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‣ Quality Assessment of U.S. Marketplace Vancomycin for Injection Products Using High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Potency Assays

Hadwiger, Michael E.; Sommers, Cynthia D.; Mans, Daniel J.; Patel, Vikram; Boyne, Michael T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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In response to a published concern about the potency and quality of generic vancomycin products, the United States Food and Drug Administration investigated a small sampling of the vancomycin products available in North America with regard to purity, content, and potency. To facilitate identification of impurities, a new liquid chromatography method was developed using high-resolution mass spectrometry in addition to diode array detection to characterize impurities in several commercial products. Furthermore, a microbiological assay was utilized to link the analytical profiles with an in vitro potency. All products tested met the quality specifications outlined in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) (vancomycin hydrochloride for injection monograph) for impurities and potency (USP, Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection. United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary, vol USP 34-NF 29, 2011).

‣ Government support for the commercialization of new energy technologies : an analysis and exploration of the issues

Policy Study Group, MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 8000634 bytes; application/pdf
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This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the "commercialization" of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The "commercial demonstration" is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focussed on R&D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R,D&D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue or "prices versus gaps" is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misaligment or social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political...

‣ Models of new product diffusion : current status and research agenda

Kalish, Shlomo; Lilien, Gary Louis
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1186954 bytes; application/pdf
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Diffusion models, mathematical attempts to describe the growth patterns of new products and relate them to variables such as price and population characteristics, have seen major development trends in the past few years. This paper reviews that progress in order to isolate those areas most likely to be fruitful for further development. The paper first reviews some of the behavioral underpinnings of diffusion models: the phenomena being modeled. Next, the major explicit form models are reviewed and classified according to whether they have market-controls or not and according to the number of stages they explicitly consider. These models are related to larger-scale simulation models (especially in the solar energy area) that use explicit-form models as building blocks. The paper concludes with a discussion of some important advances that still need to be made in this important and rapidly-growing area.

‣ Slovakia - Technical Note on Consumer Protection in Financial Services : Volume 2 Sectoral Analyses and Good Practice Reviews

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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As financial markets develop and deepen, one of the key issues for the fair, open and efficient operation of the markets is the protection of consumers rights in financial services. Be they bank depositors or borrowers or investors in insurance policies, securities or investment or pension funds, financial consumers need the ability to accurately understand the terms and conditions of their contracts and take action if the terms of contracts have been violated. The Note is the second report in a pilot program to analyze consumer protection in financialservices.The objectives of the Note are three-fold, to: (1) present a set of draft good practices for assessing consumer protection in financial services; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Slovakia compared to the draft practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection in financial services in Slovakia. The Technical Note wasprepared at the request of the Slovak Ministry of Finance, with the valuable support of the National Bank of Slovakia and other government agencies...

‣ Agribusiness Indicators

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The purpose of this Agriculture Business Indicators Study was to isolate the success factors and construct indicators that reflect the performance of the agriculture sector in Nigeria and that benchmark it in terms directly comparable to agriculture sectors in other developing countries. Providing policy makers and public officials with access to this type of empirical information is seen as way to stimulate and inform policy dialogue about what reforms are needed and about how scarce public resources can be most effectively invested. The indicators can be used to identify specifically where this investment can be used to leverage commercialization through value addition, increasing the competitiveness of a country’s agricultural products domestically, regionally, and in international markets. They can also inform decision makers and investors about which policy measures are likely to be the most effective in enhancing food security, reducing poverty, and encouraging sustainable forms of environmental management. To accelerate agricultural development capable of spurring competitiveness of agricultural products in the domestic, regional, and international markets and could enhance food security; poverty reduction and sustainable environmental management. The study entailed a review of existing literature and the use of informal surveys to obtain information from a variety of stakeholders and actors. The focus was on the key success factors that the Agribusiness Indicators (ABI) team determined to be the most critical factors influencing agribusiness development in Sub-Saharan African countries. The Nigeria study was informed by the outcomes of scoping missions which had been conducted in three initial pilot countries: Ghana...

‣ United States general imports of merchandise; U.S. gen. imports merch., ctry. orig. commod.

United States -- Bureau of the Census; United States -- Bureau of the Census. -- Foreign Trade Division
Fonte: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census ( Washington, D.C ) Publicador: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census ( Washington, D.C )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 4 v. : ; 20 x 26 cm.
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(Dates or Sequential Designation) -Jan. 1947.; (Dates or Sequential Designation) Began with calendar year 1944.; (Numbering Peculiarities) Issued in 3 sections: A. North and South America; B. Europe; C. Asia, Australia, Oceania, Africa.; (Issuing Body) Prepared under the supervision of: the Foreign Trade Division.; Title from cover.; Description based on: Aug. 1945.; (Statement of Responsibility) Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

‣ United States general imports of merchandise; U.S. gen. imports merch., ctry. orig. commod.

