largest X chromosome, with homology to the human X chromosome, lies at one end of the chain, and a chromosome with homology to the bird Z chromosome lies near the other end. This suggests an evolutionary link between mammal and bird sex chromosome systems, which were previously thought to have evolved independently.