Página 1 dos resultados de 1442 itens digitais encontrados em 0.013 segundos

‣ Olhares brasileiros judaicos: a presença do judaísmo na arte brasileira contemporânea; Brazilian-Judeo Gazes: The presence of Judaism in contemporary Brazilian art

Cartus, Niels
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/11/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.949316%
Olhares brasileiros judaicos: A presença do judaísmo na arte brasileira contemporânea pretende mostrar vestígios da cultura judaica na arte brasileira contemporânea. Os imigrantes judeus que chegaram ao Brasil no século XX trouxeram consigo, em sua maioria, um pensamento liberal do judaísmo que influenciou a relação com as artes plásticas dentro do judaísmo europeu. O presente trabalho parte da hipótese de que a aproximação do judaísmo e artes plásticas também teve continuidade no Brasil, uma vez que os judeus imigrantes vindos de Europa e as gerações seguintes conseguiram integrar-se com sucesso na sociedade brasileira. A questão central, portanto, é saber em que formas e conteúdos essa influência cultural se articula. É apresentada a primeira geração de artistas judeus no Brasil, que forneceu impulsos importantes para o desenvolvimento da arte moderna, tendo como pano de fundo a evolução cultural e artística do judaísmo e sua compreensão emancipada da proibição bíblica de representação de imagens. Porém, exceto por Lasar Segall, encontram-se marcas judaicas na arte brasileira apenas na segunda metade do século XX. Através da obra de quatro artistas judeus brasileiros escolhidos, cuja análise não pretende ser absolutamente completa e representativa...

‣ O pensamento musical e a prática docente: as demandas da contemporaneidade no ensino da música; The musical thought and the practice teaching: the demands of contemporary in music teaching

Camargo, Elisabeth Bueno de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.949316%
A presente dissertação propõe uma nova perspectiva de construção do conhecimento musical a partir de um olhar mais amplo para a própria música, com o intuito de buscar soluções para os desafios da prática pedagógica contemporânea. A dificuldade de sustentação da música nas escolas como conhecimento e a distância entre a música ensinada na escola e a consumida fora dela nos levaram a discutir as metodologias e tendências presentes na escola atual, percorrendo a evolução do conceito de música e seu papel na educação desde a Grécia Antiga, quando era considerada matéria especulativa e relacionada à metafísica. As relações entre música e aluno mediadas pelo professor e centradas na experiência criativa e pessoal passam pela concepção de inteligência, de conhecimento e novamente pela concepção de música. Quando esta deixa de ser um mero produto ou objeto e torna-se um âmbito, possibilita a interação e o encontro, conforme o pensamento do filósofo Alfonso López Quintás. Assim, este trabalho apresenta concepções e conceitos que, esperamos, possam enriquecer a prática pedagógica, considerando as demandas contemporâneas e o papel formativo da educação musical.; The present essay proposes a new perspective in developing musical knowledge from a wider view to music itself...

‣ Impact of 2.0 on Contemporary Marketing

Simões, Dora; Filipe, Sandra
Fonte: Business Science Reference, IGI Global Publicador: Business Science Reference, IGI Global
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.016477%
Contemporary marketing recognizes the scope and complexities of marketing activities. It is a multidimensional and a dynamic concept, known as holistic marketing, that asks and allows for the support systems in order to permanently connect to the parties, to create value and long-term relationships among all. In this context, this chapter presents a wide review about conceptualization of relationship marketing and its evolution and integration on broader concept of contemporary marketing. It highlights that the development of a program for implementing and managing a successful customer relationship management (CRM) system is an essential part of a strategic contemporary marketing plan. Additionally, it is imperative to assess it to better demonstrate its success or failure. The metrics to do this are also revisited in this chapter. Still, the emerging capabilities of CRM systems using internet technologies are putting tremendous challenges on organizations and their human resources. Particularly, reference will be made to some social media tools that can be a cheap and useful support on marketing strategies.

