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‣ A evolução da renda disponível no Brasil : 2003-2009; The evolution of disposable inequality income in Brasil from 2003 to 2009

Ariane de Almeida Corrêa Covre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2014 Português
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O Brasil é um país profundamente marcado pela desigualdade de renda, mas durante a última década passou por um período de crescimento econômico acompanhado de uma melhora na estrutura social e de redução da desigualdade. Este trabalho pretende analisar a queda da desigualdade de renda disponível no Brasil no período de crescimento econômico compreendido entre os anos de 2003 e 2009. Pretende-se estudar a evolução da desigualdade de renda após a subtração dos impostos, tendo em vista a importância dessa informação como um aspecto importante de uma abordagem multidimensional da desigualdade, para compreender a atuação do Estado nesse processo de diminuição da desigualdade.; Brazil is a country deeply marked by income inequality, but over the last decade has experienced a period of economic growth accompanied by an improvement in the social structure and inequality reduction. This paper discusses the fall in inequality of disposable income in Brazil in the period of economic growth between the years 2003 and 2009. We intend to study the evolution of income inequality after subtracting taxes, considering the importance of this information as an important part of a multidimensional approach to inequality aspect to understand the role of the state in this process of reduction of inequality.

‣ Análise do perfil dos utilizadores de cartão de crédito em Portugal com base no Module Ad-Hoc "On Over-Indebtedness and Financial Exclusion" (SILC)

Arriaga, Rui Miguel Berberan
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Mestrado em Finanças; O presente trabalho de investigação visa analisar a tipologia dos indivíduos que em Portugal possuem cartão de crédito (posse) e o utilizam, atendendo à forma como liquidam o saldo do cartão de crédito no final do período ou como o usam pagando parte do saldo existente (uso). Estuda ainda as causas dos comportamentos dos indivíduos e famílias em relação à posse e uso do cartão de crédito. Existe uma teoria designada por credit card puzzle que é essencial ao debate teórico em torno dos cartões de crédito. Por falta de informação para pesquisa exata se existe ou não um puzzle em Portugal, procuro verificar se existe uma associação entre ter cartão de crédito com saldo negativo e diversas características da família como por exemplo: o escalão de rendimento disponível, a idade, a necessidade de pedir empréstimos, o indicador de pobreza, entre outras. A conclusão a que se chega é que há fortes indícios da existência de um credit card puzzle em Portugal. A pesquisa empírica sobre os fatores que determinam a posse e uso do cartão de crédito é baseada no Module Ad-Hoc “On Over-Indebtedness And Financial Exclusion-2008” (EU-SILC) para Portugal e EU, guiada por 10 hipóteses explicativas baseadas na literatura consultada. Os resultados obtidos são de que existe uma relação positiva entre o rendimento do agregado e a posse e uso do cartão de crédito; o número de pessoas no agregado familiar influencia a posse e o uso do cartão de crédito; conforme aumenta o grau de educação...

‣ Life Satisfaction and Income Inequality

Verme, Paolo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Do people care about income inequality and does income inequality affect subjective well-being? Welfare theories can predict either a positive or a negative impact of income inequality on subjective well-being and empirical research has found evidence on a positive, negative or non significant relation. This paper attempts to determine some of the possible causes of such empirical heterogeneity. Using a very large sample of world citizens, the author tests the consistency of income inequality in predicting life satisfaction. The analysis finds that income inequality has a negative and significant effect on life satisfaction. This result is robust to changes in regressors and estimation choices and also persists across different income groups and across different types of countries. However, this relation is easily obscured or reversed by multicollinearity generated by the use of country and year fixed effects. This is particularly true if the number of data points for inequality is small, which is a common feature of cross-country or longitudinal studies.

‣ How Should Fiscal Policy Respond to the Economic Crisis in the Low Income Commonwealth of Independent States? Some pointers from Tajikistan

Brownbridge, Martin; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The paper analyses how the global economic crisis will affect the economies of the low income Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and discusses the fiscal measures which can be taken to help mitigate the adverse impact of the crisis. It focuses on Tajikistan, the poorest member of the CIS but also highlights similarities with the economies of Armenia, the Kyrgyz Republic and Moldova. The main channels through which the global economic crisis will affect the low income CIS economies is through a sharp reduction in remittances from migrant workers in Russia and lower export earnings. The adjustment to this external shock will involve a reduction in imports, private consumption, domestic output and government revenue. Fiscal policy, constrained by very limited macroeconomic and fiscal space, faces acute challenges. Maintaining budget targets for fiscal deficits and domestic borrowing in the face of revenue shortfalls will lead to a tightening of the fiscal stance, exacerbating recessionary pressures and making it very difficult to protect priority social expenditures from cuts. To avoid these outcomes...

