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‣ Parametric correlation functions to model the structure of permanent environmental (co)variances in milk yield random regression models

BIGNARDI, A. B.; FARO, L. El; CARDOSO, V. L.; MACHADO, P. F.; ALBUQUERQUE, L. G.
Fonte: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC-ADSA Publicador: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC-ADSA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The objective of the present study was to estimate milk yield genetic parameters applying random regression models and parametric correlation functions combined with a variance function to model animal permanent environmental effects. A total of 152,145 test-day milk yields from 7,317 first lactations of Holstein cows belonging to herds located in the southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed. Test-day milk yields were divided into 44 weekly classes of days in milk. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-test-day comprising a total of 2,539 classes. The model included direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. The following fixed effects were considered: contemporary group, age of cow at calving (linear and quadratic regressions), and the population average lactation curve modeled by fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomial. Additive genetic effects were modeled by random regression on orthogonal Legendre polynomials of days in milk, whereas permanent environmental effects were estimated using a stationary or nonstationary parametric correlation function combined with a variance function of different orders. The structure of residual variances was modeled using a step function containing 6 variance classes. The genetic parameter estimates obtained with the model using a stationary correlation function associated with a variance function to model permanent environmental effects were similar to those obtained with models employing orthogonal Legendre polynomials for the same effect. A model using a sixth-order polynomial for additive effects and a stationary parametric correlation function associated with a seventh-order variance function to model permanent environmental effects would be sufficient for data fitting.; State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp); National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq)

‣ Microbial and sensory changes throughout the ripening of Prato cheese made from milk with different levels of somatic cells

VIANNA, P. C. B.; MAZAL, G.; SANTOS, M. V.; BOLINI, H. M. A.; GIGANTE, M. L.
Fonte: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC Publicador: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of 2 levels of raw milk somatic cell count (SCC) on the composition of Prato cheese and on the microbiological and sensory changes of Prato cheese throughout ripening. Two groups of dairy cows were selected to obtain low-SCC (<200,000 cells/mL) and high-SCC (>700,000 cells/mL) milks, which were used to manufacture 2 vats of cheese. The pasteurized milk was evaluated according to the pH, total solids, fat, total protein, lactose, standard plate count, coliforms at 45 degrees C, and Salmonella spp. The cheese composition was evaluated 2 d after manufacture. Lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, and yeast and mold counts were carried out after 3, 9, 16, 32, and 51 d of storage. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus counts were carried out after 3, 32, and 51 d of storage. A 2 x 5 factorial design with 4 replications was performed. Sensory evaluation of the cheeses from low- and high-SCC milks was carried out for overall acceptance by using a 9-point hedonic scale after 8, 22, 35, 50, and 63 d of storage. The somatic cell levels used did not affect the total protein and salt: moisture contents of the cheeses. The pH and moisture content were higher and the clotting time was longer for cheeses from high-SCC milk. Both cheeses presented the absence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes...

‣ Relationship between the somatic cell count in raw milk and the casein fractions of UHT milk

FERNANDES, Andrezza Maria; BOVO, Fernanda; MORETTI, Thais Santos; ROSIM, Roice Eliana; LIMA, Cesar Goncalves de; OLIVEIRA, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de
Fonte: DAIRY INDUSTRY ASSOC AUSTRALIA Publicador: DAIRY INDUSTRY ASSOC AUSTRALIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) in raw milk and casein fractions of 15 batches of the corresponding ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk was examined. Raw milk was collected, pasteurised and submitted to UHT treatment. Samples of the UHT milk were taken on days 8, 30, 60, 90 and 120 of storage at room temperature and their casein fractions analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. SCC ranged from 197,000 to 800,000 cells/mL. No correlation (p>0.05) was found between SCC and K-casein concentrations in raw or UHT milks. The alpha(s2) and P-casein concentrations in raw milk were negatively correlated with SCC (p<0.05). In UHT milk, negative correlations were observed for a,1-casein (p<0.05) and beta-casein (p<0.05) on the 8th day, and for alpha S-2-casein (p<0.01) on the 60th day of storage. Results indicate that higher SSC in raw milk is associated with substantial degradation of beta-casein and alpha(s)-casein, which may lead to quality defects in UHT milk during storage. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 63, 45-49; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), Brazil[2004/01261 - 3]

