Página 1 dos resultados de 27 itens digitais encontrados em 0.013 segundos

‣ Harnessing the immune system to treat cancer

Bhardwaj, Nina
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2007 Português
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A major challenge for the immune system is to recognize and eliminate cells undergoing carcinogenesis. Immune defense against tumors is complex. It can be mediated early by the innate immune system (i.e., phagocytes, NK cells, NKT cells, cytokines, and complement proteins) and later by the adaptive immune system (i.e., B cells and T cells). The eight articles in this Review series on tumor immunology discuss the mechanisms underlying immune surveillance of tumors, the regulation of carcinogenesis by immune inflammatory mediators, current approaches to controlling tumor growth through immunotherapy, and novel targets of immunotherapy.

‣ Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy

June, Carl H.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.6895%
The transfusion of T cells, also called adoptive T cell therapy, is an effective treatment for viral infections and has induced regression of cancer in early-stage clinical trials. However, recent advances in cellular immunology and tumor biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T cell therapy. For example, use of engineered T cells is being tested as a strategy to improve the functions of effector and memory T cells, and manipulation of the host to overcome immunotoxic effects in the tumor microenvironment has led to promising results in early-stage clinical trials. Challenges that face the field and must be addressed before adoptive T cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice are discussed.

‣ Translational Mini-Review Series on Type 1 Diabetes: Immune-based therapeutic approaches for type 1 diabetes

Staeva-Vieira, T; Peakman, M; von Herrath, M
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2007 Português
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often considered the prototype organ-specific autoimmune disease in clinical immunology circles. The key disease features − precise destruction of a single endocrine cell type occurring on a distinct genetic and autoimmune background − have been unravelled in recent years to such an extent that there is a growing expectation that the disease should be curable. T1D is something of an orphan disease, currently managed by endocrinologists yet dependent upon the wit of immunologists, both basic and clinical, to find the best approaches to prevention and cure. Type 1 diabetes thus represents one of the most active arenas for translational research, as novel immune-based interventions find their way to the clinic. The first serious attempt at immune-based treatment for T1D was in 1984, the first at prevention in 1993; current and planned trials will take us into the next decade before reporting their results. This paper represents the first attempt at a comprehensive review of this quarter century of endeavour, documenting all the strategies that have emerged into clinical studies. Importantly, the intense clinical activity has established robust infrastructures for future T1D trials and frameworks for their design. The evident success of the monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody trials in established T1D demonstrate that modulation of islet autoimmunity in humans after the onset of overt disease can be achieved...

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach too the patient with anaphylaxi

El-Shanawany, T; Williams, P E; Jolles, S
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
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ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the use of the immunology laboratory in the diagnosis of clinical allergy

Williams, P; Sewell, W A C; Bunn, C; Pumphrey, R; Read, G; Jolles, S
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
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118.89657%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses

Johnston, S L
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 Português
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118.78652%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent infections in childhood

Slatter, M A; Gennery, A R
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
118.78652%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

‣ An approach to the patient with urticaria

Deacock, S J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2008 Português
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Patients with urticaria make up a large proportion of the referrals to allergy clinics. There are many causes of urticaria and it is the clinical history which is most important when attempting to identify potential causes; however, urticaria is very often idiopathic. In a small minority of patients urticaria may be a symptom of a serious underlying medical illness or the allergic symptoms may progress to cause systemic reactions, and it is important to identify these patients and to remember that severe urticaria is a distressing and disabling condition. This review will discuss classification, investigation and treatment of urticaria and will consider some of the more unusual types of urticaria that may be encountered in the out-patient clinic.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with angio-oedema

Grigoriadou, S; Longhurst, H J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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Angio-oedema is a common reason for attendance at the accident and emergency department and for referral to immunology/allergy clinics. Causative factors should always be sought, but a large proportion of patients have the idiopathic form of the disease. A minority of patients represent a diagnostic and treatment challenge. Failure to identify the more unusual causes of angio-oedema may result in life-threatening situations. Common and rare causes of angio-oedema will be discussed in this article, as well as the diagnostic and treatment pathways for the management of these patients. A comprehensive history and close monitoring of response to treatment are the most cost-effective diagnostic and treatment tools.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency

Tarzi, M D; Grigoriadou, S; Carr, S B; Kuitert, L M; Longhurst, H J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 Português
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The sinopulmonary tract is the major site of infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes, and structural lung damage arising from repeated sepsis is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency may, in addition, develop inflammatory lung disease, often associated with multi-system granulomatous disease. This review discusses the presentation and management of lung disease in patients with primary antibody deficiency.