‣ Fiscal Redistribution and Income Inequality in Latin America

Goñi, Edwin; López, J. Humberto; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Income inequality in Latin America ranks among the highest in the world. It can be traced back to the unequal distribution of assets (especially land and education) in the region. But the extent to which asset inequality translates into income inequality depends on the redistributive capacity of the state. This paper documents the performance of Latin American fiscal systems from the perspective of income redistribution using newly-available information on the incidence of taxes and transfers across the region. The findings indicate that: (i) the differences in income inequality before taxes and transfers between Latin America and Western Europe are much more modest than those after taxes and transfers; (ii) the key reason is that, in contrast with industrial countries, in most Latin American countries the fiscal system is of little help in reducing income inequality; and (iii) in countries where fiscal redistribution is significant, it is achieved mostly through transfers rather than taxes. These facts stress the need for fiscal reforms across the region to further the goal of social equity. However...

‣ Impacts of Large-Scale Expansion of Biofuels on Global Poverty and Income Distribution

Cororaton, Caesar B.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper analyzes the impact of large-scale expansion of biofuels on the global income distribution and poverty. A global computable general equilibrium model is used to simulate the effects of the expansion of biofuels on resource allocation, commodity prices, factor prices and household income. A second model based on world-wide household surveys uses these results to calculate the impacts on poverty and global income inequality. The study finds that the large-scale expansion of biofuels leads to an increase in production and prices of agricultural commodities. The increased prices would cause higher food prices, especially in developing countries. Moreover, wages of unskilled rural labor would also increase, which slows down the rural to urban migration in many developing countries. The study also shows that the effects on poverty vary across regions; it increases in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it decreases in Latin America. At the global level, the expansion of biofuels increases poverty slightly.

‣ Dynamics of Income Inequality and Welfare in Latvia in the Late 1990s

Fofack, Hippolyte; Monga, Celestin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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This paper analyzes the dynamics of poverty and income inequality during the recovery phase of the transition that characterized the Republic of Latvia in the late 1990s. Despite a continued rise in income inequality, empirical evidence suggests an improvement in living standards, owing largely to a significant surge in per capita income growth, particularly in urban areas. In a context of rising income inequality and widening urban-rural income and poverty gaps, the benefits of growth were not equally distributed, and poverty persisted in a number of regions (particularly the regions of Latgale and Vitzeme) and among some socioeconomic groups (particularly households deriving their main income from social benefits). In addition to income inequality and asset endowments, poverty appears to be highly correlated with a number of labor market-related variables, particularly unemployment, suggesting that the labor market could be an important transmission channel from growth to poverty. However, though positive...

‣ Economic Growth, Income Distribution, and Poverty in Poland During Transition

Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Martin J.; Verbeek, Jos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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The authors attempt to analyze the linkages between macroeconomic policies and economic growth variables, their movement over time, and their impact on poverty in the case of Poland. Poland, a middle-income country, is of particular interest because its data sources allow for a relatively detailed analysis of such developments, and the macroeconomic environment and the economic growth variables show a relatively sizable degree of variance. In addition, Poland has struggled in the past few years to reduce poverty while still experiencing positive economic growth. The authors show that in Poland, poverty-reducing growth depends heavily on the ability of the economy to generate jobs. During the early years of transition, net job growth was positive, while after the Russian crisis of 1998, productivity gains were accomplished mostly through labor shedding, henceforth, increasing poverty in Poland. In addition, the authors identify how fiscal and social protection policies affect income distribution and poverty in Poland.

‣ Global Income Distribution : From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession

Lakner, Christoph; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The paper presents a newly compiled and improved database of national household surveys between 1988 and 2008. In 2008, the global Gini index is around 70.5 percent having declined by approximately 2 Gini points over this twenty year period. When it is adjusted for the likely under-reporting of top incomes in surveys by using the gap between national accounts consumption and survey means in combination with a Pareto-type imputation of the upper tail, the estimate is a much higher global Gini of almost 76 percent. With such an adjustment the downward trend in the Gini almost disappears. Tracking the evolution of individual country-deciles shows the underlying elements that drive the changes in the global distribution: China has graduated from the bottom ranks, modifying the overall shape of the global income distribution in the process and creating an important global "median" class that has transformed a twin-peaked 1988 global distribution into an almost single-peaked one now. The "winners" were country-deciles that in 1988 were around the median of the global income distribution...

