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‣ The modified Ottawa method to establish the update need of a systematic review: glass-ionomer versus resin sealants for caries prevention

Mickenautsch,Steffen; Yengopal,Veerasamy
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the application of the modified Ottawa method by establishing the update need of a systematic review with focus on the caries preventive effect of GIC versus resin pit and fissure sealants; to answer the question as to whether the existing conclusions of this systematic review are still current; to establish whether a new update of this systematic review was needed. METHODS: Application of the Modified Ottawa method. Application date: April/May 2012. RESULTS: Four signals aligned with the criteria of the modified Ottawa method were identified. The content of these signals suggest that higher precision of the current systematic review results might be achieved if an update of the current review were conducted at this point in time. However, these signals further indicate that such systematic review update, despite its higher precision, would only confirm the existing review conclusion that no statistically significant difference exists in the caries-preventive effect of GIC and resin-based fissure sealants. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study demonstrated the modified Ottawa method as an effective tool in establishing the update need of the systematic review. In addition, it was established that the conclusions of the systematic review in relation to the caries preventive effect of GIC versus resin based fissure sealants are still current...

‣ Science review: The brain in sepsis – culprit and victim

Sharshar, Tarek; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Orlikowski, David; Annane, Djillali
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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On one side, brain dysfunction is a poorly explored complication of sepsis. On the other side, brain dysfunction may actively contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The current review aimed at summarizing the current knowledge about the reciprocal interaction between the immune and central nervous systems during sepsis. The immune-brain cross talk takes part in circumventricular organs that, being free from blood-brain-barrier, interface between brain and bloodstream, in autonomic nuclei including the vagus nerve, and finally through the damaged endothelium. Recent observations have confirmed that sepsis is associated with excessive brain inflammation and neuronal apoptosis which clinical relevance remains to be explored. In parallel, damage within autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems may contribute to sepsis induced organ dysfunction.

‣ Structure-function relationships in tendons: a review

Benjamin, M; Kaiser, E; Milz, S
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 Português
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The purpose of the current review is to highlight the structure-function relationship of tendons and related structures to provide an overview for readers whose interest in tendons needs to be underpinned by anatomy. Because of the availability of several recent reviews on tendon development and entheses, the focus of the current work is primarily directed towards what can best be described as the ‘tendon proper’ or the ‘mid-substance’ of tendons. The review covers all levels of tendon structure from the molecular to the gross and deals both with the extracellular matrix and with tendon cells. The latter are often called ‘tenocytes’ and are increasingly recognized as a defined cell population that is functionally and phenotypically distinct from other fibroblast-like cells. This is illustrated by their response to different types of mechanical stress. However, it is not only tendon cells, but tendons as a whole that exhibit distinct structure-function relationships geared to the changing mechanical stresses to which they are subject. This aspect of tendon biology is considered in some detail. Attention is briefly directed to the blood and nerve supply of tendons, for this is an important issue that relates to the intrinsic healing capacity of tendons. Structures closely related to tendons (joint capsules...

‣ Modern approaches to understanding stress and disease susceptibility: A review with special emphasis on respiratory disease

Aich, Palok; Potter, Andrew A; Griebel, Philip J
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2009 Português
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Studies in animals and humans link both physical and psychological stress with an increased incidence and severity of respiratory infections. For this manuscript we define stress as the physiological responses an individual undergoes while adjusting to a continually changing environment. It is known that stressors of various types (psychological/physical) can alter the physiological levels of certain hormones, chemokines and cytokines. These alterations send information to the central nervous system to take necessary action which then sends messages to appropriate organs/tissues/cells to respond. These messages can either activate or suppress the immune system as needed and failure to compensate for this by the body can lead to serious health-related problems. Little is known how stress affects disease susceptibility, yet understanding this mechanism is important for developing effective treatments, and for improving health and food quality. The current review focuses on (a) the effects of psychological stressors in humans and animals, (b) various methodologies employed to understand stress responses and their outcomes, and (c) the current status of the attempts to correlate stress and disease with respiratory disease as model system. The methodologies included in this review span traditional epidemiological...

‣ Idiopathic Juxtafoveolar Retinal Telangiectasis: A Current Review

Nowilaty, Sawsan R.; Al-Shamsi, Hanan N.; Al-Khars, Wajeeha
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT), also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice...