‣ Clinical immunology review series: an approach to desensitization

Krishna, M T; Huissoon, A P
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 Português
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57.54672%
Allergen immunotherapy describes the treatment of allergic disease through administration of gradually increasing doses of allergen. This form of immune tolerance induction is now safer, more reliably efficacious and better understood than when it was first formally described in 1911. In this paper the authors aim to summarize the current state of the art in immunotherapy in the treatment of inhalant, venom and drug allergies, with specific reference to its practice in the United Kingdom. A practical approach has been taken, with reference to current evidence and guidelines, including illustrative protocols and vaccine schedules. A number of novel approaches and techniques are likely to change considerably the way in which we select and treat allergy patients in the coming decade, and these advances are previewed.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with a periodic fever syndrome

Lachmann, H J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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The periodic fever syndromes are disorders of innate immunity. They may be inherited or acquired and present as recurrent attacks of apparently spontaneous self-limiting inflammation without evidence of autoantibodies or infection. Over the past decade-and-a-half there has been significant progress in their understanding and treatment.

‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: tumour-associated macrophages: undisputed stars of the inflammatory tumour microenvironment

Allavena, P; Mantovani, A
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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Mononuclear phagocytes are cells of the innate immunity that defend the host against harmful pathogens and heal tissues after injury. Contrary to expectations, in malignancies, tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) promote disease progression by supporting cancer cell survival, proliferation and invasion. TAM and related myeloid cells [Tie2+ monocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)] also promote tumour angiogenesis and suppress adaptive immune responses. These divergent biological activities are mediated by macrophages/myeloid cells with distinct functional polarization, which are ultimately dictated by microenvironmental cues. Clinical and experimental evidence has shown that cancer tissues with high infiltration of TAM are associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to therapies. Targeting of macrophages in tumours is considered a promising therapeutic strategy: depletion of TAM or their ‘re-education’ as anti-tumour effectors is under clinical investigation and will hopefully contribute to the success of conventional anti-cancer treatments.

‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: glycolipids as targets for tumour immunotherapy

Durrant, L G; Noble, P; Spendlove, I
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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47.54672%
Research into aberrant glycosylation and over-expression of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancers, coupled with a knowledge of glycolipids as functional molecules involved in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has provided a novel area of targets for cancer immunotherapy. This has resulted in the development of a number of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that are showing promising results in recent clinical trials.

‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: double trouble for tumours: bi-functional and redirected T cells as effective cancer immunotherapies

Marr, L A; Gilham, D E; Campbell, J D M; Fraser, A R
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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Cancer is one of the most important pathological conditions facing mankind in the 21st century, and is likely to become the most important cause of death as improvements continue in health, diet and life expectancy. The immune response is responsible for controlling nascent cancer through immunosurveillance. If tumours escape this control, they can develop into clinical cancer. Although surgery and chemo- or radiotherapy have improved survival rates significantly, there is a drive to reharness immune responses to treat disease. As T cells are one of the key immune cells in controlling cancer, research is under way to enhance their function and improve tumour targeting. This can be achieved by transduction with tumour-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or chimaeric antigen receptors (CAR) to generate redirected T cells. Virus-specific cells can also be transduced with TCR or CAR to create bi-functional T cells with specificity for both virus and tumour. In this review we outline the development and optimization of redirected and bi-functional T cells, and outline the results from current clinical trials using these cells. From this we discuss the challenges involved in generating effective anti-tumour responses while avoiding concomitant damage to normal tissues and organs.

