The goal of this paper is to study and propose a new technique for noise reduction used during the reconstruction of speech signals, particularly for biomedical applications. The proposed method is based on Kalman filtering in the time domain combined with spectral subtraction. Comparison with discrete Kalman filter in the frequency domain shows better performance of the proposed technique. The performance is evaluated by using the segmental signal-to-noise ratio and the Itakura-Saito`s distance. Results have shown that Kalman`s filter in time combined with spectral subtraction is more robust and efficient, improving the Itakura-Saito`s distance by up to four times. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper studies a simplified methodology to integrate the real time optimization (RTO) of a continuous system into the model predictive controller in the one layer strategy. The gradient of the economic objective function is included in the cost function of the controller. Optimal conditions of the process at steady state are searched through the use of a rigorous non-linear process model, while the trajectory to be followed is predicted with the use of a linear dynamic model, obtained through a plant step test. The main advantage of the proposed strategy is that the resulting control/optimization problem can still be solved with a quadratic programming routine at each sampling step. Simulation results show that the approach proposed may be comparable to the strategy that solves the full economic optimization problem inside the MPC controller where the resulting control problem becomes a non-linear programming problem with a much higher computer load. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hub-and-spoke networks are widely studied in the area of location theory. They arise in several contexts, including passenger airlines, postal and parcel delivery, and computer and telecommunication networks. Hub location problems usually involve three simultaneous decisions to be made: the optimal number of hub nodes, their locations and the allocation of the non-hub nodes to the hubs. In the uncapacitated single allocation hub location problem (USAHLP) hub nodes have no capacity constraints and non-hub nodes must be assigned to only one hub. In this paper, we propose three variants of a simple and efficient multi-start tabu search heuristic as well as a two-stage integrated tabu search heuristic to solve this problem. With multi-start heuristics, several different initial solutions are constructed and then improved by tabu search, while in the two-stage integrated heuristic tabu search is applied to improve both the locational and allocational part of the problem. Computational experiments using typical benchmark problems (Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) and Australian Post (AP) data sets) as well as new and modified instances show that our approaches consistently return the optimal or best-known results in very short CPU times, thus allowing the possibility of efficiently solving larger instances of the USAHLP than those found in the literature. We also report the integer optimal solutions for all 80 CAB data set instances and the 12 AP instances up to 100 nodes...
A four parameter generalization of the Weibull distribution capable of modeling a bathtub-shaped hazard rate function is defined and studied. The beauty and importance of this distribution lies in its ability to model monotone as well as non-monotone failure rates, which are quite common in lifetime problems and reliability. The new distribution has a number of well-known lifetime special sub-models, such as the Weibull, extreme value, exponentiated Weibull, generalized Rayleigh and modified Weibull distributions, among others. We derive two infinite sum representations for its moments. The density of the order statistics is obtained. The method of maximum likelihood is used for estimating the model parameters. Also, the observed information matrix is obtained. Two applications are presented to illustrate the proposed distribution. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
We have used various computational methodologies including molecular dynamics, density functional theory, virtual screening, ADMET predictions and molecular interaction field studies to design and analyze four novel potential inhibitors of farnesyltransferase (FTase). Evaluation of two proposals regarding their drug potential as well as lead compounds have indicated them as novel promising FTase inhibitors, with theoretically interesting pharmacotherapeutic profiles, when Compared to the very active and most cited FTase inhibitors that have activity data reported, which are launched drugs or compounds in clinical tests. One of our two proposals appears to be a more promising drug candidate and FTase inhibitor, but both derivative molecules indicate potentially very good pharmacotherapeutic profiles in comparison with Tipifarnib and Lonafarnib, two reference pharmaceuticals. Two other proposals have been selected with virtual screening approaches and investigated by LIS, which suggest novel and alternatives scaffolds to design future potential FTase inhibitors. Such compounds can be explored as promising molecules to initiate a research protocol in order to discover novel anticancer drug candidates targeting farnesyltransferase, in the fight against cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; CNPq; CAPES; FAPESP; FAPERJ
We study the existence of mild solutions for a class of impulsive neutral functional differential equation defined on the whole real axis. Some concrete applications to ordinary and partial neutral differential equations with impulses are considered. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The representation of interfaces by means of the algebraic moving-least-squares (AMLS) technique is addressed. This technique, in which the interface is represented by an unconnected set of points, is interesting for evolving fluid interfaces since there is]to surface connectivity. The position of the surface points can thus be updated without concerns about the quality of any surface triangulation. We introduce a novel AMLS technique especially designed for evolving-interfaces applications that we denote RAMLS (for Robust AMLS). The main advantages with respect to previous AMLS techniques are: increased robustness, computational efficiency, and being free of user-tuned parameters. Further, we propose a new front-tracking method based on the Lagrangian advection of the unconnected point set that defines the RAMLS surface. We assume that a background Eulerian grid is defined with some grid spacing h. The advection of the point set makes the surface evolve in time. The point cloud can be regenerated at any time (in particular, we regenerate it each time step) by intersecting the gridlines with the evolved surface, which guarantees that the density of points on the surface is always well balanced. The intersection algorithm is essentially a ray-tracing algorithm...
