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‣ Supporting content-based image retrieval and computer-aided diagnosis systems with association rule-based techniques

RIBEIRO, Marcela X.; BUGATTI, Pedro H.; TRAINA JR., Caetano; MARQUES, Paulo M. A.; ROSA, Natalia A.; TRAINA, Agma J. M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this work, we take advantage of association rule mining to support two types of medical systems: the Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems and the Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. For content-based retrieval, association rules are employed to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vectors that represent the images and to improve the precision of the similarity queries. We refer to the association rule-based method to improve CBIR systems proposed here as Feature selection through Association Rules (FAR). To improve CAD systems, we propose the Image Diagnosis Enhancement through Association rules (IDEA) method. Association rules are employed to suggest a second opinion to the radiologist or a preliminary diagnosis of a new image. A second opinion automatically obtained can either accelerate the process of diagnosing or to strengthen a hypothesis, increasing the probability of a prescribed treatment be successful. Two new algorithms are proposed to support the IDEA method: to pre-process low-level features and to propose a preliminary diagnosis based on association rules. We performed several experiments to validate the proposed methods. The results indicate that association rules can be successfully applied to improve CBIR and CAD systems...

‣ Linear Road : benchmarking stream-based data management systems

Tibbetts, Richard S. (Richard Singleton), 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 61 p.; 2763658 bytes; 2769368 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis describes the design, implementation, and execution of the Linear Road benchmark for stream-based data management systems. The motivation for benchmarking and the selection of the benchmark application are described. Test harness implementation is discussed, as are experiences using the benchmark to evaluate the Aurora engine. Effects of this work on the evolution of the Aurora engine are also discussed. Streams consist of continuous feeds of data from external data sources such as sensor networks or other monitoring systems. Stream data management systems execute continuous and historical queries over these streams, producing query results in real-time. This benchmark provides a means of comparing the functionality and performance of stream-based data management systems relative to each other and to relational systems. The benchmark presented is motivated by the increasing prevalence of "variable tolling" on highway systems throughout the world. Variable tolling uses dynamically determined factors such as congestion levels and accident proximity to calculate tolls. Linear Road specifies a variable tolling system for a fictional urban area, including such features as accident detection and alerts, traffic congestion measurements...

‣ State estimation of probabilistic hybrid systems with particle filters

Funiak, Stanislav, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.; 5732353 bytes; 5747516 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Robotic and embedded systems have become increasingly pervasive in every-day applications, ranging from space probes and life support systems to autonomous rovers. In order to act robustly in the physical world, robotic systems must handle the uncertainty and partial observability inherent in most real-world situations. A convenient modeling tool for many applications, including fault diagnosis and visual tracking, are probabilistic hybrid models. In probabilistic hybrid models, the hidden state is represented with discrete and continuous state variables that evolve probabilistically. The hidden state is observed indirectly, through noisy observations. A challenge is that real-world systems are non-linear, consist of a large collection of concurrently operating components, and exhibit autonomous mode transitions, that is, discrete state transitions that depend on the continuous dynamics. In this thesis, we introduce an efficient algorithm for hybrid state estimation that combines Rao-Blackwellised particle filtering with a Gaussian representation. Conceptually, our algorithm samples trajectories traced by the discrete variables over time and, for each trajectory, estimates the continuous state with a Kalman Filter. A key insight to handling the autonomous transitions is to reuse the continuous estimates in the importance sampling step. We extended the class of autonomous transitions that can be efficiently handled by Gaussian techniques and provide a detailed empirical evaluation of the algorithm on a dynamical system with four continuous state variables. Our results indicate that our algorithm is substantially more efficient than non-RaoBlackwellised approaches. Though not as good as a k-best filter in nominal scenarios...