‣ A climate for contemporary evolution

Skelly, David
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89957%
A new study of divergence in freshwater fish provides strong evidence of rapid, temperature-mediated adaptation. This study is particularly important in the ongoing debate over the extent and significance of evolutionary response to climate change because divergence has occurred in relatively few generations in spite of ongoing gene flow and in the aftermath of a significant genetic bottleneck, factors that have previously been considered obstacles to evolution. Climate change may thus be more likely to foster contemporary evolutionary responses than has been anticipated, and I argue here for the importance of investigating their possible occurrence.

‣ Eco-Evolutionary Trophic Dynamics: Loss of Top Predators Drives Trophic Evolution and Ecology of Prey

Palkovacs, Eric P.; Wasserman, Ben A.; Kinnison, Michael T.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.00983%
Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary evolution of trophic traits in prey. We utilized a historical introduction experiment where Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were relocated from a site with predatory fishes to a site lacking predators. To assess the trophic consequences of predator release, we linked individual morphology (cranial, jaw, and body) to foraging performance. Our results show that predator release caused an increase in guppy density and a “sharpening” of guppy trophic traits, which enhanced food consumption rates. Predator release appears to have shifted natural selection away from predator escape ability and towards resource acquisition ability. Related diet and mesocosm studies suggest that this shift enhances the impact of guppies on lower trophic levels in a fashion nuanced by the omnivorous feeding ecology of the species. We conclude that extirpation of top predators may commonly select for enhanced feeding performance in prey...

‣ Contemporary morphological diversification of passerine birds introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago

Mathys, Blake A.; Lockwood, Julie L.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.170935%
Species that have been introduced to islands experience novel and strong selection pressures after establishment. There is evidence that exotic species diverge from their native source populations; further, a few studies have demonstrated adaptive divergence across multiple exotic populations of a single species. Exotic birds provide a good study system, as they have been introduced to many locations worldwide, and we often know details concerning the propagule origin, time of introduction, and dynamics of establishment and dispersal within the introduced range. These data make them especially conducive to the examination of contemporary evolution. Island faunas have received intense scrutiny, therefore we have expectations concerning the patterns of diversification for exotic species. We examine six passerine bird species that were introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago less than 150 years ago. We find that five of these show morphological divergence among islands from the time since they were established. We demonstrate that some of this divergence cannot be accounted for by genetic drift, and therefore we must consider adaptive evolution to explain it. We also evaluate evolutionary divergence rates and find that these species are diverging at similar rates to those found in published studies of contemporary evolution in native species.

‣ Consequences of fisheries-induced evolution for population productivity and recovery potential

Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.894026%
Fisheries-induced evolution has become a major branch of the research on anthropogenic and contemporary evolution. Within the conservation context, fisheries-induced evolution has been hypothesized to negatively affect the persistence and recovery potential of depleted populations, but this has not been explicitly investigated. Here, we investigate how fisheries-induced evolution of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) life histories affects per capita population growth rate, a parameter negatively correlated with extinction risk. We simulate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of a cod population for a 100 year period of size-selective harvesting, followed thereafter by 300 years of recovery. To evaluate the relative importance of harvest-induced evolution, we either allowed life histories to evolve during and after the fishing period, or we assumed that fisheries-induced evolution was absent. Population growth rates did not differ appreciably between the evolutionary and non-evolutionary simulation scenarios, despite the emergence of rather pronounced differences in life histories. The underlying reason was that in the absence of fishing the cumulative lifetime reproductive outputs were very similar among differing life histories. The results suggest that fisheries-induced evolution might not always have as clear-cut an effect on population growth rate as previously anticipated.

