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‣ Decomposing technological change at the twilight of the twentieth century: evidence and lessons from the world’s largest innovating firms

Mendonça, Sandro; Fai, Felicia
Fonte: DINÂMIA Publicador: DINÂMIA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
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DINÂMIA, Dezembro de 2007.; The present-day economy, characterised by a pattern of steady technological and organisational change, has its roots in the so-called information revolution of the late twentieth century. As this unique period of recent history recedes, the benefits of hindsight make it possible to deliver new perspectives on what really happened across industries facing rapidly mutating global competitive settings. This paper provides an analysis of the transformations that occurred in a collection of technological capabilities nurtured by industrial sectors as represented by nearly 500 of the world’s largest industrial corporations during the 1980s and 1990s. Using structural decomposition analysis it shows how industries adapted under the strain of radical shifts in the technological context with varying degrees of success.

‣ Decomposition analysis of LTREs may facilitate the design of short-term ecotoxicological tests

Hamda, Natnael T.; Jevtić, Dragan M.; Laskowski, Ryszard
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study compared two methods, based on re-analyzed data from a partly published life table response experiment (LTRE), to help determine the optimal approach for designing ecotoxicological assessments. The 36-day LTRE data recorded the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, on the reproduction and survivorship of aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). We used this data to construct an age-classified matrix model (six age classes, each 6 days long) to estimate aphid population growth rate (λ) under each treatment. For each treatment, an elasticity analysis and a demographic decomposition analysis were performed, and results were compared. Despite different results expected from the two toxicants, the elasticity values were very similar. The elasticity of λ with respect to survival was highest in the first age class, and that with respect to fertility was highest in the second age class. The demographic decomposition analysis examined how changes in life-history traits contributed to differences in λ between control and treated populations (Δλ). This indicated that the most important contributors to Δλ were the differences in survival (resulting from both demographic sensitivity and toxicity) in the first and the second age classes of aphids and differences in fertility in the third and the fourth age classes. Additionally...

‣ Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory

Mo, Yirong; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn–Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and π–cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal–carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations.

‣ Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males...

‣ Revisiting Between-group Inequality Measurement : An Application to the Dynamics of Caste Inequality in Two Indian villages

Lanjouw, Peter; Rao, Vijayendra
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Standard approaches to decomposing how much group differences contribute to inequality rarely show significant between-group inequality, and are of limited use in comparing populations with different numbers of groups. This study applies an adaptation to the standard approach that remedies these problems to longitudinal household data from two Indian villages -- Palanpur in the north, and Sugao in the west. The authors find that in Palanpur the largest scheduled caste group failed to share in the gradual rise in village prosperity. This would not have emerged from standard decomposition analysis. However, in Sugao the alternative procedure did not yield any additional insights because income gains applied relatively evenly across castes.

‣ A Micro-Decomposition Analysis of the Macroeconomic Determinants of Human Development

Lambert, Sylvie; Ravallion, Martin; van de Walle, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper shows how differences in aggregate human development outcomes over time and space can be additively decomposed into a pure economic-growth component, a component attributed to differences in the distribution of income, and components attributed to "non-income" factors and differences in the model linking outcomes to income or non-income characteristics. The income effect at the micro level is modeled non-parametrically, so as to flexibly reflect distributional changes. The paper illustrates the decomposition using data for Morocco and Vietnam, and the results offer some surprising insights into the observed aggregate gains in schooling attainments. A user friendly STATA program is available to implement the method in other settings.

‣ Inequalities in Health in Developing Countries: Swimming Against the Tide?

Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C
Português
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Inequalities in health have recently started to receive a good deal of attention in the developing world. But how large are they? An how large are the differences across countries? Recent data from a 42-country study, show large, but varying inequalities in health across countries. The author explores the reasons for these inter-country differences, and concludes that large inequalities in health, are not apparently associated with large inequalities in income, or with small shares of publicly financed health spending. But they are associated with higher per capita incomes. Evidence from trends in health inequalities - in both the developing, and the industrial world - supports the notion that health inequalities rise with rising per capita incomes. The association between health inequalities, and per capita incomes is probably due in part, to technological change going hand-in-hand with economic growth, coupled with a tendency for the better-off to assimilate new technology ahead of the poor. Since increased health inequalities...