‣ BioJADE : a design and simulation tool for synthetic biological systems; Design and simulation tool for synthetic biological systems

Goler, Jonathan Ari, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 85 p.; 3341552 bytes; 3350832 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The next generations of both biological engineering and computer engineering demand that control be exerted at the molecular level. Creating, characterizing and controlling synthetic biological systems may provide us with the ability to build cells that are capable of a plethora of activities, from computation to synthesizing nanostructures. To develop these systems, we must have a set of tools not only for synthesizing systems, but also designing and simulating them. The BioJADE project provides a comprehensive, extensible design and simulation platform for synthetic biology. BioJADE is a graphical design tool built in Java, utilizing a database back end, and supports a range of simulations using an XML communication protocol. BioJADE currently supports a library of over 100 parts with which it can compile designs into actual DNA, and then generate synthesis instructions to build the physical parts. The BioJADE project contributes several tools to Synthetic Biology. BioJADE in itself is a powerful tool for synthetic biology designers. Additionally, we developed and now make use of a centralized BioBricks repository, which enables the sharing of BioBrick components between researchers, and vastly reduces the barriers to entry for aspiring Synthetic Biologists.; by Jonathan Ari Goler.; Thesis (M. Eng. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ A framework for low-complexity iterative interference cancellation in communication systems

Chan, Albert M. (Albert Michael), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 215 p.; 10260186 bytes; 10290533 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Communication over interference channels poses challenges not present for the more traditional additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. In order to approach the information limits of an interference channel, interference mitigation techniques need to be integrated with channel coding and decoding techniques. This thesis develops such practical schemes when the transmitter has no knowledge of the channel. The interference channel model we use is described by r = Hx + w, where r is the received vector, H is an interference matrix, x is the transmitted vector of data symbols chosen from a finite set, and w is a noise vector. The objective at the receiver is to detect the most likely vector x that was transmitted based on knowledge of r, H, and the statistics of w. Communication contexts in which this general integer programming problem appears include the equalization of intersymbol interference (ISI) channels, the cancellation of multiple-access interference (MAI) in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems, and the decoding of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems in fading environments. We begin by introducing mode-interleaved precoding, a transmitter preceding technique that conditions an interference channel so that the pairwise error probability of any two transmit vectors becomes asymptotically equal to the pairwise error probability of the same vectors over an AWGN channel at the same signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While mode-interleaved precoding dramatically increases the complexity of exact ML detection...

‣ Diversity in evolving systems : scaling and dynamics of genealogical trees; Scaling and dynamics of diversity in evolving systems

Rauch, Erik, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 99 p.; 6436955 bytes; 6436762 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Diversity is a fundamental property of all evolving systems. This thesis examines spatial and temporal patterns of diversity. The systems I will study consist of a population of individuals, each with a potentially unique state, together with a dynamics consisting of copying or reproduction of individual states with small modifications to them (innovations). I show that properties of diversity can be understood by modelling the evolving genealogical tree of the population. This formulation is general enough that it captures interesting features of a range of natural and artificial systems, though I will pay particular attention to genetic diversity in biological populations, and discuss the implications of the results to conservation. I show that diversity is unevenly distributed in populations, and a disproportionate fraction is found in small sub-populations. The evolution of diversity is a dynamic process, and I show that large fluctuations in diversity can result purely from the internal dynamics of the population, and not necessarily from external causes. I also show how diversity is affected by the structure of the population (spatial or well-mixed), and determine the scaling of diversity with habitat area in spatial systems. Predictions from the model agree with existing experimental genetic data on global populations of bacteria. I then apply the method of modelling the genealogical tree of a population to further questions in evolution.; (cont.) Using a generic model of a pathogen evolving to coexist with a population of hosts...

‣ Robust stability and contraction analysis of nonlinear systems via semidefinite optimization

Aylward, Erin M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.
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A wide variety of stability and performance problems for linear and certain classes of nonlinear dynamical systems can be formulated as convex optimization problems involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). These formulations can be solved numerically with computationally-effcient interior-point methods. Many of the first LMI-based stability formulations applied to linear systems and the class of nonlinear systems representable as an interconnection of a linear system with bounded uncertainty blocks. Recently, stability and performance analyses of more general nonlinear deterministic systems, namely those with polynomial or rational dynamics, have been converted into an LMI framework using sum of squares (SOS) programming. SOS programming combines elements of computational algebra and convex optimization to provide e±cient convex relaxations for various computationally-hard problems. In this thesis we extend the class of systems that can be analyzed with LMI-based methods.; (cont.) We show how to analyze the robust stability properties of uncertain non-linear systems with polynomial or rational dynamics, as well as a class of systems with external inputs, via contraction analysis and SOS programming. Specifically, we show how contraction analysis...