‣ Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human-modified landscapes

Stronen, Astrid V; Tessier, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Hélène; Paquet, Paul C; Hénault, Michel; Villemure, Mario; Patterson, Brent R; Sallows, Tim; Goulet, Gloria; Lapointe, François-Joseph
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.170938%
Contemporary evolution through human-induced hybridization occurs throughout the taxonomic range. Formerly allopatric species appear especially susceptible to hybridization. Consequently, hybridization is expected to be more common in regions with recent sympatry owing to human activity than in areas of historical range overlap. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray wolves (C. lupus) are historically sympatric in western North America. Following European settlement gray wolf range contracted, whereas coyote range expanded to include eastern North America. Furthermore, wolves with New World (NW) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes now extend from Manitoba to Québec in Canada and hybridize with gray wolves and coyotes. Using mtDNA and 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated levels of wolf-coyote hybridization in regions where coyotes were present (the Canadian Prairies, n = 109 samples) and absent historically (Québec, n = 154). Wolves with NW mtDNA extended from central Saskatchewan (51°N, 69°W) to northeastern Québec (54°N, 108°W). On the Prairies, 6.3% of coyotes and 9.2% of wolves had genetic profiles suggesting wolf-coyote hybridization. In contrast, 12.6% of coyotes and 37.4% of wolves in Québec had profiles indicating hybrid origin. Wolves with NW and Old World (C. lupus) mtDNA appear to form integrated populations in both regions. Our results suggest that hybridization is more frequent in historically allopatric populations. Range shifts...

‣ Experimental elimination of parasites in nature leads to the evolution of increased resistance in hosts

Dargent, Felipe; Scott, Marilyn E.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Fussmann, Gregor F.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.874382%
A reduction in the strength of selection is expected to cause the evolution of reduced trait expression. Elimination of a parasite should thus cause the evolution of reduced resistance to that parasite. To test this prediction in nature, we studied the fourth- and eighth-generation descendants of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) introduced into four natural streams following experimental elimination of a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus spp.). After two generations of laboratory rearing to control for plasticity and maternal effects, we infected individual fish to assess their resistance to the parasite. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the introduced guppy populations had rapidly and repeatably evolved increased resistance to the now-absent parasite. This evolution was not owing to a resistance-tolerance trade-off, nor to differences in productivity among the sites. Instead, a leading candidate hypothesis is that the rapid life-history evolution typical in such introductions pleiotropically increases parasite resistance. Our study adds a new dimension to the growing evidence for contemporary evolution in the wild, and also points to the need for a re-consideration of simple expectations from host–parasite theory. In particular...

‣ O romance português contemporâneo: ideário e trajetória estética de Lídia Jorge; Portuguese contemporary romance: ideas path and beauty of Lídia Jorge

Freitas, Elizete Albina Ferreira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Letras e Linguística (FL); Faculdade de Letras - FL (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Letras e Linguística (FL); Faculdade de Letras - FL (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06498%
In this thesis, I pretend to analyze the literature route from the portuguese writer Lídia Jorge, undertaking a survey from the aspects which compose her esthetic project, considering the literature production’s characteristic from the 20’s, with an expressive actors participation, bringing public the feminine voice which does not content in being the history spectator anymore, but one of its subjects. The mean point is to demonstrate the reached maturity by the author in her writing, aiming to relate these aspects to her path in the contemporaneous portuguese prose. In this respect, I adopted a path which itself, firstly, will show more describable about the particularities from the new portuguese contemporary romance, to, later, convert it in more analytical, with the works presentation from Lídia Jorge, situating her among the contemporary portuguese authors who dedicate to this new model of prose. In this respect, and obeying the works’ ascending chronology, in the first chapter, titrated “THE HISTORIC ROMANCE AND ITS EVOLUTION”, I present the reasoning and the theoretical and critical assumptions about what was conventionalized to be called “the new historic romance”, and, in the specific Lídia Jorge’s case...