United States -- Bureau of the Census; United States -- Bureau of the Census. -- Foreign Trade Division
Fonte: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census ( Washington, D.C ) Publicador: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census ( Washington, D.C )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 4 v. : ; 20 x 26 cm.
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(Statement of Responsibility) Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.; (Dates or Sequential Designation) -Jan. 1947.; (Dates or Sequential Designation) Began with calendar year 1944.; (Numbering Peculiarities) Issued in 3 sections: A. North and South America; B. Europe; C. Asia, Australia, Oceania, Africa.; (Issuing Body) Prepared under the supervision of: the Foreign Trade Division.; Title from cover.; Description based on: Aug. 1945.

‣ Somos Iguales: Cuban Hip-Hop in the Age of Social Networks [full paper]

Pereira, Alyssa
Fonte: Latin American Music Center Publicador: Latin American Music Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Through occupation and trade during the last ten years, the United States and Cuba have absorbed facets of each other???s cultural profile. Two products of recent exchange in Cuba as a result of its relationship with the United States are the emergence of online social networks and the growth of Cuban hip-hop. In the US, social networking (through vehicles such as Facebook, Myspace and Twitter) is used as a method of communication and a marketing tool. Many small record labels primarily rely on this type of grassroots marketing to appeal to their web-savvy target audience. While rap musicians in Cuba do not always have the capability to commercially sell professionally mixed albums due to a dependence on government allocated musician???s funds and materials, and submissiveness to government???s jurisdiction over what music is publicly released, the accessibility of the internet and social networks make possible a release of music at an underground level. As a result, complete censorship becomes an impossible feat and these musicians are able to release their music nationally and internationally through this medium. In this paper, I explore the expansion in the use of new social media networks in Cuba and their role in burgeoning the commercialization of Cuban rappers and their music. I note the differences in social media???s influence for Cuban underground rappers versus commercial rappers and the resulting success...

‣ Obtenção e caracterização de carvão ativado cubano qualidade United States Pharmacopeia (USP) para uso farmacêutico

Rey Mafull, Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 152 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
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Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais, Florianópolis, 2015.; Foi estudado um carvão ativado purificado cubano (CA/ML) como matéria-prima e produtos acabados para a indústria médico farmacêutica. Foram realizados estudos comparativos in vitro da adsorção de farmacos em fluido gástrico simulado (estudo pré-clinico) em CA e validação de comprimidos de carvão/pepsina (distúrbios gástricos) com tecnologias farmacêutica para zona climática IV em escala de bancada. Foram escolhidos para comparação dos resultados 6 padrões comerciais utilizados internacionalmente pela indústria médica farmacêutica : Norit B Eur (Alemanha), BDH (Inglatérra), Merck (Alemanha), Norit E Supra (Holanda), Panreac (Espanha) e Ch3J (China). Este estudo envolveu desde a obtenção do material CA/ML até a fase final dos lotes de fabricação (5440 unidades) de comprimidos de carvão/pepsina em escala de bancada e com seu correspondente estudo temporal de estabilidade acelerada (6 meses) e estabilidade de vida na prateleira (30 meses). Para a implementação de todo o exposto, foi feita em primeira instância, uma avaliação conforme a United States Pharmacopeia (USP 31-NF27). Neste caso...

‣ The impact of commodity councils on the internal structures of purchasing organizations in the United States Air Force; The impact of commodity councils on the internal structures of purchasing organizations in the United States Air Force

Rairigh, Beth M.; Sanchez, Eva Rae; Rairigh, Beth M.; Sanchez, Eva Rae
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xvi, 71 p. : ill.; xvi, 71 p. : ill.
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MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; To better support the warfighter, the Department of Defense is emulating industry's Best Commercial Practices (BCP). Identified as a BCP, strategic sourcing is an integral part of the procurement transformation, aimed at buying products cheaper and faster. Success in the commercial industry has shown that strategic sourcing is a powerful tool that can significantly cut costs and improve customer responsiveness. The Air Force has taken initial steps to implement strategic sourcing into their purchasing organizations through commodity councils. This research uses the case study method to identify patterns and trends experienced by commercial companies in their implementation of strategic sourcing. In particular, it focuses on 1) job description 2) training 3) manpower 4) realignment 5) procedures and 6) human aspect. Further analysis compares these "lessons learned" to current Air Force practices and discusses potential barriers and to what extent they can be adopted. Based on these findings, specific recommendations are made to better help the Air Force enable this transformation.; To better support the warfighter...