‣ Parameterized model order reduction for nonlinear dynamical systems

Bond, Bradley N. (Bradley Neil)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 70 p.
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The presence of several nonlinear analog circuits and Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEM) components in modern mixed signal System-on-Chips (SoC) makes the fully automatic synthesis and optimization of such systems an extremely challenging task. The research presented in this thesis concerns the development of techniques for generating Parameterized Reduced Order Models (PROMs) of nonlinear dynamical systems. Such reduced order models could serve as a first step towards the automatic and accurate characterization of geometrically complex components and subcircuits, eventually enabling their synthesis and optimization. This work combines elements from a non-parameterized trajectory piecewise linear method for nonlinear systems with a moment matching paramneterized technique for linear systems. Exploiting these two methods one can create four different algorithms or generating PROMs of nonlinear systems. The algorithms were tested on three different systems: a MEM switch and two nonlinear analog circuits. All three examples contain distributed strong nonlinearities and possess dependence on several geometric parameters.; (cont.) Using the proposed algorithms, the local and global parameter-space accuracy of the reduced order models can be adjusted as desired. Models call be created which are extremely accurate over a narrow range of parameter values. as well as models which are less accurate locally but still provide adequate accuracy over a much wider range of parameter values.; by Bradley N. Bond.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ OpenBlocks : an extendable framework for graphical block programming systems; Extendable framework for graphical block programming systems

Roque, Ricarose Vallarta
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 61 leaves
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Graphical programming systems have been built to lower the threshold to programming for beginners. However, because these systems were designed to make programming more accessible to novices, they were developed with narrower intentions for their users and applications. For example, in StarLogo TNG, a graphical block programming environment, users may create games and simulations, but they cannot use this same system to create programs that can automate their computer processes, like the text-based scripting system AppleScript. Application developers can create their own programming systems, but doing so can take a significant amount of time to design and implement. This thesis describes an extendable framework called OpenBlocks that enables application developers to build and iterate their own graphical block programming systems by specifying a single XML file. Application developers can focus more on the design of their systems instead of oil the details of implementation. The design and implementation of OpenBlocks are described, along with a user study conducted to test its usability and extendability.; by Ricarose Vallarta Roque.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science...

‣ Emulation of microprocessor memory systems using the RAMP design framework

Khan, Asif I. (Asif Imtiaz)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 50 leaves
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With the computer hardware industry and the academic world focused on multiprocessor systems, the RAMP project is aiming to provide the infrastructure for supporting high-speed emulation of large scale, massively-parallel multiprocessor systems using FPGAs. The RAMP design framework provides the platform for building this infrastructure. This research utilizes this design framework to emulate various microprocessor memory systems through a model built in an FPGA. We model both the latency and the bandwidth of memory systems through a parameterized emulation platform, thereby, demonstrating the validity of the design framework. We also show the efficiency of the framework through an evaluation of the utilized FPGA resources.; by Asif I. Khan.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 49-50).

‣ Query execution in column-oriented database systems

Abadi, Daniel J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.
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There are two obvious ways to map a two-dimension relational database table onto a one-dimensional storage interface: store the table row-by-row, or store the table column-by-column. Historically, database system implementations and research have focused on the row-by row data layout, since it performs best on the most common application for database systems: business transactional data processing. However, there are a set of emerging applications for database systems for which the row-by-row layout performs poorly. These applications are more analytical in nature, whose goal is to read through the data to gain new insight and use it to drive decision making and planning. In this dissertation, we study the problem of poor performance of row-by-row data layout for these emerging applications, and evaluate the column-by-column data layout opportunity as a solution to this problem. There have been a variety of proposals in the literature for how to build a database system on top of column-by-column layout. These proposals have different levels of implementation effort, and have different performance characteristics. If one wanted to build a new database system that utilizes the column-by-column data layout, it is unclear which proposal to follow. This dissertation provides (to the best of our knowledge) the only detailed study of multiple implementation approaches of such systems...