‣ Neotectonic disruption of silicified palaeovalley systems in an intraplate, cratonic landscape: regolith and landscape evolution of the Mulculca range-front, Broken Hill Domain, New South Wales

Hill, S.; Eggleton, R.; Taylor, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.417092%
The landscape expression of a wide range of ancient and contemporary regolith materials in the vicinity of the Mulculca Fault demonstrates two important points: (i) tectonism can be a significant factor in the evolution of landscapes in some parts of the Australian craton; and (ii) ancient and young regolith-landform features can coexist within a tectonically active landscape. Tectonic activity along the Mulculca Fault has created a range-front near the Broken Hill Domain - Murray Basin margins. This tectonism defeated a now silicified palaeodrainage system that flowed from the area now occupied by the Barrier Ranges towards the present area of the Murray Basin. Stream defeat led to the development of lacustrine-overbank conditions within the area of the fault-angle depression, which was later breached by stream incision across the range-front. The area of lacustrine-overbank deposition is now dominated by alluvial (channel and overbank) deposits with minor colluvial and aeolian deposition. Silicification of palaeovalley sediments and adjacent saprolite has been occurring over a broad range of times during landscape development, including several stages of palaeovalley evolution and as minor red-brown hardpan development in the contemporary landscape. Ferruginised regolith has been developing at many different times during the evolution of the landscape...

‣ How to think tools? A comparison of cognitive aspects in tool behavior of animals and during human evolution

Haidle, Miriam Noël
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.933635%
Objects are naturally occurring items or artificially made artifacts that subjects – humans and animals – act with. They serve as tools in the widest sense: they are used to do something. As part of an activity they are the material expressions of cogitation, especially the ability to think outside the box. The making and use of objects is always tied to a goal that cannot be achieved directly, but only by means of a medium: the need for enhancement of individual faculties is perceived, and an object – not just any, but one that fits the challenge – is found or devised to answer the problem. Object or tool behavior is a particular aspect of behavior that is based on causal connections and – at least partially – considerations thereof. Although the use of tools in the animal kingdom is widespread, it is by no means universal. Contemporary human behavior is characterized by the constant use of objects or tools. The solution of common problems and challenges, and, in extension, human life, without the presence and aid of utensils is inconceivable. Humanity is not characterized by physical and intellectual traits alone, but only becomes comprehensible through its unbreakable bond to inanimate objects, which through use become part of actions and thus of the human world. The connection between the consciously acting human subject and an object is established by means of cognitive processes...

‣ Specificity in the ecology and evolution of plant defense against herbivores: Identity and history

Carrillo, Juli
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.00983%
Biotic interactions can structure communities, drive succession, and account for patterns of biodiversity, yet we currently know little about how multiple biotic factors interact to influence traits in ecological and evolutionary time. Moreover, variation in biotic interactions among native and introduced plant ranges may account for the spectacular success of some invasive species. For example, in novel environments plants may experience ecological release from coevolved specialist enemies and may in turn evolve allocation away from costly defense towards competitive ability. This assumes that plants face a fundamental tradeoff between growth and defense, but we predict that this tradeoff depends on the biotic environment and specificity of plant responses to herbivores. I examined variation in growth and herbivore defense allocation in a model woody invader, using native and invasive populations of Triadica sebifera that differed in historic herbivore pressure. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that populations from the native range with a history of intense herbivory invested more in indirect herbivore resistance (extrafloral nectar production) than invasive populations. Additionally, the induction of indirect defense depended on herbivore feeding mode...

‣ Contemporary evolution of an invasive grass in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 at a Mojave Desert FACE site

Grossman, Judah D; Rice, Kevin J
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.170938%
Elevated atmospheric CO2 has been shown to rapidly alter plant physiology and ecosystem productivity, but contemporary evolutionary responses to increased CO2 have yet to be demonstrated in the field. At a Mojave Desert FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) facility, we tested whether an annual grass weed (Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens) has evolved in response to elevated atmospheric CO2. Within 7 years, field populations exposed to elevated CO2 evolved lower rates of leaf stomatal conductance; a physiological adaptation known to conserve water in other desert or water-limited ecosystems. Evolution of lower conductance was accompanied by reduced plasticity in upregulating conductance when CO2 was more limiting; this reduction in conductance plasticity suggests that genetic assimilation may be ongoing. Reproductive fitness costs associated with this reduction in phenotypic plasticity were demonstrated under ambient levels of CO2. Our findings suggest that contemporary evolution may facilitate this invasive species' spread in this desert ecosystem.

