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‣ An exponential inequality for associated variables

Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
Português
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We prove an exponential inequality for positively associated and strictly stationary random variables replacing an uniform boundedness assumption by the existence of Laplace transforms. The proof uses a truncation technique together with a block decomposition of the sums to allow an approximation to independence. We show that for geometrically decreasing covariances our conditions are fulfilled, identifying a convergence rate for the strong law of large numbers.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1D-4FGXPHS-2/1/4bb07b9cbcfcc09f853b4c1761598dbe

‣ Financial frictions, informality and income inequality

Merlin, Giovanni Tondin; Kuhl Teles, Vladimir
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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We studied the effects of changes in banking spreads on distributions of income, wealth and consumption as well as the welfare of the economy. This analysis was based on a model of heterogeneous agents with incomplete markets and occupational choice, in which the informality of firms and workers is a relevant transmission channel. The main finding is that reductions in spreads for firms increase the proportion of entrepreneurs and formal workers in the economy, thereby decreasing the size of the informal sector. The effects on inequality, however, are ambiguous and depend on wage dynamics and government transfers. Reductions in spreads for individuals lead to a reduction in inequality indicators at the expense of consumption and aggregate welfare. By calibrating the model to Brazil for the 2003-2012 period, it is possible to find results in line with the recent drop in informality and the wage gap between formal and informal workers

‣ Desigualdade e polarização da distribuição de renda no Brasil e no estado de São Paulo, 1992-2007; Inequality and polarization of income distribution in Brazil and São Paulo state, 1992-2007

Erika de Souza Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2009 Português
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Essa dissertação analisa a desigualdade e a polarização da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita e da renda das pessoas ocupadas no Brasil e no estado de São Paulo, no período 1992-2007, utilizando os dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. Inicialmente são expostas as maneiras de medir a desigualdade e a polarização da renda, ressaltando a distinção entre esses dois conceitos. Contrariando a disseminada idéia do "desaparecimento da classe média", os resultados obtidos não permitem constatar aumento da polarização nas distribuições de renda analisadas. Verifica-se que, da mesma maneira que a desigualdade, a polarização da renda mostra tendência decrescente, principalmente quando são analisados somente os anos 2000; This dissertation analyses the inequality and the polarization of the distribution of per capita household income and of the distribution of earnings of occupied persons in Brazil and in the state of São Paulo, from 1992 to 2007, using annual data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey. Measures of inequality and polarization are presented, making clear the distinction between these concepts. Contradicting the idea of a "shrinking middle class", the results do not indicate an increase in the polarization of the income distributions analyzed. It is observed that the degree of polarization...

‣ Intra-regional Wage Inequality in Portugal

Pereira, João; Galego, Aurora
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Studies on intra-regional inequality are scarce, particularly for European countries. This paper aims at further investigating inequality by focusing on wage differences within regions. We consider the case of Portugal, which is considered one of the countries with the highest level of economic inequality. In particular, we analyse the evolution of intra-regional wage inequality between 1995 and 2005, employing a quantile-based decomposition method. Our results show that wage inequality evolution has been different across the various regions, increasing in some regions and decreasing in others. Different changes in the workforce composition explain these diverse developments.

‣ Global Inequality and the Global Inequality Extraction Ratio : The Story of the Past Two Centuries

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Using social tables, the author makes an estimate of global inequality (inequality among world citizens) in the early 19th century. The analysis shows that the level and composition of global inequality have changed over the past two centuries. The level has increased, reaching a high plateau around the 1950s, and the main determinants of global inequality have become differences in mean country incomes rather than inequalities within nations. The inequality extraction ratio (the percentage of total inequality that was extracted by global elites) has remained surprisingly stable, at around 70 percent of the maximum global Gini, during the past 100 years.

‣ Exiting Belindia? Lesson from the Recent Decline in Income Inequality in Brazil

Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Rocha, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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After decades of persistent disparities, inequality in Brazil has fallen steadily over the last fifteen years. This robust rate of decline has surpassed the pace of the Latin American region as a whole, and is taking place as inequality rises in several rapid-growth emerging economies in other regions. This document examines the recent trend in income inequality in Brazil, its key policy drivers and some of the challenges ahead. It aims at capturing some of the lessons behind Brazil?s experience to share with other economies in the region and beyond.