‣ Analysis of commercial pricing factors : a framework for commercial item pricing

Russell, Joseph F.
Fonte: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xv, 153 p. : ill. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Recent procurement reform initiatives within the Federal Government have served to significantly reduce the requirement for offerors to provide the Government with cost or pricing data in advance of contract negotiations. The goal of these initiatives is to streamline the procurement process and achieve a procurement environment that more closely resembles the practices of the commercial sector. In order for the Government Contracting Officer to effectively analyze an offer as fair and reasonable and obtain a negotiating position, the Contracting Officer must recognize and understand a myriad of elements that contribute to a commercial firm's pricing objectives. The purpose of this research is to examine the elements that influence a contractor's pricing as well as the factors applied to their purchasing decisions. This paper will present data that can be analyzed without the benefit of cost or pricing data. The thesis provides a framework for Government Contracting Officers to recognize and analyze this data in preparing for contract negotiations.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

‣ Process development for web-enabled doctrine: using a commercial off the shelf (COTS) distributive collaborative technology (DCT)

Velasco-Lind, Rachel J.; Harris, Michael J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiii, 67 p. : ill. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Navy Warfare Development Command has established Web-Enabled Doctrine (WED) in an effort to enable the Navy's transition from platform-centric operations to Network Centric Operations. The focus of this research is to describe, analyze, and evaluate the current process of developing Navy Doctrine and whether that process can be enhanced with a commercially available distributive collaborative technology (DCT). The goal of WED is to ensure that Navy Doctrine remains operationally relevant and directly connected with the Fleet. WED hopes to accomplish this by active Fleet participation in doctrinal development and reducing timelines. The Chief of Naval Operations has set forth several priorities for the 21st century Navy, which include service unification, improved current and future readiness, and the leveraging of enabling technologies. Several commercially available DCT products appear promising to enable the Navy's transformation to web based Doctrine development. This research focuses on one such product to determine the adaptability of a DCT to the Navy Doctrine process. The process uses an information system network that allows personnel the ability to remain readily engaged in the form of discussion groups during doctrinal development. This reduces cost...

‣ Awakening Africa's Sleeping Giant : Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond; Le reveil du geant assoupi : perspectives de l'agriculture commerciale dans les savanes africaines

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This report summarizes the findings of the study on Competitive Commercial Agriculture for Africa (CCAA). The objective of the CCAA study was to explore the feasibility of restoring international competitiveness and growth in African agriculture through the identification of products and production systems that can underpin rapid development of a competitive commercial agriculture. The CCAA study focused on the agricultural potential of Africa's Guinea Savannah zone, which covers about 600 million hectares in Africa, of which about 400 million hectares can be used for agriculture, and of which less than 10 percent are cropped. The African Guinea Savannah is one of the largest underused agricultural land reserves in the world. In terms of its agro climatic features, the land is similar to that found in the Cerrado region of Brazil and in the Northeast Region of Thailand, with medium-to-high agricultural potential but also significant constraints in the form of infertile soils and variable rainfall. Based on a careful examination of the factors that contributed to the successes achieved in Brazil and Thailand...

‣ The Political Economy of Seed Reform in Uganda : Promoting a Regional Seed Trade Market

Joughin, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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This report provides a short summary of the recent history of the seed industry. Although the informal seed system still accounts for an estimated 85 percent of planted seed, the formal sector has been transformed in 20 years from control by a monopoly parastatal to competition among 23 registered companies, with at least 5 or 6 being serious players. Significantly, the relief seed industry that dominated and distorted the formal seed trade during the Northern Uganda conflict has withered away, leaving room for a sustainable, market-driven seed industry to develop. Fundamentally, however, the key institutions in the sector and the legal framework are not fit for purpose and are a significant drag on the industry. This report sketches the roles and contribution of stakeholder organizations such as the Uganda Seed Trade Association, the Uganda National Farmers Federation, and the Uganda National Agrolnput Dealers Association. It outlines the support provided by major donors, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)...

‣ The Changing Face of Rural Space : Agriculture and Rural Development in the Western Balkans

Lampietti, Julian A.; Lugg, David G.; Van der Celen, Philip; Branczik, Amelia
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
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This report brings together lessons from previous studies, supplemented by new analysis. It frames the challenges facing the rural and agri-food sector in the Western Balkans to illustrate the directions for policies, now and in the future. Part one looks at the characteristics of the rural and agri-food sector today, its potential and its obstacles. Part two looks at the future of the agri-food sector and rural space. Value chains will change with more competitive imports, with larger retailers influencing value chains, and with farmers and processors needing to respond to these trends by producing goods that meet quality and safety standards consistently and reliably. These changes will drive the modernization of agriculture, leading to an agri-food sector with fewer and more productive farms. Beyond the agri-food sector, effective rural development programs will be needed to ensure that agriculture's modernization is balanced and equitable. Local authorities and rural communities will have to be involved in developing and implementing territorial strategies for leveraging the non-farm potential of rural areas. Food safety standards will become more important as countries strive to meet private and public standards, and climate change will introduce uncertainty and compel farmers to adapt. Part three provides a roadmap to help governments create a strong and healthy rural and agri-food sector able to respond to these challenges. It looks first at the strategy that should drive public spending in agriculture and the composition of that spending. It then looks at how governments can best provide public services to agriculture...

