Página 2 dos resultados de 2122 itens digitais encontrados em 0.323 segundos

‣ A taxonomy and analysis of web wrapping technologies

Chuang, Shin Wee, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 p.; 6449867 bytes; 6449671 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Web wrapping technologies were developed in the 90s in the middle of the dot com boom to facilitate the extraction of web data. In recent years, the underlying architecture of web wrapping technologies is also been used for other applications such as information integration between legacy systems in large enterprises. Despite the relatively widespread use of this technology, there is currently no uniform way of characterizing web wrapping toolkits, unlike say, a digital camera which can be described in terms of the size of its sensor or storage capacity. The focus of this thesis therefore is to develop a taxonomy or classification scheme that can be used to effectively describe a web wrapping toolkit in terms of its retrieval, extraction and conversion features. For this purpose, some 20 toolkits are studied and of which, verification tests were performed on 9 of these toolkits where evaluation copies are available. The last part of the thesis discusses two policy Acts that are closely related to data extraction. They are the EU Database Directive and the HR3261 Database and Collection of Information Misappropriation Act. A comparative analysis between the two Acts was performed and their respective implications on the database producing industry were examined.; by Shin Wee Chuang.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Strategy for penetrating engineering & construction markets in Southeast Asia for Singapore through BOT contract; Strategy for penetrating engineering and construction markets in Southeast Asia for Singapore through Build-Operate-Transfer contract

Fung, Dominic Chi Ho, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.; 9630539 bytes; 9630299 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Dominic Chi Ho Fung.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2002.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 112-116).

‣ Molecular and genetic analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts : sources and genotypes in the environment

Jellison, Kristen L. (Kristen Leigh), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 233 p.; 8467708 bytes; 8467517 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Cryptosporidium parvum is responsible for an acute gastrointestinal disease that is self-limiting in immunocompetent people but potentially life-threatening for the immunocompromised. Until recently, C. parvum was the only species of Cryptosporidium known to cause disease in people, however, reports of C. muris, C. felis, and C. meleagridis in immunocompetent adults have raised questions about the extent to which Cryptosporidium spp. are infectious for humans. Until more is known, presence of any Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment should be considered a potential public health risk. Cryptosporidium spp. can infect a wide range of animal hosts, and environmental sources may include wildlife, agricultural animals, or human sewage. Transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. via fecally-contaminated food and water has been well-documented, and outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred around the world. The exogenous stage of the organism, the oocyst, is difficult to remove from drinking water supplies because it is resistant to chlorine disinfection and inefficiently filtered. Therefore, a better understanding of the sources, fate, and transport of oocysts in the environment is critical to protect source waters from oocyst contamination. In this work...

‣ Innovation in the AEC industry through wireless sensor networks; Innovation in the architecture, engineering and construction industry through wireless sensor networks

Ber Marti, Jordi, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves; 3978444 bytes; 3985230 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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I came to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to learn about technological innovation and entrepreneurship. More precisely, I wanted to know more about how to leverage Information Technology (IT) in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry. IT can introduce great efficiencies and productivity gains in construction.; by Jordi Ber Marti.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2005.; "June 2005."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-69).

‣ Counterterrorism civil engineering design

Jreissati, Wadih J. (Wadih Joseph), 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 leaves; 3288028 bytes; 3287835 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Wadih J. Jreissati.; Thesis (M.Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 51).

‣ Reduced-basis methods applied to problems in elasticity : analysis and applications

Veroy, Karen Paula L. (Karen Paula Lavarro), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 180 p.; 7166440 bytes; 7166249 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Modern engineering problems require accurate, reliable, and efficient evaluation of quantities of interest, the computation of which often requires solution of a partial differential equation. We present a technique for the prediction of linear-functional outputs of elliptic partial differential equations with affine parameter dependence. The essential components are: (i) rapidly convergent global reduced-basis approximations - projection onto a space WN spanned by solutions of the governing partial differential equation at N selected points in parameter space (Accuracy); (ii) a posteriori error estimation - relaxations of the error-residual equation that provide inexpensive bounds for the error in the outputs of interest (Reliability); and (iii) off-line/on-line computational procedures - methods which decouple the generation and projection stages of the approximation process (Efficiency). The operation count for the on-line stage depends only on N (typically very small) and the parametric complexity of the problem. We present two general approaches for the construction of error bounds: Method I, rigorous a posteriori error estimation procedures which rely critically on the existence of a "bound conditioner" - in essence, an operator preconditioner that (a) satisfies an additional spectral "bound" requirement...