‣ The Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam in the 1990s

Gallup, John Luke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Has the expansion of wage employment in Vietnam exacerbated social inequalities, despite its contribution to income growth? Gallup uses the two rounds of the Vietnamese Living Standards Survey (VLSS) to evaluate the contribution of wage employment to inequality and income growth over the period of rapid economic growth in the 1990s following market reforms. If Vietnam sustains its economic development in the future, wage employment will become an ever more important source of household income as family farms and self-employed household enterprises become less prevalent. Observing the recent evolution of wage employment compared with farm and non-farm self-employment provides clues as to how economic development will change Vietnamese society, in particular its impact on income inequality within and between communities. The author shows that standard methods for calculating income inequality can be severely biased due to measurement error when decomposing the contribution of different sectors, regions, or groups to overall inequality. A new method for consistent decomposition of inequality by income source shows that despite the rapid growth of wages in the 1990s...

‣ Does Liberté = Egalité? A Survey of the Empirical Links between Democracy and Inequality with Some Evidence on the Transition Economies

Gradstein. Mark; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The effect of the distribution of political rights on income inequality has been studied both theoretically and empirically. The authors review the existing literature and, in particular, the available empirical evidence. The literature suggests that formal exclusion from the political process through restrictions on the voting franchise appears to have caused a high degree of economic inequality. And democratization in the form of franchise expansion has typically led to an expansion in redistribution, at least in the small sample of episodes studied. In a less pronounced way, albeit more emphatically compared with the ambiguous results of earlier research, recent evidence indicates an inverse relationship between other measures of democracy, based on civil liberties and political rights, and inequality. The transition experience of Eastern European countries, however, seems to some extent go against these conclusions. This opens possible new vistas for research, namely the need to incorporate the length of democratic experience and the role played by ideology and social values

‣ Growth, Inequality, and Social Welfare : Cross-Country Evidence

Dollar, David; Kleineberg, Tatjana; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Social welfare functions that assign weights to individuals based on their income levels can be used to document the relative importance of growth and inequality changes for changes in social welfare. In a large panel of industrial and developing countries over the past 40 years, most of the cross-country and over-time variation in changes in social welfare is due to changes in average incomes. In contrast, the changes in inequality observed during this period are on average much smaller than changes in average incomes, are uncorrelated with changes in average incomes, and have contributed relatively little to changes in social welfare.

‣ Inequality of Opportunity and Economic Growth : A Cross-Country Analysis

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Lakner, Christoph; Lugo, Maria Ana; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Income differences arise from many sources. While some kinds of inequality, caused by effort differences, might be associated with faster economic growth, other kinds, arising from unequal opportunities for investment, might be detrimental to economic progress. This study uses two new metadata sets, consisting of 118 household surveys and 134 Demographic and Health Surveys, to revisit the question of whether inequality is associated with economic growth and, in particular, to examine whether inequality of opportunity -- driven by circumstances at birth -- has a negative effect on subsequent growth. The results are suggestive but not robust: while overall income inequality is generally negatively associated with growth in the household survey sample, we find no evidence that this is due to the component associated with unequal opportunities. In the Demographic and Health Surveys sample, both overall wealth inequality and inequality of opportunity have a negative effect on growth in some of the preferred specifications...

‣ Measuring Inequality of Opportunity with Imperfect Data : The Case of Turkey

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Gignoux, Jeremie; Aran, Meltem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The measurement of inequality of opportunity has hitherto not been attempted in a number of countries because of data limitations. This paper proposes two alternative approaches to circumventing the missing data problems in countries where a demographic and health survey and an ancillary household expenditure survey are available. One method relies only on the demographic and health survey, and constructs a wealth index as a measure of economic advantage. The alternative method imputes consumption from the ancillary survey into the demographic and health survey. In both cases, the between-type share of overall inequality is computed as a lower bound estimator of inequality of opportunity. Parametric and non-parametric estimates are calculated for both methods, and the parametric approach is shown to yield preferable lower-bound measures. In an application to the sample of ever-married women aged 30-49 in Turkey, inequality of opportunity accounts for at least 26 percent (31 percent) of overall inequality in imputed consumption (the wealth index).

‣ How Unfair is the Inequality of Wage Earnings in Russia?