In survival analysis applications, the failure rate function may frequently present a unimodal shape. In such case, the log-normal or log-logistic distributions are used. In this paper, we shall be concerned only with parametric forms, so a location-scale regression model based on the Burr XII distribution is proposed for modeling data with a unimodal failure rate function as an alternative to the log-logistic regression model. Assuming censored data, we consider a classic analysis, a Bayesian analysis and a jackknife estimator for the parameters of the proposed model. For different parameter settings, sample sizes and censoring percentages, various simulation studies are performed and compared to the performance of the log-logistic and log-Burr XII regression models. Besides, we use sensitivity analysis to detect influential or outlying observations, and residual analysis is used to check the assumptions in the model. Finally, we analyze a real data set under log-Buff XII regression models. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.
The focus of study in this paper is the class of packing problems. More specifically, it deals with the placement of a set of N circular items of unitary radius inside an object with the aim of minimizing its dimensions. Differently shaped containers are considered, namely circles, squares, rectangles, strips and triangles. By means of the resolution of non-linear equations systems through the Newton-Raphson method, the herein presented algorithm succeeds in improving the accuracy of previous results attained by continuous optimization approaches up to numerical machine precision. The computer implementation and the data sets are available at http://www.ime.usp.br/similar to egbirgin/packing/. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.; PRONEX-Optimization (PRONEX-CNPq/FAPERJ)[E-26/171.510/2006-APQ1]; PRONEX-Optimization (PRONEX - CNPq/FAPERJ); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP[2006/53768-0]; FAPESP[2006/57633-1]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); BZG; BZG
A forum is a valuable tool to foster reflection in an in-depth discussion; however, it forces the course mediator to continually pay close attention in order to coordinate learners` activities. Moreover, monitoring a forum is time consuming given that it is impossible to know in advance when new messages are going to be posted. Additionally, a forum may be inactive for a long period and suddenly receive a burst of messages forcing forum mediators to frequently log on in order to know how the discussion is unfolding to intervene whenever it is necessary. Mediators also need to deal with a large amount of messages to identify off-pattern situations. This work presents a piece of action research that investigates how to improve coordination support in a forum using mobile devices for mitigating mediator`s difficulties in following the status of a forum. Based on summarized information extracted from message meta-data, mediators consult visual information summaries on PDAs and receive textual notifications in their mobile phone. This investigation revealed that mediators used the mobile-based coordination support to keep informed on what is taking place within the forum without the need to log on their desktop computer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Program Multi-Agent Systems for Software Engineering[552068/2002-0]; Program Multi-Agent Systems for Software Engineering; National Research Council; National Research Council; CNPq[472410/2008-3]; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
Several gene regulatory network models containing concepts of directionality at the edges have been proposed. However, only a few reports have an interpretable definition of directionality. Here, differently from the standard causality concept defined by Pearl, we introduce the concept of contagion in order to infer directionality at the edges, i.e., asymmetries in gene expression dependences of regulatory networks. Moreover, we present a bootstrap algorithm in order to test the contagion concept. This technique was applied in simulated data and, also, in an actual large sample of biological data. Literature review has confirmed some genes identified by contagion as actually belonging to the TP53 pathway.; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; RIKEN; RIKEN
Local influence diagnostics based on estimating equations as the role of a gradient vector derived from any fit function are developed for repeated measures regression analysis. Our proposal generalizes tools used in other studies (Cook, 1986: Cadigan and Farrell, 2002), considering herein local influence diagnostics for a statistical model where estimation involves an estimating equation in which all observations are not necessarily independent of each other. Moreover, the measures of local influence are illustrated with some simulated data sets to assess influential observations. Applications using real data are presented. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; CNPq; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
The Birnbaum-Saunders distribution has been used quite effectively to model times to failure for materials subject to fatigue and for modeling lifetime data. In this paper we obtain asymptotic expansions, up to order n(-1/2) and under a sequence of Pitman alternatives, for the non-null distribution functions of the likelihood ratio, Wald, score and gradient test statistics in the Birnbaum-Saunders regression model. The asymptotic distributions of all four statistics are obtained for testing a subset of regression parameters and for testing the shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulation is presented in order to compare the finite-sample performance of these tests. We also present two empirical applications. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq (Brazil)
The two-parameter Birnbaum-Saunders distribution has been used successfully to model fatigue failure times. Although censoring is typical in reliability and survival studies, little work has been published on the analysis of censored data for this distribution. In this paper, we address the issue of performing testing inference on the two parameters of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution under type-II right censored samples. The likelihood ratio statistic and a recently proposed statistic, the gradient statistic, provide a convenient framework for statistical inference in such a case, since they do not require to obtain, estimate or invert an information matrix, which is an advantage in problems involving censored data. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out in order to investigate and compare the finite sample performance of the likelihood ratio and the gradient tests. Our numerical results show evidence that the gradient test should be preferred. Further, we also consider the generalized Birnbaum-Saunders distribution under type-II right censored samples and present some Monte Carlo simulations for testing the parameters in this class of models using the likelihood ratio and gradient tests. Three empirical applications are presented. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq; FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
We consider the issue of assessing influence of observations in the class of beta regression models, which is useful for modelling random variables that assume values in the standard unit interval and are affected by independent variables. We propose a Cook-like distance and also measures of local influence under different perturbation schemes. Applications using real data are presented. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved.