‣ Feasibility and design of blast mitigation systems for naval applications using water mist fire suppression systems

Kitchenka, Julie A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 127 leaves; 5651918 bytes; 5657215 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The recent trend of using fine water mist systems to replace the legacy HALON- 1301 fire suppression systems warrants further study into other applications of the water mist systems. Preliminary research and investigation indicates that fine mists (20-25 pm droplet size) may reduce peak overpressures of a shock wave traveling through a space. Such pressure reductions could be used to mitigate the destructive effects of a shock wave (initiated by an explosive device) traveling through a structure. Currently these blast mitigation effects have only been demonstrated in small-scale shock tube tests and computer simulations. Uncertainty exists as to the scalability of such a system. The intention of this research is to investigate the applicability of such a blast mitigation system for shipboard use. Study into the degree of mitigation necessary to make a system practical for shipboard installation was conducted. In addition, a theoretical study of the mechanisms of blast mitigation using water mists was completed. Preliminary design of a full-scale system was examined.; (cont.) Given the recent trend toward tumblehome hull forms in future Naval Combatant designs, there exists strong applicability of this system in the "dead" spaces created by the shaping of the tumblehome hull. Further work is needed in numerical modeling and laboratory testing of specific phases of the mitigation. The end goal is a feasible design of a blast mitigation system to be used in the outermost spaces of Naval Combatants to protect interior vital system spaces.; by Julie A. Kitchenka.; Thesis (Nav. E.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Comparison of environmental impacts of steel and concrete as building materials using the Life Cycle Assessment method

Johnson, Timothy Werner
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 155 p.; 8760970 bytes; 8767492 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In the United States, the construction industry accounts for almost 75% of total raw material used. This is an obvious drain on natural resources and has a major impact on the surrounding environment. Construction materials are also responsible for a relatively large portion of the global CO2 emissions. The commercial construction industry is dominated by the use of steel and in-situ concrete as building materials. It is intuitive then, to state that these two materials and their respective production flows have a significant impact on the environment, simply because of the amount of material being produced and consumed in the building industry today. In addition, due to drastic increases in energy prices and potential shortages in the future, the amount of energy consumed in the production of construction materials (embodied energy) and the amount of energy used over a projected life span (operational energy) are becoming increasingly more important to builders, designers, and owners of buildings. The growing trend in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, is towards eco-friendly design. In the last several years, the concrete and steel industries have spent significant resources to promote their material as the optimum solution for sustainable building design.; (cont.) Because natural resource consumption...

‣ Structural systems and tuned mass dampers of super-tall buildings : case study of Taipei 101

Kourakis, Ioannis
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves
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The design of the first generation of skyscrapers was based on strength. Heavy masonry cladding and wall curtains used at that period added a considerable amount of stiffness and damping to the structure. Inter-storey drifts and peak accelerations were relatively small. Advances in the material science technology enabled the use of high-performance concrete, steel and composite sections. The former combined with the use of sophisticated 3-D structural design software packages resulted in the evolution of a new generation of more economical and structurally efficient skyscrapers. However, the increased flexibility and lower damping makes these structures more vulnerable to wind induced vibrations, causing severe human discomfort due to excessive accelerations. Several solutions have been engineered to mitigate the motions of Super-Tall buildings including structural, aerodynamic and auxiliary changes with the goal of increasing the inherent damping of the building.; (cont.) The current thesis is comprised of three parts: a review of past and current trends in structural systems of tall buildings, including a comparison of the twenty tallest buildings globally; an investigation of passive control-Tuned Mass Dampers-with also several examples of structures which have such a system; and a demonstration of the effectiveness of Tuned Mass Dampers through a case study of the current tallest building to the structural top in the world...