‣ A Current Review of the Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies of Hepatic Encephalopathy

Poh, Z.; Chang, P. E. J.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with cirrhotic liver disease. It is a spectrum ranging from minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) without recognizable clinical symptoms or signs, to overt HE with risk of cerebral edema and death. HE results in diminished quality of life and survival. The broad range of neuropsychiatric manifestations reflects the range of pathophysiological mechanisms and impairment in neurotransmission that are purported to cause HE including hyperammonemia, astrocyte swelling, intra-astrocytic glutamine, upregulation of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) (formerly known as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor or PBTR), and manganese. There is a myriad of diagnostic tools including simple bedside clinical assessment, and more complex neuropsychological batteries and neurophysiological tests available today. Current treatment strategies are directed at reducing ammonia, with newer agents showing some early promise. This paper describes the pathophysiology of the disease and summarises current diagnostic and treatment therapies available.

‣ Malignant pleural mesothelioma: current and future perspectives

Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Boutsikou, Efimia; Papaioannou, Antonis; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zaric, Bojan; Perin, Branislav; Huang, Haidong; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Spyratos, Dionysios; Zarogoulid
Fonte: Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company Publicador: Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
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Mesothelioma still remains an occupational related cancer with severe outcome. It is usually diagnosed at advanced stage since it does not demonstrate early symptoms. Several efforts have been made towards removing all materials inducing mesothelioma in the work setting and new work protection measures have been applied. Although we have new targeted treatments and radical surgery as arrows in the quiver, the type of mesothelioma and early diagnosis still remain the best treatment approach. Novel treatment modalities have been explored and several others are already on the way. In the current review we will present current data for mesothelioma and future perspectives.

‣ Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir
Fonte: Royan Institute Publicador: Royan Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover...

‣ Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2014 Português
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There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets...

‣ Lifetime risk estimators in epidemiological studies of Krabbe Disease: Review and Monte Carlo comparison

Foss, Alexander H.; Duffner, Patricia K.; Carter, Randy L.
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/05/2013 Português
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This review addresses difficulties arising in estimating epidemiological parameters of leukodystrophies and lysosomal storage disorders, with special focus on Krabbe disease. Although multiple epidemiological studies of Krabbe disease have been published, these studies are difficult to reconcile since they have used different study populations and varying methods of calculation. Confusion exists regarding which epidemiological parameters have been estimated; the current review shows that most previous estimates can be properly interpreted as lifetime risk at birth. One of the most common estimation methods is shown to be inaccurate, while two other methods are shown to be approximately accurate. Based on the results of the current paper, recommendations are made that are expected to improve the quality of future studies of Krabbe disease. It is anticipated that these recommendations will be applicable to epidemiological studies of other lysosomal storage disorders, as well as any other rare diseases diagnosed with enzymatic screening.

‣ The Evolving Role of Radiosurgery in the Management of Radiation-Induced Meningiomas: A Review of Current Advances and Future Directions

Mansouri, Alireza; Badhiwala, Jetan; Mansouri, Sheila; Zadeh, Gelareh
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Meningiomas are among the most common primary adult brain tumors, which arise either spontaneously or secondary to environmental factors such as ionizing radiation. The latter are referred to as radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs) which, while much less common than their spontaneous counterparts, are challenging from a management point of view. Similar to spontaneous meningiomas, the optimal management of RIMs is complete surgical resection. However, given their high grade, multiplicity, tendency to invade bone and venous sinuses, and high recurrence rate, this cannot always be accomplished safely. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, have emerged. In the current review, we provide an overview of the historical outcomes achieved for RIMs through radiosurgery and microsurgical resection. Furthermore, we provide a discussion of clinical and radiological parameters that affect the decision-making process with regard to the management of RIMs. We also provide an outline of recent changes in our understanding of RIMs, based on molecular and genetic markers, and how these will change our management perspective. We conclude the review by summarizing some of the current obstacles in the management of RIMs with SRS and how current and future research can address these challenges.