‣ The Energy Transition of the Transition Economies : An Empirical Analysis

Zhang, Fan
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aggregate manufacturing energy intensity of 28 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia had declined by 35% during 1998–2008. This study reveals a strong evidence of convergence: less efficient countries improved more rapidly and the cross-country variance in energy productivity narrowed over time. An index decomposition analysis indicates that energy intensities declined largely because of more efficient energy use rather than shifts from energy intensive to less intensive manufacturing activities. Income growth and energy price increases were the main drivers of the convergence. They dominated the impact of trade, which led to specialization in energy intensive industries.

‣ Vulnerability to Higher Oil Prices : Decomposition Analysis of One Hundred and 158 Countries between 2003 and 2008

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This note examines changes in vulnerability to oil price increases over a five-year period ending in 2008. A decomposition analysis applied to one hundred and fifty-eight countries found that vulnerability had increased in eighty-two percent of countries, with more than half experiencing vulnerability exceeding five percent in 2008 and one fifth experiencing vulnerability exceeding ten percent. This document explores the background of the issue, and includes tabulation to indicate the countries with greatest vulnerabilities, decomposition results for Bank client countries in Africa, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa, and corresponding tabulation for non-IDA/IBRD countries.

‣ Changes in CO2 Emissions from Energy Use : A Multicountry Decomposition Analysis

Kojima, Masami; Bacon, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The continued growth of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their likely adverse effects on global warming are focusing debate on the contribution of various countries to total emissions and the comparability of efforts across countries in mitigating these emissions. This paper examines recent trends in CO2 emissions across countries at different levels of development and asks what has been contributing to the growth of emissions as well as to their moderation. The paper applies a decomposition analysis, an accounting methodology based on a log mean Divisia index, to analyze the change in CO2 emissions over a decade.

‣ Substitutability and the cost of climate mitigation policy

Lu, Yingying; Stern, David Ian
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 4 pages
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We explore how and by how much assumptions about elasticities of substitution affect estimates of the cost of GHG emissions reduction policies in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models using G-Cubed, an intertemporal CGE model, to carry out a sensitivity and factor decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the average abatement cost rises non-linearly as elasticities are reduced. Substitution elasticities between capital, labor, energy and materials in production have a larger impact on mitigation costs than inter-fuel substitution does. There are notable differences in the effect of the elasticities on costs at the regional level due to interactions in international trade and capital flows in such a global model. Although the results in this study are derived from a particular model, the study, in a broader sense, suggests that there is a necessity for sensitivity analysis before making any conclusive policy recommendation using CGE models.

‣ European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

ANDREONI Valeria; GALMARINI Stefano
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001e2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun [1] has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities; JRC.H.2-Air and Climate

‣ Decoupling economic growth from carbon dioxide emissions: A decomposition analysis of Italian energy consumption

ANDREONI Valeria; GALMARINI Stefano
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO2, the CH4 and the N2O emissions of Italian transport activities for the period 1995-2003. The decomposition method developed by Sun (Sun. J.W., 1998. Accounting for energy use in China, 1980–94. Energy 23, 835–849) has been used to investigate the emission intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the maritime and the aviation transport sectors. Results indicate that energy intensity and economic growth have been the main determinants of emissions increase.; JRC.H.2-Air and Climate

‣ A decomposition analysis of first-term attrition in the U.S. Military

Elis, Haluk.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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his thesis analyzes causal factors associated with first-term attrition for all four military services. In particular, it seeks to identify demographic and other factors that have influenced changes in attrition over time. The thesis draws on data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center on entry cohorts for fiscal years 1984, 1989, and 1994. Separate multivariate models are estimated for each service and each year. These models are used to implement a decomposition analysis of the changes in attrition between 1984 and 1989, between 1989 and 1994 and between 1984 and 1994. The decomposition technique analyzes the portion of the changes in attrition over these periods that is attributable to changes in the demographic composition of the entry cohorts and the portion due to changes in the estimated model coefficients. The thesis finds that sex, education, race, AFQT scores, and months spent in Delayed Entry Program consistently affect attrition behavior while the relationship between age at entry and attrition is not clear. The decomposition technique used in the thesis finds that there are generally big differences between the predicted and the actual changes in attrition and that the direction of predicted and actual change is generally in opposite directions. The thesis recommends that the role of other factors...