‣ Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 2, Sub-sector Reports, Part I

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
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The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

‣ Apoyo a la construcción de un software de soporte a decisiones concernientes al comercio entre Colombia y Estados Unidos

Bolivar Peña, Maria Claudia; Linares Laguna, Oscar Alfonso
Fonte: Facultad de administración Publicador: Facultad de administración
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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La entrada en vigor del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) con Estados Unidos representa para los empresarios colombianos la oportunidad de acceder al mercado más importante del mundo en una posición privilegiada, bajo la cual resulta más sencilla la colocación de productos en este pais para aquellas compañías con vocación exportadora. Sin embargo, la alta competencia y desarrollo de este mercado hace necesario que las empresas cuenten con información apropiada que les permita enfocar sus esfuerzos en productos, segmentos de mercado o Estados específicos donde puedan alcanzar la sostenibilidad y perdurabilidad en el tiempo, así como el desarrollo de nuevas posibilidades comerciales. Para tal fin, realizamos este trabajo de investigación con el cual se busca generar una herramienta informática que contenga información respecto al flujo comercial de Colombia hacia cada uno de los 50 estados de EE.UU., detallando en cada caso las oportunidades comerciales identificadas por partidas arancelarias; y que servirá de apoyo para aquellos empresarios colombianos que buscan beneficiarse de la nueva coyuntura comercial que ofrece el acuerdo bilateral.; UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO; The implementation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States represents for Colombian entrepreneurs the opportunity to access the world's most important market in a privileged position...

‣ Identificación y análisis de las oportunidades de exportación de productos agrícolas y agro-industriales potenciales desde Colombia hacia Estados Unidos - periodo de estudio: 2003 a 2012

Cely Espinosa, Diana Lorena
Fonte: Facultad de economía Publicador: Facultad de economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2015 Português
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Una de las mayores brechas que tienen los empresarios colombianos es la falta de información sobre las opciones de exportación hacia otros países, especialmente con Estados Unidos siendo uno de los principales socios comerciales que tiene Colombia. Por esta razón el presente trabajo de investigación se propuso identificar y analizar las oportunidades de exportaciones de productos agrícolas y agro-industriales potenciales desde Colombia hacia Estados Unidos en el periodo de 2003 hasta 2012. Después de contextualizar el entorno de los dos países así como el del sector agrícola de cada uno de ellos; se procedió a la selección de diez sub-partidas arancelarias a través de las bases de datos de TRADE MAP y UN COMTRADE. Con base en los resultados observados, se eligieron los dos productos agrícolas o agro-industriales potenciales para la exportación hacia Estados Unidos; adicionalmente se exploró el Tratado de Libre Comercio con dicho país para reconocer las ventajas, beneficios y oportunidades que este acuerdo generó en los productos seleccionados. Por lo tanto se concluye que Estados Unidos influye significativamente en las relaciones tanto comerciales como financieras a nivel mundial. En el caso de Colombia ha alcanzado resultados positivos en la balanza comercial...

‣ The Capacity of the electronics industry for closing the lifecycle look: Assessing the infrastucture for the recovery and recycling of electronics in the Unites States

Donohue, Patricia
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This work examined why the electronics industry, specifically producers of commercial and consumer equipment, does not complete the product lifecycle by recapturing valuable materials from products when the products reach the end of their useful life. The electronics industry, it seems, is not capable of fully recovering and recycling its products. It lacks the infrastructure, or the underlying foundation, to enable the industry to take back its products and recycle or reuse the components that make up those products. This research identified and examined the various infrastructure deficiencies, including technical and regulatory factors, causing the recovery and recycling of electronic products to remain infeasible. This research provided a summary of the initiatives that are currently taking place to help establish an infrastructure in the U.S.

‣ Temperature mapping study of United States distribution systems

Silverman, Ken
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The purpose of this one-year temperature mapping study was to determine the extreme temperatures and respective durations commercial pharmaceutical products are expected to be exposed to during routine ambient distribution within the continental United States. Extreme temperature conditions may affect the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products during distribution. Knowing the value and duration of the extreme temperatures that products are likely to experience in the ambient (uncontrolled) distribution environment allows for improved product degradation testing, optimized thermal package design and scientifically based determination as to when logistical and environmental controls should be used. Before this study, testing was performed using profiles provided by standards organizations. This study was designed to provide company specific data that may be used to design tests, validate, or modify existing test procedures throughout the organization. To achieve this, packages were shipped to selected locations across the United States from the company's Eastern, Southern, and Western Distribution Centers (DCs) during peak summer and winter conditions. The packages were equipped with data logging instrumentation that recorded the temperature and the time-of-day. As a result of this project...