‣ Energy, Complexity and Strategies of Evolution. En: Avá, nº 14

Adams, Richard N.
Fonte: Universidad Nacional de Misiones. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Secretaría de Investigación y postgrado. Programa de Postgrado de Antropología Social. Publicador: Universidad Nacional de Misiones. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Secretaría de Investigación y postgrado. Programa de Postgrado de Antropología Social.
Tipo: info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12365%
Cultural evolution has long been among the themes of anthropology but it has never ranked high. It is left mainly to archaeologists because they have to make sense of how society works and survives through time–a concern that has pretty much been abandoned by many cultural anthropologists. Anthropologists today seem little motivated to find out how society works, but rather to make the world a better place to live in for a particular population. The challenges of atmospheric change, nuclear proliferation, environmental degradation and resource exhaustion, the emergence of life threatening species–these challenges of contemporary evolution have awakened less interest in anthropology. The concern with cultural evolution seems to be of greater interest to non-anthropologists, such as in the work of Jarrod Diamond (2005), a biologist, and the genre that as emerged as Big History, with the works of David Christian (2005) and others. Among the few contemporary anthropologists who have sought the dynamics of cultural evolution, the work of Joseph Tainter (1996) stands out.

‣ Rapid contemporary evolution and clonal food web dynamics

Jones, Laura E.; Becks, Lutz; Ellner, Stephen P.; Hairston Jr, Nelson G.; Yoshida, Takehito; Fussmann, Gregor F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.770117%
Character evolution that affects ecological community interactions often occurs contemporaneously with temporal changes in population size, potentially altering the very nature of those dynamics. Such eco-evolutionary processes may be most readily explored in systems with short generations and simple genetics. Asexual and cyclically parthenogenetic organisms such as microalgae, cladocerans, and rotifers, which frequently dominate freshwater plankton communities, meet these requirements. Multiple clonal lines can coexist within each species over extended periods, until either fixation occurs or a sexual phase reshuffles the genetic material. When clones differ in traits affecting interspecific interactions, within-species clonal dynamics can have major effects on the population dynamics. We first consider a simple predator-prey system with two prey genotypes, parameterized with data on a well-studied experimental system, and explore how the extent of differences in defense against predation within the prey population determine dynamic stability versus instability of the system. We then explore how increased potential for evolution affects the community dynamics in a more general community model with multiple predator and multiple prey genotypes. These examples illustrate how microevolutionary "details" that enhance or limit the potential for heritable phenotypic change can have significant effects on contemporaneous community-level dynamics and the persistence and coexistence of species.; Comment: 30 pages...

‣ Experimental evaluation of evolution and coevolution as agents of ecosystem change in Trinidadian streams.

Palkovacs, EP; Marshall, MC; Lamphere, BA; Lynch, BR; Weese, DJ; Fraser, DF; Reznick, DN; Pringle, CM; Kinnison, MT
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1617 - 1628
Publicado em 12/06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87438%
Evolution has been shown to be a critical determinant of ecological processes in some systems, but its importance relative to traditional ecological effects is not well known. In addition, almost nothing is known about the role of coevolution in shaping ecosystem function. Here, we experimentally evaluated the relative effects of species invasion (a traditional ecological effect), evolution and coevolution on ecosystem processes in Trinidadian streams. We manipulated the presence and population-of-origin of two common fish species, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and the killifish (Rivulus hartii). We measured epilithic algal biomass and accrual, aquatic invertebrate biomass, and detrital decomposition. Our results show that, for some ecosystem responses, the effects of evolution and coevolution were larger than the effects of species invasion. Guppy evolution in response to alternative predation regimes significantly influenced algal biomass and accrual rates. Guppies from a high-predation site caused an increase in algae relative to guppies from a low-predation site; algae effects were probably shaped by observed divergence in rates of nutrient excretion and algae consumption. Rivulus-guppy coevolution significantly influenced the biomass of aquatic invertebrates. Locally coevolved populations reduced invertebrate biomass relative to non-coevolved populations. These results challenge the general assumption that intraspecific diversity is a less critical determinant of ecosystem function than is interspecific diversity. Given existing evidence for contemporary evolution in these fish species...