‣ Restructuring Corporate Income Tax and Value Added Tax in Vietnam : An Analysis of Current Changes and Agenda for the Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The study is in two parts, part one covering the various policy aspects of Corporate Income Tax (CIT) and includes issues such as expenses and deductions to determine the tax base, transfer pricing, thin capitalization, taxation of special entities, and tax incentives. All this is done in the backdrop of international experience of corporate income taxes applied globally. Finally, alternatives for rate rationalization and their impact on CIT revenues using a forecasting model are examined. The existing provisions of the law are referenced in this part of the study as well, and further scope for reform discussed as necessary. Part two of the study presents a similar analysis of value added tax as well as forecasting of VAT revenues. This chapter examines the present rate structure including zero-rating, exemptions and exclusions from VAT, and VAT refunds. Taxation of some special sectors such as agriculture, real estate and exports is also analyzed. All this is again done in the milieu of international experience of value added taxes in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries...

‣ Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality : Sub-national Evidence from Brazil

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; David, Antonio C.; Rodrigues Bastos, Fabiano; Pineda, Emilio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The paper combines state-level fiscal data with household survey data to assess the links between sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter stance is typically positively associated with a measure of "shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution against extrapolating policy implications of the literature focusing on advanced economies to other settings.

‣ Competition in Kenyan Markets and Its Impact on Income and Poverty : A Case Study on Sugar and Maize

Argent, Jonathan; Begazo, Tania
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper investigates the link between competitive, well-functioning food markets and consumer welfare. The paper explores two key food markets in Kenya -- sugar and maize -- and argues that a variety of factors conspire to distort market prices upward. Distortionary factors include import tariff policy, nontariff barriers, potential anticompetitive conduct by firms, and direct state intervention in markets. Changes in sugar and maize prices are shown to have significant welfare effects on consumers. Equivalent income effects are estimated using the most recent available representative household survey data -- the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06. The paper shows that relaxing trade barriers to allow sugar prices to fall by 20 percent could reduce poverty by 1.5 percent. Similarly, adjusting government interventions in the maize market, which have been shown to inflate maize prices by 20 percent on average, could reduce poverty by 1.8 percent. The magnitude of the estimated income effects may vary based on updated household-level consumption data...

‣ Lebanon Economic Monitor, Spring 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The Lebanon Economic Monitor provides an update on key economic developments and policies over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank work on Lebanon. The political standoff combined with an escalating Syrian conflict hampered growth in 2012, and is projected to continue doing so through the first half of 2013. Economic growth in 2012 is estimated to have decelerated to 1.4 percent due to a weak second half of 2012 following a downturn in the security situation. The major fiscal expansion that took place in 2012 is creating fiscal challenges for 2013, particularly in the context of a promised increase in public salaries. The fiscal expansion, measured by the change in the central government s primary fiscal balance, reached a staggering 4.6 percentage points of GDP in 2012. The overall fiscal deficit reached 9.4 percent of GDP in 2012. Inflationary pressures rose despite tepid economic activity. Headline inflation accelerated notably in the second half of 2012. Core inflation has also been on an upward trend...

‣ The Consumption, Income, and Wealth of the Poorest

De Magalhaes, Leandro; Santaeulalia-Llopis, Raul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This paper provides new empirical insights on the joint distribution of consumption, income, and wealth in three of the poorest countries in the world — Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda — all located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The first finding is that while income inequality is similar to that of the United States (US), wealth inequality is barely one-third that of the US. Similarly, while the top of the income distribution (1 and 10 percent) earns a similar share of total income in SSA as in the US, the share of total wealth accumulated by the income-rich in SSA is one-fifth of its US counterpart. The main contributions of the paper are to document: (i) this dwarfed transmission from income to wealth, which suggests that SSA households face a larger inability to save and accumulate wealth compared with US households; and (ii) a lower transmission from income to consumption inequality, which suggests the presence of powerful institutions that favor consumption insurance to the detriment of saving. These features are more relevant for rural areas...

‣ La influencia de la riqueza financiera sobre el consumo privado : análisis de la experiencia española durante la “Gran Recesión”

Blanco Losada, Manuel A.; Frutos Vivar, Rafael; López Díaz-Delgado, Elena; Martínez Vicente, Silvio
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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En línea con la teoría dominante del consumo agregado, los estudios llevados a cabo en España sobre el comportamiento del consumo privado han confirmado el papel determinante de la renta real disponible y la riqueza real en la explicación de la evolución de este componente fundamental de la demanda global. Sin embargo, un análisis de las fluctuaciones que ha registrado el consumo privado en nuestro país durante la llamada Gran Recesión, si bien ratifica la relevancia explicativa de las variables señaladas, pone también de relieve que la riqueza total no parece el complemento idóneo para explicar las fluctuaciones recientes de esta variable. En contraste con los resultados de los últimos modelos del Banco de España, y en consonancia con los obtenidos por otros autores, nuestro análisis confirma, en efecto, que, junto con la renta real disponible, la evolución de la riqueza financiera resulta decisiva para explicar la evolución del consumo privado en España durante la última crisis, lo cual revaloriza el papel de las teorías que otorgan a las magnitudes financieras una influencia determinante en la generación de las fluctuaciones económicas. Esta conclusión es relevante para la política económica española, ya que la mejora que está experimentando la riqueza financiera en España...