‣ Perceived barriers to children’s active commuting to school: a systematic review of empirical, methodological and theoretical evidence

Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Lee, Chanam; Goodson, Patricia; Ory, Marcia G; Wang, Suojin
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2014 Português
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Active commuting to school (ACS) may increase children’s daily physical activity and help them maintain a healthy weight. Previous studies have identified various perceived barriers related to children’s ACS. However, it is not clear whether and how these studies were methodologically sound and theoretically grounded. The purpose of this review was to critically assess the current literature on perceived barriers to children’s ACS and provide recommendations for future studies. Empirically based literature on perceived barriers to ACS was systematically searched from six databases. A methodological quality scale (MQS) and a theory utilization quality scale (TQS) were created based on previously established instruments and tailored for the current review. Among the 39 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 19 (48.7%) reported statistically significant perceived barriers to child’s ACS. The methodological and theory utilization qualities of reviewed studies varied, with MQS scores ranging between 7 and 20 (Mean =12.95, SD =2.95) and TQS scores from 1 to 7 (Mean =3.62, SD =1.74). A detailed appraisal of the literature suggests several empirical, methodological, and theoretical recommendations for future studies on perceived barriers to ACS. Empirically...

‣ Regenerative medicine in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current position

Álvarez, Diana; Levine, Melanie; Rojas, Mauricio
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2015 Português
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible disease of the lung that has no lasting option for therapy other than transplantation. It is characterized by replacement of the normal lung tissue by fibrotic scarring, honeycombing, and increased levels of myofibroblasts. The underlying causes of IPF are still largely unknown. The focus of the current review is the possible use of stem cell therapy, specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a multipotent stromal cell population, which have demonstrated promising data in multiple animal models of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). The most studied source of MSCs is the bone marrow, although they can be found also in the adipose tissue and umbilical cord, as well as in the placenta. MSCs have immunomodulatory and tissue-protective properties that allow them to manipulate the local environment of the injured tissue, ameliorating the inflammation and promoting repair. Because IPF primarily affects older patients, the issue of aging is intrinsically linked to many aspects of the disease, including the age of the stem cells. Animal models have shown the success of MSC therapy in mitigating the fibrotic effects of bleomycin-induced PF. However, bleomycin, the most commonly used model for PF...

‣ Current Updates on Oxazolidinone and Its Significance

Pandit, Neha; Singla, Rajeev K.; Shrivastava, Birendra
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Oxazolidinone is a five-member heterocyclic ring exhibiting potential medicinal properties with preferential antibacterial activity. Scientists reported various synthetic procedures for this heterocyclic structure. Current review articles tried to cover each and every potential aspect of oxazolidinone like synthetic routes, pharmacological mechanism of action, medicinal properties, and current research activities.

‣ Endocrinopathies: The current and changing perspectives in anesthesia practice

Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Gurpreet
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The gateways to advancements in medical fields have always been accessed through the coalition between various specialties. It is almost impossible for any specialty to make rapid strides of its own. However, the understanding of deeper perspectives of each specialty or super specialty is essential to take initiatives for the progress of the other specialty. Endocrinology and anesthesiology are two such examples which have made rapid progress in the last three decades. Somehow the interaction and relationship among these medical streams have been only scarcely studied. Diabetes and thyroid pathophysiologies have been the most researched endocrine disorders so far in anesthesia practice but even their management strategies have undergone significant metamorphosis over the last three decades. As such, anesthesia practice has been influenced vastly by these advancements in endocrinology. However, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between these two partially related specialties is considered to be an essential cornerstone for further progress in anesthesia and surgical sciences. The current review is an attempt to imbibe the current and the changing perspectives so as to make the understanding of the relationship between these two medical streams a little simple and clearer.

‣ A review of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood triacylglycerol levels in normolipidemic and borderline hyperlipidemic individuals

Leslie, Michael A.; Cohen, Daniel J. A.; Liddle, Danyelle M.; Robinson, Lindsay E.; Ma, David W. L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2015 Português
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Circulating levels of triacylglycerol (TG) is a recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death worldwide. The Institute of Medicine and the American Heart Association both recommend the consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), to reduce serum TG in hyperlipidemic individuals. Additionally, a number of systematic reviews have shown that individuals with any degree of dyslipidemia, elevated serum TG and/or cholesterol, may benefit from a 20-30 % reduction in serum TG after consuming n-3 PUFA derived from marine sources. Given that individuals with serum lipid levels ranging from healthy to borderline dyslipidemic constitute a large portion of the population, the focus of this review was to assess the potential for n-3 PUFA consumption to reduce serum TG in such individuals. A total of 1341 studies were retrieved and 38 clinical intervention studies, assessing 2270 individuals, were identified for inclusion in the current review. In summary, a 9-26 % reduction in circulating TG was demonstrated in studies where ≥ 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA were consumed from either marine or EPA/DHA-enriched food sources, while a 4-51 % reduction was found in studies where 1–5 g/day of EPA and/or DHA was consumed through supplements. Overall...