‣ Reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for non-coercive elliptic problems : applications to acoustics

Sen, Sugata, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.
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Modern engineering problems often require accurate, reliable, and efficient evaluation of quantities of interest, evaluation of which demands the solution of a partial differential equation. We present in this thesis a general methodology for the predicition of outputs of interest of non-coercive elliptic partial differential equations. The essential ingredients are: (i) rapidly convergent reduced basis approximations - Galerkin projection onto a space WN spanned by solutions of the governing partial differential equation at N selected points in parameter-time space; (ii) a posteriori error estimation - relaxations of the error-residual equation that provide rigorous and sharp bounds for the error in specific outputs of interest; and (iii) offline-online computational procedures - in the offline stage the reduced basis approximation is generated; in the online stage, given a new parameter value, we calculate the reduced basis output and associated error bound. The operation count for the online stage depends only on N (typically small) and the parametric complexity of the problem; the method is thus ideally suited for repeated, rapid, reliable evaluation of input-output relationships in the many-query or real-time contexts. We consider the crucial ingredients for the treatment of acoustics problems; (cont.) - simultaneous treatment of non-coercive (and near-resonant)...

‣ A statistical learning framework for data mining of large-scale systems : algorithms, implementation, and applications

Tsou, Ching-Huei, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.
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A machine learning framework is presented that supports data mining and statistical modeling of systems that are monitored by large-scale sensor networks. The proposed algorithm is novel in that it takes both observations and domain knowledge into consideration and provides a mechanism that combines analytical modeling and inductive learning. An efficient solver is presented that allow the algorithm to solve large-scale problems efficiently. The solver uses a randomized kernel that incorporates domain knowledge into support vector machine learning. It also takes advantage of the sparseness of support vectors and this allows for parallelization and online training to further speed-up of the computation. The solver can be integrated into existing systems, embedded into databases, or exposed as a web service. Understanding the data generated by large-scale system presents several problems. First, statistical modeling approaches may either under-fit or over-fit the data and are sensitive to data quality. Second, learning is a computational extensive process and often becomes intractable when the sample size exceeds several thousands.; (cont.) Third, learning algorithms need to be tuned to the specific problem in most engineering and business fields. Last but not least...

‣ The nanogranular origin of concrete creep : a nanoindentation investigation of microstructure and fundamental properties of calcium-silicate-hydrates

Vandamme, Matthieu
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 366 p.
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With an annual per capita consumption of one cubic meter, concrete is the most manufactured material on Earth. But concrete subject to sustained load creeps, like chewing gum, at a rate that deteriorates the durability and lifespan of concrete infrastructure. While it is generally agreed that concrete creep originates from the complex viscous behavior of nanometer-sized building blocks of concrete, the calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the origin of concrete creep is still an enigma and the creep properties of C-S-H have never been measured directly since C-S-H cannot be recapitulated ex situ in bulk form. This thesis develops a comprehensive nano-investigation approach to the assessment of the microstructure and the mechanical stiffness, strength and creep properties of the fundamental building block C-S-H. This is achieved by extending the realm of classical indentation analysis of homogeneous solids to highly heterogeneous, linear-viscoelastic, cohesive-frictional materials. Applied to and validated for a wide range of sub-stoichiometric cement pastes of different composition and processing conditions, the link between material composition, microstructure and nanomechanical stiffness, strength and creep properties of cement-based materials is assessed. It is found that C-S-H...

‣ Household adoption of ecological sanitation : an assessment of agricultural value and user perspectives in Nyanza Province, Kenya

Robinson, Brian E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 154 p.; 9577061 bytes; 9583501 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Ecological sanitation, or ecosan, refers to a range of sanitation technologies in which human excreta is recovered and retained on-site, and eventually reused. However, when a culture does not have a tradition of reusing or handling human waste, what would motivate a household within that culture to recycle and reuse their waste? More specifically, how do the agricultural value of the material from an ecosan toilet and user perspectives on ecosan systems influence households' adoption of ecosan toilets? On average, households in the study area produce 4 kilograms of nitrogen and 0.6 kilograms of phosphorous per year from urine collected in the skyloo toilet, the type of urine-diverting ecosan toilet available in the study area in the Nyanza Province, Kenya. These nutrients are the equivalent of a cost savings of about US $12 per year (the GDP per capita in Kenya in 2004 was US $1 100). About two-thirds of the households reuse the processed feces and urine in household gardens. Users reported additional major benefits such as the absence of foul odors, inexpensive construction costs (partly due to a materials subsidy by the promoting NGO), and the aesthetic value/social status that the facility brings to the owners' homes.; (cont.) The major negative factors included problems with construction and design of the facility...