Tiwari, Sailesh; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel; Narayan, Ambar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This paper attempts to determine the extent to which inequality in wage earnings in the Russian Federation is unfair. Unlike other similar attempts that can, at best, produce a lower bound on the estimate of the share of inequality that is unfair, this paper exploits the longitudinal nature of the data to come up with a lower bound as well as an upper bound. The upper bound is further refined to take into account the indirect effect of circumstances at birth (gender, parental wealth, etc.) on effort. Results show that the upper bound on the inequality of opportunity may be three to four times the measured lower bound and significantly higher for females than males in the sample. Finally, comparison with the United States and Germany show that although total inequality is lower in Russia, the share of unfair inequality is distinctly larger. The markedly large explanatory role of extraneous factors, such as gender and parental characteristics, in wage inequality calls for a close examination of governments’ efforts to address inequities in the labor market.

‣ A Decade of Declining Earnings Inequality in the Russian Federation

Calvo, Paula Andrea; Lopez-Calva, Luis-Felipe; Posadas, Josefina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Wage inequality decreased significantly in the Russian Federation over the 2000s. The economic expansion experienced throughout the decade led to an improvement in social indicators, with a large reduction in poverty rates and an increase in higher education. In this context, wage inequality showed a sharp decline, with the Gini index on labor income decreasing by 18 percent between 2002 and 2012. Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, this paper documents the reduction in wage inequality and explores potential factors behind the trend. The analysis uses a decomposition technique proposed by Fortin, Lemieux, and Firpo (2011) to disentangle the main drivers behind changes in the wage distribution. The results suggest that wage structure effects are more important than composition effects for explaining changes in wage inequality. Institutional factors, such as minimum wage policies and changes in the returns to employment in different sectors and types of firms as well as the reduction of the skill premium...

‣ Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis

Maika, A.; Mittinty, N.; Brinkman, S.; Harper, S.; Satriawan, E.; Lynch, J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Background: Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in children’s cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods. Methods: Data from the 2000 and 2007 round of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) were used. Study participants were children aged 7–14 years (n = 6179 and n = 6680 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). The relative concentration index (RCI) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality. Contribution of various contributors to inequality was estimated by decomposing the concentration index in 2000 and 2007. Oaxaca-type decomposition was used to estimate changes in contributors to inequality between 2000 and 2007. Results: Expenditure inequality decreased by 45% from an RCI = 0.29 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.36) in 2000 to 0.16 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.20) in 2007 but the burden of poorer cognitive function was higher among the disadvantaged in both years. The largest contributors to inequality in child cognitive function were inequalities in per capita expenditure...

‣ Democracy and Income Inequality : An Empirical Analysis

Gradstein, Mark; Milanovic, Branko; Ying, Yvonne
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Standard political economy theories suggest that democratization has a moderating effect on income inequality. But the empirical literature has failed to uncover any such robust relationship. The authors take another look at the issue. The authors argue that prevailing ideology may be an important determinant of inequality and that the democratization effect "works through" ideology. In societies that value equality highly there is less distributional conflict among income groups, so democratization may have only a negligible effect on inequality. But in societies that value equality less, democratization reduces inequality through redistribution as the poor outvote the rich. The authors' cross-country empirical analysis, covering 126 countries in 1960-98, confirms the hypothesis: ideology, as proxied by a country's dominant religion, seems to be related to inequality. In addition, while in Judeo-Christian societies increased democratization appears to lead to lower inequality, in Muslim and Confucian societies it has an insignificant effect. The authors hypothesize that Muslim and Confucian societies rely on informal transfers to reach the desired level of inequality...

‣ Is Inequality Bad for Business : A Nonlinear Microeconomic Model of Wealth Effects on Self-Employment

Mesnard, Alice; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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It is widely assumed that pervasive credit market failures mean that a person's current wealth is critical to whether or not that person can take up opportunities to start a new business. The authors show that inequality in wealth can be either good or bad for the level of entrepreneurship in an economy, depending on how diminishing returns to capital interact with borrowing constraints at the microeconomic level. They use nonparametric regression methods to study wealth effects on business start-ups among migrants returning to their home country, Tunisia. They include controls for heterogeneity, with specification tests for the nonseparable effects with wealth and for selection bias. There is no evidence of increasing returns at low wealth. The aggregate number of business start-ups is an increasing function of aggregate wealth but a decreasing function of wealth inequality. In other words, at any given mean, the higher the initial inequality of wealth, the lower the rate of new business start-ups, through the existence of diminshing returns to capital given liquidity constraints. In this sense...