‣ Eco-evolutionary trophic dynamics: loss of top predators drives trophic evolution and ecology of prey.

Palkovacs, EP; Wasserman, BA; Kinnison, MT
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: e18879 - ?
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.077686%
Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary evolution of trophic traits in prey. We utilized a historical introduction experiment where Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were relocated from a site with predatory fishes to a site lacking predators. To assess the trophic consequences of predator release, we linked individual morphology (cranial, jaw, and body) to foraging performance. Our results show that predator release caused an increase in guppy density and a "sharpening" of guppy trophic traits, which enhanced food consumption rates. Predator release appears to have shifted natural selection away from predator escape ability and towards resource acquisition ability. Related diet and mesocosm studies suggest that this shift enhances the impact of guppies on lower trophic levels in a fashion nuanced by the omnivorous feeding ecology of the species. We conclude that extirpation of top predators may commonly select for enhanced feeding performance in prey...

‣ Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in community and ecosystem ecology: interactions between the ecological theatre and the evolutionary play.

Post, DM; Palkovacs, EP
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1629 - 1640
Publicado em 12/06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.20159%
Interactions between natural selection and environmental change are well recognized and sit at the core of ecology and evolutionary biology. Reciprocal interactions between ecology and evolution, eco-evolutionary feedbacks, are less well studied, even though they may be critical for understanding the evolution of biological diversity, the structure of communities and the function of ecosystems. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks require that populations alter their environment (niche construction) and that those changes in the environment feed back to influence the subsequent evolution of the population. There is strong evidence that organisms influence their environment through predation, nutrient excretion and habitat modification, and that populations evolve in response to changes in their environment at time-scales congruent with ecological change (contemporary evolution). Here, we outline how the niche construction and contemporary evolution interact to alter the direction of evolution and the structure and function of communities and ecosystems. We then present five empirical systems that highlight important characteristics of eco-evolutionary feedbacks: rotifer-algae chemostats; alewife-zooplankton interactions in lakes; guppy life-history evolution and nutrient cycling in streams; avian seed predators and plants; and tree leaf chemistry and soil processes. The alewife-zooplankton system provides the most complete evidence for eco-evolutionary feedbacks...

‣ Translation and Evolution: The Historical Transmission of Culture through Artificial Selection; Translation and Evolution: The Historical Transmission of Culture through Artificial Selection

Gonçalves, Davi S.; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, (UFSC). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.258308%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2015v35n2p14The problem to be investigated in this article concerns the intricate tradition whereby translation has been historically affecting the evolution of human cultures; nevertheless, the general context of my investigation is not at all positioned in the sphere of biological or cultural repertoire as if they were delineated independently. I understand, on the contrary, that placing oneself in the position of that observer who gazes upon the abundant interaction between genes and cultural stimuli (not as enemies but as allies in the process of cultural evolution) would be much more effective than that. In this sense, my specific context regards the historical relevance of translation for the bridge proposed in “Cultural Transmission and Evolution” (Cavalli-Sforza, 2000) between genes, peoples, and languages to be effectively constructed – it seems of paramount importance to have a glimpse on how the process of translation has gradually been entering the game. The emergence of language in the social interactions of our ancestors has been decisive for the evolution of their (and consequently our) cultural environments, so decisive that trying to separate these realms (language and culture) is currently considered not only unfeasible but actually a complete utopia; hence my overall purpose to problematise even more such questionable division. Bearing in mind that my overall intention is to pay a careful look upon the twofold relationship between the evolution of language and that of culture...