‣ Environmental screening of future gasoline additives : computational tools to estimate chemical partitioning and forecast widespread groundwater contamination

Arey, J. Samuel (Jeremy Samuel), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 200 p.; 13387912 bytes; 13413434 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) application of Raoult's law for the same set of systems. An approach was developed which relates the empirical LSER solute polarity parameter, pi2Ĥ, to two more fundamental quantities: a polarizability term and a computed solvent accessible surface electrostatic term. Electrostatics computations employed dielectric field continuum models and a density functional theory (B3LYP) or efficient Hartree-Fock (HF/MIDI!) method for 90 polar and nonpolar organic solutes. Predicted pi2Ĥ values had a correlation coefficient of 0.95 and standard deviation of 0.11 relative to empirically measured values. The resulting model relies on only two fitted coefficients and has the additional advantage of potential applicability to any solute composed of C, H, N, O, S, F, C1, and Br.; Fuel formulations evolve continually, and historical experience with the fuel additives tetra-ethyl lead and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) indicates that newly proposed additives should be screened for their potential to threaten environmental resources, before they are used widely. A physical-chemical transport model was developed to forecast well water concentrations and transport times for gasoline components migrating from underground fuel tank releases to vulnerable community water supply wells. Transport calculations were parameterized using stochastic estimates of representative fuel release volumes and hydrogeologic characteristics...

‣ Network design and fleet allocation model for vessel operation

Li, Xiaojing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 leaves; 4831060 bytes; 4835405 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Containership operators in the U.S. are confronted with a number of problems in the way they make critical fleet allocation decisions to meet the increase of shippers' demands. Instead of the empirical approach, this research describes an optimization method for the fleet allocation problem This methodology is applied by generating hypothetical values for a hypothetical firm. The endeavor of this method is to facilitate ship operations by allocating available fleet to maximize capacity and covering all the demands with the lowest cost The problem solving process is subdivided into three sub-models: the string simulation sub-model, the network design sub-model, and the fleet and cargo assignment sub-model. Each sub-model is explored by the combined approach of analysis and simulation, formulated as a Mixed Integer linear programming problem, implemented using the Optimization Programming language, and solved by CPLEX. This model provides several feasible fleet allocation proposals ranked by their profits, as well as yields the output of the detail cargo assignment at each port, the revenue, cost, and profit breakdown for each proposal.; (cont.) Subsequently, various scenarios can be studied in great detail by developing a User Interface in Java programming language based on a determined proposal. This interface allows the carrier to evaluate hundreds or thousands of fleet allocation scenarios and to quickly focus on key characteristics and options that are most relevant. This program extends the deterministic optimization method into a model supporting the solution to stochastic problems.; by Xiaojing Li.; Thesis (S.M. in Ocean Systems Management)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Assessment of FRP-confined concrete : understanding behavior and issues in nondestructive evaluation using radar; Assessment of fiber-reinforced plastic-confined concrete : understanding behavior and issues in nondestructive evaluation using radar

Ortega, Jose Alberto, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 237 p.; 13476446 bytes; 13476238 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Increase in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete columns and bridge piers has urged the development of' an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methodology. Radar technologies have shown great potential for assessing the structural and material integrity of FRP-confined concrete systems. In developing such technology, an interdisciplinary approach must be pursued by integrating contributions of various engineering fields. Under this framework, this thesis aims at establishing fundamental knowledge in two particular research areas: the mechanics and damage behavior of FRP-confined concrete and the characterization of electromagnetic (EM) properties for concrete and FRP materials. Research on mechanics and damage behavior of FRP-confined concrete involved a thorough literature survey on the state-of-the-art understanding of the subject and the execution of an experimental program for load-deformation characterization of FRP-confined concrete cylindrical specimens subjected to monotonic axial compressive loads. Based on the experimental results and comparative studies with recent analytical models, the experimental program was extended to the characterization of specific damage levels using a volumetric deformation metric. Visual inspection of the concrete core of specimens previously loaded to levels close to ultimate failure revealed the existence of significant residual volumetric strains...