‣ Main Drivers of Income Inequality in Central European and Baltic Countries : Some Insights from Recent Household Survey Data

Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Present levels of income inequality in Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia remain considerably higher than their pre-transition levels, although the relative pace of change over time has varied quite a bit across countries. Using data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions, this paper finds that prevailing levels of income inequality in these countries continue to be low by international standards, and that this is in large part due to the very high redistributive impact of direct taxes and public transfers. In addition to the instrumental role of tax and transfer policies in redistributing income, the paper highlights the important role played by differences in education levels and labor market participation rates in explaining observed inequalities across people and across different regions (although not in explaining observed differences across countries). The paper includes an analysis of key factors that help explain observed variation across countries in the level of public support for redistribution...

‣ Learning from China's Rise to Escape the Middle-Income Trap : A New Structural Economics Approach to Latin America

Lin, Justin Yifu; Treichel, Volker
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper discusses the causes of the middle-income trap in Latin America and the Caribbean, identifies the challenges and opportunities for Latin America that come from China's rise, and draws lessons from New Structural Economics and the Growth Identification and Facilitation Framework to help Latin America escape the middle-income trap. Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are caught in a middle-income trap due to their inability to structurally upgrade from low value-added to high value-added products. Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean should intervene in industries in which they have a comparative advantage, calibrating supporting policies in close collaboration with the private sector through public-private sector alliances. Through continuous structural upgrading in sectors intensive in factors such as natural resources, scientific knowledge, and unskilled labor, the region could achieve dynamic growth. This would require investments in education, research and development, and physical infrastructure. Therefore...

‣ Russian Economic Report, April 2015; The Dawn of a New Economic Era?

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
Português
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Russia's economy experienced two shocks in 2014. On top of the structural crisis that began in 2012, Russia had to deal with cyclical and idiosyncratic challenges to the economy. One of the new shocks illustrates Russia s integration into the world economy through its natural resource exports, and thus its dependence on the global commodity cycle: oil prices more than halved between July and December 2014, giving Russia a terms-of-trade shock. The ruble lost 46 percent of its value against the US dollar, which worsened already eroded business and consumer confidence. The monetary tightening in response made credit expensive, further dampening domestic demand. The other, more idiosyncratic, shock was related to the geopolitical tensions that began in March 2014 and led to economic sanctions. The tensions not only heightened perceptions that Russian investments had become riskier, they also dramatically increased the costs of external borrowing for Russian banks and firms. Spreads on Russian credit default swaps peaked in December at 578 basis points...

‣ External Shocks, Fiscal Policy and Income Distribution : Alternative Scenarios for Moldova

Kinnunen, Jouko; Lofgren, Hans; Sulla, Victor; Merotto, Dino
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The economy of Moldova, which has one of the lowest levels of gross national income per capita in the World Bank Europe and Central Asia region, is strongly linked to the outside world, especially to the neighboring countries of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States. This paper analyzes a set of scenarios for Moldova up to 2020, defined to shed light on issues related to an alternative future dominated by goods and services exports as opposed to today's reliance on worker remittances. The analysis is based on a Moldovan version of MAMS (Maquette for Millennium Development Goal Simulations), a CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) model for country strategy analysis. In sum, the impact of increased export demand and productivity growth is more positive when these shocks are directed to manufacturing, a sector more heavily linked to international trade, compared with agriculture. Increased productivity in transport and communications generates faster growth with widely diffused benefits...

‣ Appraising Cross-National Income Inequality Databases; An Introduction

Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Lustig, Nora; Teles, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In response to a growing interest in comparing inequality levels and trends across countries, several cross-national inequality databases are now available. These databases differ considerably in purpose, coverage, data sources, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and quality of documentation. A special issue of the Journal of Economic Inequality, which this paper introduces, is devoted to an assessment of the merits and shortcomings of eight such databases. Five of these sets are microdata-based: CEPALSTAT, Income Distribution Database, Luxembourg Income Study, PovcalNet, and Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two are based on secondary sources: All the Ginis and the World Income Inequality Database; and one is generated entirely through multiple-imputation methods: the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Although there is much agreement across these databases, there is also a nontrivial share of country/year cells for which substantial discrepancies exist. In some cases...