‣ On the synthesis of switched output feedback controllers for linear, time-invariant systems

Santarelli, Keith R. (Keith Robert), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 193 p.
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The theory of switching systems has seen many advances in the past decade. Its beginnings were founded primarily due to the physical limitations in devices to implement control such as relays, but today there exists a strong interest in the development of switching systems where switching is introduced as a means of increasing performance. With the newer set of problems that arise from this viewpoint comes the need for many new tools for analysis and design. Analysis tools which include, for instance, the celebrated work on multiple Lyapunov functions are extensive. Tools for the design of switched systems also exist, but, in many cases, the method of designing stabilizing switching laws is often a separate process from the method which is used to determine the set of vector fields between which switching takes place. For instance, one typical method of designing switching controllers for linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems is to first design a set of stabilizing LTI controllers using standard LTI methods, and then design a switching law to increase performance. While such design algorithms can lead to increases in performance, they often impose restrictions that do not allow the designer to take full advantage of the switching architecture being considered.; (cont.) For instance...

‣ End-to-end verifiability for optical scan voting systems

Shen, Emily (Emily Huei-Yi)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 59 p.
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End-to-end verifiable voting systems allow voters to verify that their votes are cast as intended, collected as cast, and counted as collected. Essentially, end-to-end voting systems provide voters assurance that each step of the election worked correctly. At the same time, voting systems must protect voter privacy and prevent the possibility of improper voter influence and voter coercion. Several end-to-end voting systems have been proposed, varying in usability and practicality. In this thesis we describe and analyze Scantegrity II, a novel end-to-end verification mechanism for optical scan voting which uses confirmation codes printed on the ballot in invisible ink. The confirmation codes allow voters to create privacy-preserving receipts which voters can check against the bulletin board after the close of the election to ensure that their votes have been collected as cast. Anyone can check that votes have been counted as collected and that the tally is correct. We describe the Scantegrity II system and analyze the integrity and privacy properties it provides.; by Emily Shen.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 57-59).

‣ Estimation and calibration algorithms for distributed sampling systems

Divi, Vijay, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.
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Traditionally, the sampling of a signal is performed using a single component such as an analog-to-digital converter. However, many new technologies are motivating the use of multiple sampling components to capture a signal. In some cases such as sensor networks, multiple components are naturally found in the physical layout; while in other cases like time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters, additional components are added to increase the sampling rate. Although distributing the sampling load across multiple channels can provide large benefits in terms of speed, power, and resolution, a variety mismatch errors arise that require calibration in order to prevent a. degradation in system performance.In this thesis, we develop low-complexity, blind algorithms for the calibration of distributed sampling systems. In particular, we focus on recovery from timing skews that cause deviations from uniform timing. Methods for bandlimited input reconstruction from nonuniform recurrent samples are presented for both the small-mismatch and the low-SNR domains. Alternate iterative reconstruction methods are developed to give insight into the geometry of the problem.From these reconstruction methods, we develop time-skew estimation algorithms that have high performance and low complexity even for large numbers of components. We also extend these algorithms to compensate for gain mismatch between sampling components. To understand the feasibility of implementation...

‣ Extending the hierarchical systems knowledge representation framework : interfacing with geographic information systems

Phillips, Reesa Brooke
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 108 p.
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This thesis presents the design and implementation of a geographic information systems framework in which engineering systems can be created and analyzed. This framework extends the hierarchical systems knowledge representation framework to allow geospatial information to be attributed to model objects and viewed within geographic information system tools. The addition of geospatial information allows analysts to use spatial analysis to better learn about engineering systems.; by Reesa Brooke Phillips.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 107-108).

‣ Research in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Feldman, J. A. ; Merriam, C. W.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
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This report describes many of the computer related research efforts at the University of Rochester. The Department of Computer Science is involved in research in automatic programming, including very high level languages and data structures; machine perception; and in problem solving using combinations of traditional heuristic methods, artificial intelligence,and utility theory. The research of the Department of Electrical Engineering includes basic computer engineering research in the construction of computer systems and operating systems, research in image processing and in numerical methods, and research in production automation which is concerned with mechanical manufacturing and assembly, and is currently developing mathematical models of parts, raw materials and tools. In conjunction with other departments, Electrical Engineering is also using computers for biomedical applications including ultrasound diagnostic techniques for heart disease, and pattern recognition techniques for detection of cancer from PAP smears.