‣ Role of complementary and alternative medicine in geriatric care: A mini review

Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed; Min, Chan Sze; Verma, Rohit Kumar; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Since time immemorial homo sapiens are subjected to both health and diseases states and seek treatment for succor and assuagement in compromised health states. Since last two decades the progressive rise in the alternative form of treatment cannot be ignored and population seems to be dissatisfied with the conventional treatment modalities and therefore, resort to other forms of treatment, mainly complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM is predominantly more popular in older adults and therefore, numerous research studies and clinical trials have been carried out to investigate the effectiveness of CAM in the management of both communicable and non-communicable disease. In this current mini review, we attempt to encompass the use of CAM in chronic non-communicable diseases that are most likely seen in geriatrics. The current review focuses not only on the reassurance of good health practices, emphasizing on the holistic development and strengthening the body's defense mechanisms, but also attempts to construct a pattern of self-care and patient empowerment in geriatrics. The issues of safety with CAM use cannot be sidelined and consultation with a health care professional is always advocated to the patient. Likewise...

‣ Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel diseases: Current perspectives, risks and patient management

Hosseini-Carroll, Pegah; Mutyala, Monica; Seth, Abhishek; Nageeb, Shaheen; Soliman, Demiana; Boktor, Moheb; Sheth, Ankur; Chapman, Jonathon; Morris, James; Jordan, Paul; Manas, Kenneth; Becker, Felix; Alexander, Jonathan Steven
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic idiopathic inflammatory conditions characterized by relapsing and remitting episodes of inflammation which can affect several different regions of the gastrointestinal tract, but also shows extra-intestinal manifestations. IBD is most frequently diagnosed during peak female reproductive years, with 25% of women with IBD conceiving after their diagnosis. While IBD therapy has improved dramatically with enhanced surveillance and more abundant and powerful treatment options, IBD disease can have important effects on pregnancy and presents several challenges for maintaining optimal outcomes for mothers with IBD and the developing fetus/neonate. Women with IBD, the medical team treating them (both gastroenterologists and obstetricians/gynecologists) must often make highly complicated choices regarding conception, pregnancy, and post-natal care (particularly breastfeeding) related to their choice of treatment options at different phases of pregnancy as well as post-partum. This current review discusses current concerns and recommendations for pregnancy during IBD and is intended for gastroenterologists, general practitioners and IBD patients intending to become, (or already) pregnant, and their families. We have addressed patterns of IBD inheritance...

‣ 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5α-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

Wisniewski, Amy B.; Mazur, Tom
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5-α reductase-2 deficiency, or 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

‣ Potential targets for ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a review of updates and future perspectives

Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Matsuzaki, Satoko; Kakuda, Mamoru; Okazawa, Akiko; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kimura, Tadashi
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 15/12/2015 Português
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Advances in surgical and medical treatments for ovarian cancer have improved prognoses. Platinum drugs in particular are pivotal for the medical treatment of ovarian cancer. However, previous studies have revealed that some histological subtypes, such as clear cell carcinoma, are resistant to medical treatment, including that with platinum drugs. Consequently, the clinical prognosis of advanced clear cell carcinoma is remarkably inferior, primarily because of its chemoresistant behavior. The prevalence of clear cell carcinoma is approximately 5 % in the West, but in Japan, its prevalence is particularly high, at approximately 25 %. Current medical treatments for advanced clear cell carcinoma are difficult to administer, and they have poor efficacy, warranting the development of novel target-based therapies. In this review, we describe medical treatments for clear cell carcinoma and discuss future prospects for therapy. In particular, we focus on the mechanism of platinum resistance in clear cell carcinoma, including the role of annexin A4, one of the most investigated factors of platinum resistance, as well as the mutant genes and overexpressed proteins such as VEGF, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, ARID1A, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β...