‣ China's energy use : the changing relationship between economic growth and energy

Meagher, Dominic
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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The transformation of China's economy since 1978 is one of the most profound economic transformations in history. Among the most important dimensions of China's transformation is the way rapid economic growth drove energy consumption. All economic activity depends in one way or another upon energy but there is now overwhelming evidence that much of the way we use energy has undesirable externalities, including potentially destabilising effects on the earth's climate system. China is already the world's largest energy user and prospects for future economic growth and therefore energy consumption remain strong. China's energy use is therefore a critical area of analysis. The thesis addresses three core questions. Why has China's energy consumption grown so rapidly since 2002? Is China's economy peculiar in its huge and rapidly growing energy consumption or does it conform to the experience of other countries when they were at similar stages of development? What are the implications for China's energy future? Input-Output Analysis (lOA) and Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) are employed to isolate energy relationships with rural and urban household consumption, government expenditure, investment, trade and production. Data from the 2002 IO table (122 sectors) and the 2007 IO table (135 sectors)...

‣ Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan

Adams, Richard H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The rural economy of developing countries has long been regarded as synonymous with agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to change. Such diverse activities as government, commerce, and services are now seen as providing most income in rural households. Applying decomposition analysis to two new nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of income--including nonfarm income--affect inequality in rural income. He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two countries. In Egypt the poor (those in the lowest quintile) receive almost 60 percent of their per capita income from nonfarm income. In Jordan the poor receive less than 20 percent of their income from nonfarm income. So nonfarm income decreases inequality in Egypt and increases it in Jordan. 2) Access to land accounts for this difference between the two countries. In Egypt the cultivated land base is totally irrigated and very highly productive. Egypt's large rural population seeks access to land but because the land-to-people ratio is so unfavorable...

‣ Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometric study

Shi, Xiaoyu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.; 5995651 bytes; 6000435 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., physical energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has declined dramatically, by about 70%, in spite of increases in energy consumption. Is this just a coincidence? Or does a systematic relationship exist between energy prices and energy intensity? In this study, I examine whether and how China's energy price changes affect its energy intensity trend during 1980-2002 at a macro level. I conduct the research using two complementary economic models (the input-output-based structural decomposition analysis and econometric regression models) and a decomposition method of own-price elasticity of energy intensity. Findings include a negative own-price elasticity of energy intensity, a price-inducement effect on energy-efficiency improvement, and a greater sensitivity, in terms of the reaction of energy intensity towards changes in energy prices, of the industry sector, compared to the overall economy. Analysts can use these results as a starting point for China's energy use and carbon emission forecasts, which they traditionally conduct in China without accounting for energy intensity and energy prices.; (cont.) In addition...

‣ Biomass and China's carbon emissions: A missing piece of carbon decomposition

Ma, Chunbo; Stern, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A number of previous studies on China's carbon emissions have mainly focused on two facts: (1) the continuous growth in emissions up till the middle of the 1990s; (2) the recent stability of emissions from 1996 to 2001. Decomposition analysis has been wid

‣ China's Changing Energy Intensity Trend: A Decomposition Analysis

Ma, Chunbo; Stern, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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China experienced a dramatic decline in energy intensity from the onset of economic reform in the late 1970s until 2000, but since then the rate of decline slowed and energy intensity actually increased in 2003. Most previous studies found that most of th

‣ The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita : a regression-based inequality decomposition analysis

Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Teixidó-Figueras, Jordi; Padilla, Emilio
Fonte: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada Publicador: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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This paper uses the possibilities provided by the regression-based inequality decomposition (Fields, 2003) to explore the contribution of different explanatory factors to international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita. In contrast to previous emissions inequality decompositions, which were based on identity relationships (Duro and Padilla, 2006), this methodology does not impose any a priori specific relationship. Thus, it allows an assessment of the contribution to inequality of different relevant variables. In short, the paper appraises the relative contributions of affluence, sectoral composition, demographic factors and climate. The analysis is applied to selected years of the period 1993–2007. The results show the important (though decreasing) share of the contribution of demographic factors, as well as a significant contribution of affluence and sectoral composition.