‣ Research in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Feldman, J. A. ; Merriam, C. W.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
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87.36277%
This report describes many of the computer related research efforts at the University of Rochester. The Department of Computer Science is involved in research in automatic programming, including very high level languages and data structures; machine perception; and in problem solving using combinations of traditional heuristic methods, artificial intelligence,and utility theory. The research of the Department of Electrical Engineering includes basic computer engineering research in the construction of computer systems and operating systems, research in image processing and in numerical methods, and research in production automation which is concerned with mechanical manufacturing and assembly, and is currently developing mathematical models of parts, raw materials and tools. In conjunction with other departments, Electrical Engineering is also using computers for biomedical applications including ultrasound diagnostic techniques for heart disease, and pattern recognition techniques for detection of cancer from PAP smears.

‣ Non-invasive wearable sensing systems for continuous health monitoring and long-term behavior modeling

Sung, Michael, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 228 leaves
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Deploying new healthcare technologies for proactive health and elder care will become a major priority over the next decade, as medical care systems worldwide become strained by the aging populations. This thesis presents LiveNet, a distributed mobile system based on low-cost commodity hardware that can be deployed for a variety of healthcare applications. LiveNet embodies a flexible infrastructure platform intended for long-term ambulatory health monitoring with real-time data streaming and context classification capabilities. Using LiveNet, we are able to continuously monitor a wide range of physiological signals together with the user's activity and context, to develop a personalized, data-rich health profile of a user over time. Most clinical sensing technologies that exist have focused on accuracy and reliability, at the expense of cost-effectiveness, burden on the patient, and portability. Future proactive health technologies, on the other hand, must be affordable, unobtrusive, and non-invasive if the general population is going to adopt them.; (cont.) In this thesis, we focus on the potential of using features derived from minimally invasive physiological and contextual sensors such as motion, speech, heart rate, skin conductance...

‣ Design principles and patterns for computer systems that are simultaneously secure and usable

Garfinkel, Simson
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 472 p.; 29543936 bytes; 31405031 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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It is widely believed that security and usability are two antagonistic goals in system design. This thesis argues that there are many instances in which security and usability can be synergistically improved by revising the way that specific functionality is implemented in many of today's operating systems and applications. Specific design principles and patterns are presented that can accomplish this goal. Patterns are presented that minimize the release of confidential information through remnant and remanent data left on hard drives, in web browsers, and in documents. These patterns are based on a study involving the purchase of 236 hard drives on the secondary market, interviews conducted with organizations whose drives had been acquired, and through a detailed examination of modern web browsers and reports of information leakage in documents. Patterns are presented that enable secure messaging through the adoption of new key management techniques. These patterns are supported through an analysis of S/MIME handling in modern email clients, a survey of 469 Amazon.com merchants, and a user study of 43 individuals. Patterns are presented for promoting secure operation and for reducing the danger of covert monitoring. These patterns are supported by the literature review and an analysis of current systems.; (cont.) In every case considered...

‣ Educational hardware for feedback systems

Dancy, Isaac
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 p.; 3468061 bytes; 3472070 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis explores a variety of educational feedback systems with an emphasis on developing them for in-class demonstrations and in-depth student projects. The nature of feedback systems means there is never a shortage of demonstrations or assignments that can truly capture the students' imagination and enthusiasm for class material. Unfortunately, it is sometimes the case that the feedback systems with the most potential for greatness are also unreliable, inaccurate, and inconsistent. This thesis attempts to narrow the gap by exploring, analyzing, and building a variety of exciting feedback systems. A comparison of general-purpose and high-performance operational amplifiers is created. Hardware for a web-based laboratory on canonical second-order systems is implemented. Cheap magnetic levitation kits for in-term projects are made even cheaper. And finally, the inverted pendulum - a decades-old Course VI heirloom and featured demonstration - is restored to its past glory.; by Isaac Dancy.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 85-86).