‣ Immunology in clinic review series; focus on autoinflammatory diseases: update on monogenic autoinflammatory diseases: the role of interleukin (IL)-1 and an emerging role for cytokines beyond IL-1

Goldbach-Mansky, R
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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The disease-based discovery of the molecular basis for autoinflammatory diseases has led not only to a rapidly growing number of clinically and genetically identifiable disorders, but has unmantled key inflammatory pathways such as the potent role of the alarm cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 in human disease. Following its initial failures in the treatment of sepsis and the moderate success in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, IL-1 blocking therapies had a renaissance in the treatment of a number of autoinflammatory conditions, and IL-1 blocking therapies have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment of the autoinflammatory conditions: cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). CAPS and deficiency of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), both genetic conditions with molecular defects in the IL-1 pathway, have provided a pathogenic rationale to IL-1 blocking therapies, and the impressive clinical results confirmed the pivotal role of IL-1 in human disease. Furthermore, IL-1 blocking strategies have shown clinical benefit in a number of other genetically defined autoinflammatory conditions, and diseases with clinical similarities to the monogenic disorders and not yet identified genetic causes. The discovery that IL-1 is not only triggered by infectious danger signals but also by danger signals released from metabolically ‘stressed’ or even dying cells has extended the concept of autoinflammation to disorders such as gout...

‣ Eosinophilic myocarditis: case series and literature review

Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Suh-Young; Suh, Jung-Won; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Sang-Heon; Chang, Yoon-Seok
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.63552%
Eosinophilic myocarditis is a condition resulting from various eosinophilic diseases, including helminth infection, drug hypersensitivity, systemic vasculitis or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Clinical manifestations of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from early necrosis to endomyocardial fibrosis. Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the most fatal complications of hypereosinophilia. However, eosinophilic myocarditis has been rarely reported in the literature, particularly in Asia Pacific regions, reflecting the under-recognition of the disease among clinicians. Early recognition is crucial for improving clinical outcomes of eosinophilic myocarditis. Early administration of systemic corticosteroid is necessary in eosinophilic myocarditis regardless of underlying causes, as delayed treatment may result in fatal outcomes. In addition, differential diagnoses of underlying causes for eosinophilia are necessary to improve long-term outcomes.

‣ IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy

Lee, Soo-Young
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.80135%
Food allergy (FA) is a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in many countries, and it poses a clearly increasing health problem in Korea. In Korea, as a part of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), a series of nation-wide population studies for prevalence of allergic disease in children were carried out, with the Korean version of ISAAC in 1995, 2000, and 2010. From the survey, the twelve-month prevalence of FA showed no significant differences from 1995 to 2000 in both age groups (6-12 years-old, 6.5% in 1995 and 5.7% in 2000; 12-15 year-olds, 7.4% in 1995 and 8.6% in 2000). The mean lifetime prevalence of FA which had ever been diagnosed by medical doctor was 4.7% in 6-12 year-olds and 5.1% in 12-15 year-olds respectively in 2000. In Korean children, the major causes of FA are almost same as in other countries, although the order prevalence may vary, a prime example of which being that peanut and tree nut allergies are not prevalent, as in western countries. Both pediatric emergency department (ED) visits and deaths relating to food induced anaphylaxis have also increased in western countries. From a study which based on data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (KHIRA) from 2001 to 2007...

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent orogenital ulceration, including Behçet's syndrome

Keogan, M T
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet's disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter's syndrome, Crohn's disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet's syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet's disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with allergy in childhood

Sporik, R; Henderson, J; Hourihane, J O'B
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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Allergic conditions are common, with asthma being the most common chronic illness in childhood in most developed countries. Some 80% of asthmatic children are sensitized to aeroallergens, usually indoor animal dander and house dust mite. Some 80% of asthmatics also have rhinitis. Rhinitis and eczema receive less medical attention than asthma, but they can cause long-term morbidity and have substantial direct and indirect economic costs. Food allergy and anaphylaxis are increasingly recognised and are usually easily diagnosed and managed. Clinicians can use in vivo and in vitro measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E to better time reintroduction of implicated foods. Specific parenteral and sublingual immunotherapy is widely practiced internationally but is uncommon in the UK. It may alter the natural history of aeroallergen reactive diseases in the upper and lower airways. Specific oral tolerance induction represents the current cutting edge in clinical allergy research. It remands resource intensive at present and cannot be adopted into routine clinical practice at this time.