‣ Inequality Stagnation in Latin America in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

Cord, Louise; Barriga Cabanillas, Oscar; Lucchetti, Leonardo; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos; Sousa, Liliana D.; Valderrama, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Over the past decade (2003-12), Latin America has experienced strong income growth and a notable reduction in income inequality, with the region's Gini coefficient falling from 55.6 to 51.8. Previous studies have warned about the sustainability of such a decline, and this paper presents evidence of stagnation in the pace of reduction of income inequality in Latin America since 2010. This phenomenon of stagnation is robust to different measures of inequality and is largely attributable to the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Mexico and Central America, where inequality rose after 2010 as labor income recovered. Moreover, this paper finds evidence that much of the continuation of inequality reduction after the crisis at the country level has been due to negative or zero income growth for households in the top of the income distribution, and lower growth of the incomes of the poorest households. The crisis also highlighted weaknesses in the region's labor markets and the heavy reliance on public transfers to redistribute...

‣ Recent trends in Spanish income distribution : a robust picture of falling income inequality

Oliver i Alonso, Josep; Raymond Bara, José Luis
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Income distribution in Spain has experienced a substantial improvement towards equalisation during the second half of the seventies and the eighties; a period during which most OECD countries experienced the opposite trend. In spite of the many recent papers on the Spanish income distribution, the period covered by those stops in 1990. The aim of this paper is to extent the analysis to 1996 employing the same methodology and the same data set (ECPF). Our results not only corroborate the (decreasing inequality) trend found by others during the second half of the eighties, but also suggest that this trend extends over the first half of the nineties. We also show that our main conclusions are robust to changes in the equivalence scale, to changes in the definition of income and to potential data contamination. Finally, we analyse some of the causes which may be driving the overall picture of income inequality using two decomposition techniques. From this analyses three variables emerge as the major responsible factors for the observed improvement in the income distribution: education, household composition and socioeconomic situation of the household head.

‣ Essays on wage inequality in developing countries

Ariza Bulla, John Fredy
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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El principal objetivo de la tesis es aportar evidencia empírica sobre los determinantes de los recientes cambios en la desigualdad de ingresos y salarios en América Latina. En el primer capítulo se documenta la evolución de la desigualdad de ingresos en la región durante el 2001-2012. Después de testear si los cambios en la desigualdad son estadísticamente significativos, se descomponen dos índices de desigualdad por fuentes de ingreso y subgrupos de población. Adicional a la revisión de literatura, se estudian los recientes efectos distributivos del ciclo económico. Los resultados indican que los ingresos laborales para los hogares y los salarios para los individuos son las principales fuentes que explican la desigualdad de ingresos en la región. De acuerdo con las estimaciones econométricas, la tasa de desempleo tuvo un efecto positivo y estadísticamente significativo sobre la desigualdad en ingresos laborales explicando cerca del 30% de la caída en el índice de Gini en países como Brasil, Colombia y Argentina. Más de la mitad de la caída en la desigualdad de ingreso para Brasil y México y en menor medida para Colombia y Argentina fue explicada además por la reducción en el índice de Gini de años de educación. El efecto del salario mínimo fue también importante para Colombia y Argentina. Los resultados de la tasa de desempleo y el Gini en educación son robustos a diferentes especificaciones...

‣ The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita : a regression-based inequality decomposition analysis

Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio; Teixidó-Figueras, Jordi; Padilla, Emilio
Fonte: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada Publicador: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Economia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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This paper uses the possibilities provided by the regression-based inequality decomposition (Fields, 2003) to explore the contribution of different explanatory factors to international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita. In contrast to previous emissions inequality decompositions, which were based on identity relationships (Duro and Padilla, 2006), this methodology does not impose any a priori specific relationship. Thus, it allows an assessment of the contribution to inequality of different relevant variables. In short, the paper appraises the relative contributions of affluence, sectoral composition, demographic factors and climate. The analysis is applied to selected years of the period 1993–2007. The results show the important (though decreasing) share of the contribution of demographic factors, as well as a significant contribution of affluence and sectoral composition.