The immersed boundary method is a versatile tool for the investigation of flow-structure interaction. In a large number of applications, the immersed boundaries or structures are very stiff and strong tangential forces on these interfaces induce a well-known, severe time-step restriction for explicit discretizations. This excessive stability constraint can be removed with fully implicit or suitable semi-implicit schemes but at a seemingly prohibitive computational cost. While economical alternatives have been proposed recently for some special cases, there is a practical need for a computationally efficient approach that can be applied more broadly. In this context, we revisit a robust semi-implicit discretization introduced by Peskin in the late 1970s which has received renewed attention recently. This discretization, in which the spreading and interpolation operators are lagged. leads to a linear system of equations for the inter-face configuration at the future time, when the interfacial force is linear. However, this linear system is large and dense and thus it is challenging to streamline its solution. Moreover, while the same linear system or one of similar structure could potentially be used in Newton-type iterations, nonlinear and highly stiff immersed structures pose additional challenges to iterative methods. In this work...
In this paper we introduce the Weibull power series (WPS) class of distributions which is obtained by compounding Weibull and power series distributions where the compounding procedure follows same way that was previously carried out by Adamidis and Loukas (1998) This new class of distributions has as a particular case the two-parameter exponential power series (EPS) class of distributions (Chahkandi and Gawk 2009) which contains several lifetime models such as exponential geometric (Adamidis and Loukas 1998) exponential Poisson (Kus 2007) and exponential logarithmic (Tahmasbi and Rezaei 2008) distributions The hazard function of our class can be increasing decreasing and upside down bathtub shaped among others while the hazard function of an EPS distribution is only decreasing We obtain several properties of the WPS distributions such as moments order statistics estimation by maximum likelihood and inference for a large sample Furthermore the EM algorithm is also used to determine the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and we discuss maximum entropy characterizations under suitable constraints Special distributions are studied in some detail Applications to two real data sets are given to show the flexibility and potentiality of the new class of distributions (C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved; CAPES; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq
We introduce, for the first time, a new class of Birnbaum-Saunders nonlinear regression models potentially useful in lifetime data analysis. The class generalizes the regression model described by Rieck and Nedelman [Rieck, J.R., Nedelman, J.R., 1991. A log-linear model for the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. Technometrics 33, 51-60]. We discuss maximum-likelihood estimation for the parameters of the model, and derive closed-form expressions for the second-order biases of these estimates. Our formulae are easily computed as ordinary linear regressions and are then used to define bias corrected maximum-likelihood estimates. Some simulation results show that the bias correction scheme yields nearly unbiased estimates without increasing the mean squared errors. Two empirical applications are analysed and discussed. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP; CNPq (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
In this paper, we propose a random intercept Poisson model in which the random effect is assumed to follow a generalized log-gamma (GLG) distribution. This random effect accommodates (or captures) the overdispersion in the counts and induces within-cluster correlation. We derive the first two moments for the marginal distribution as well as the intraclass correlation. Even though numerical integration methods are, in general, required for deriving the marginal models, we obtain the multivariate negative binomial model from a particular parameter setting of the hierarchical model. An iterative process is derived for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters in the multivariate negative binomial model. Residual analysis is proposed and two applications with real data are given for illustration. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; CNPq; FAPESP (Brazil)
Publicación ISI; The plurigaussian model is currently used for simulating geological domains (facies) in petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, with the aim of assessing the uncertainty in the domain boundaries and of improving the geological controls in the characterization of quantitative attributes. This paper discusses the main aspects of the model and provides a set of computer programs to perform its inference and conditional simulation. Two types of conditioning information are allowed: hard data for which one has an exact knowledge of the actual domain at sample locations, and soft data consisting of inequality constraints on the local domain proportions (probabilities of occurrence) at control points chosen by the mining or reservoir geologist. An application to a Chilean porphyry copper deposit is finally presented, in which three Gaussian fields are used to simulate the spatial distribution of five mineralogical domains: gravels, leached capping, oxides, primary and secondary sulfides. The model is constructed so as to honor the topological contacts between mineralogical domains, their spatial continuity, the information logged at exploration drill holes, as well as the vertical proportion curves that indicate the mineralization profile with depth. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.