‣ Control, incentives and penalties in the transit contracting process

Raspall Galli, Demian, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 154 p., [3] leaves of folded plates; 7083874 bytes; 7083682 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The last decade of the twentieth century was characterized by financial and budget constraints in almost all government activities. Transportation was no exception, and many countries moved to private operation as a way to reduce their need for operating and capital subsidies, and acquire technical competency to produce higher quality public services. Private participation, however, may require the implementation of a regulatory instrument to ensure the accomplishment of public goals. The most common form of regulation for large transit systems is the use of concession contracts. They govern the relationship between the government and the private provider, converting government's objectives into the economic variables that guide the private firm behavior. This thesis analyzes a variety of issues that should be considered by a government agency studying private involvement in transit operations by bringing together concepts from different fields such as economics, law, political science, negotiation, policy making, engineering, and transportation science. First the entire menu of alternatives for private participation and regulation is presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of contracts as legal instruments are analyzed. Next...

‣ Applications of CAD/CAM technology to avant-garde structural engineering; Applications of Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing technology to avant-garde structural engineering

Wodzicki, Christopher Peter, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 46 leaves; 2056798 bytes; 2056604 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Over the last decade improvements in design technology has taken grand steps in changing the way we build the structures of tomorrow. Conventional drafting software like AutoCAD and Microstation are being challenged by tools that go beyond the two dimensional representational abilities of paper documentation and replacing it with complex three dimensional virtual construction files that are more comprehensible and offer more flexibility with respect to design and also in terms of inter-professional communication. My interest's lie in the new dialectic emerging between architects and fabricators, who ironically sit at opposite ends of the construction spectrum yet are now collaborating with the help of modern-day software. I envision these new tools as being pivotal in both reassigning the roles of design and creating a more seamless construction process. It is this modified construction process that I intend to explore through this thesis.; by Christopher Peter Wodzicki.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2004.; Leaf 46 blank.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 44-45).

‣ An evaluation of household drinking water treatment systems in Peru : the table filter and the safe water system

Coulbert, Brittany, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.; 19550546 bytes; 19584945 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) storage, and education. Tests on the SWSs in Peru demonstrated 99.6% E.coli removal and 95% total coliform removal. Only 30% of the SWSs tested contained water at or above the WHO-recommended concentration of free chlorine residual (0.2 mg/L). The author recommends that use of these HWTSs continues and that the program receives increased support. The two HWTSs would be most effective if combined: filtration plus post-chlorination. In order to further distribute these systems in the future, a sustainable funding plan must be created.; A household water treatment program was implemented in southern Peru in 2003 by CEPIS and the country's Ministry of Health. This program involves the use of two household water treatment systems (HWTSs): the Table Filter and the Safe Water System. The author and a team of researchers from MIT traveled to Peru in January 2004 to assess the program and technologies through water quality tests and personal interviews. This research continued in Peru during March 2004 by local chemical engineering graduates of San Augustine National University. The Table Filter is a combination filter, involving a geotextile cloth pre-filter, sand, and two Pozzani ceramic candles from Brazil. Table Filters tested in Peru provided an average 99% E.coli removal...

‣ Valuing innovative technology R&D as a real option : application to fuel cell vehicles; Valuing innovative technology research and development as a real option : application to fuel cell vehicles

Tsui, Maggie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 leaves; 5805122 bytes; 5809994 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis aims to elucidate real option thinking and real option valuation techniques for innovative technology investment. Treating the fuel cell R&D investment as a real option for General Motor's light passenger vehicle fleet, the thesis presents a 3-step approach to value the R&D and its influence on the fleet value, in which the uncertainties and managerial flexibility are proactively accounted for and evaluated. To comprehensively assess the investment, the thesis includes analyses and discussions on fuel cell technology, industry, and related public policies, as well as illustrations and comparisons of various project valuation techniques. It explains in detail the traditional capital budgeting technique, Discounted Cash Flow, and real option valuation techniques such as the finance-based methods and simulation, including their underlying assumptions, analysis of uncertainties, treatments of flexibility, mechanisms, advantages, and limitations. The examination of the project valuation techniques and the GM case leads to the proposed valuation approach that (1) utilizes Monte Carlo simulation to model the uncertainties that affect fleet profit; (2) employs constrained optimization by linear programming to find out the annual optimal fleet profit...