‣ Estimation of genetic parameters for milk yield in Murrah buffaloes by Bayesian inference

Breda, F. C.; Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão de; Euclydes, R. F.; Bignardi, A. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Torres, R. A.; Barbosa, L.; Tonhati, Humberto
Fonte: Amer Dairy Science Assoc-adsa Publicador: Amer Dairy Science Assoc-adsa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 784-791
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Random regression models were used to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes using Bayesian inference. Data comprised 17,935 test-day milk records from 1,433 buffaloes. Twelve models were tested using different combinations of third-, fourth-, fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-order orthogonal polynomials of weeks of lactation for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. All models included the fixed effects of contemporary group, number of daily milkings and age of cow at calving as covariate (linear and quadratic effect). In addition, residual variances were considered to be heterogeneous with 6 classes of variance. Models were selected based on the residual mean square error, weighted average of residual variance estimates, and estimates of variance components, heritabilities, correlations, eigenvalues, and eigenfunctions. Results indicated that changes in the order of fit for additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects influenced the estimation of genetic parameters. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.19 to 0.31. Genetic correlation estimates were close to unity between adjacent test-day records, but decreased gradually as the interval between test-days increased. Results from mean squared error and weighted averages of residual variance estimates suggested that a model considering sixth- and seventh-order Legendre polynomials for additive and permanent environmental effects...

‣ Genetic parameters for buffalo milk yield and milk quality traits using Bayesian inference

Aspilcueta-Borquis, R. R.; Araujo Neto, F. R.; Baldi, Fernando; Bignardi, A. B.; Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão de; Tonhati, Humberto
Fonte: Amer Dairy Science Assoc-adsa Publicador: Amer Dairy Science Assoc-adsa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2195-2201
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The availability of accurate genetic parameters for important economic traits in milking buffaloes is critical for implementation of a genetic evaluation program. In the present study, heritabilities and genetic correlations for fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and milk (MY305) yields, milk fat (%F) and protein (%P) percentages, and SCS were estimated using Bayesian methodology. A total of 4,907 lactations from 1,985 cows were used. The (co) variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by Bayesian inference method, applying an animal model, through Gibbs sampling. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), number of milking (2 levels), and age of cow at calving as (co) variable (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The posterior means of heritability distributions for MY305, FY305, PY305, %F, P%, and SCS were 0.22, 0.21, 0.23, 0.33, 0.39, and 0.26, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.13 (between %P and SCS) to 0.94 (between MY305 and PY305). The permanent environmental correlation estimates ranged from -0.38 (between MY305 and %P) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305). Residual and phenotypic correlation estimates ranged from -0.26 (between PY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305) and from -0.26 (between MY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305)...

‣ Goat milk free fatty acid characterization during conventional and ohmic heating pasteurization

Pereira, Ricardo; Martins, Rui C.; Vicente, A. A.
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2008 Português
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The disruption of the milk fat globule membrane can lead to an excessive accumulation of free fatty acids in milk, which is frequently associated with the appearance of rancid flavors. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography techniques have been shown to be useful tools in the quantification of individual free fatty acids in dairy products providing enough sensitivity to detect levels of rancidity in milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the short-chain and medium-chain free fatty acid profile in i) raw untreated goat milk; ii) raw goat milk passing through pumps and heating units (plate-and-frame heat exchanger and ohmic heater); and iii) processed goat milk by conventional and ohmic pasteurization to determine the influence of each treatment in the final quality of the milk. Multivariate statistical analysis has shown that the treatments studied were not responsible for the variability found on free fatty acid contents. In particular, it was possible to conclude that ohmic pasteurization at 72°C for 15 s did not promote an extended modification of free fatty acid contents in goat milk when compared with that of conventional pasteurization. Furthermore, principal component analysis showed that the capric acid can be used to discriminate goat’s milk with different free fatty acid concentrations. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed evidence of the existence of correlations between contents of short and medium chain free fatty acids in goat milk.

‣ Plano de negócios Monsaluz, Sociedade Agrícola Lda.

Rente, José Eduardo Lopes
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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Este trabalho de projeto tem como finalidade a elaboração de um plano de negócios, para reconversão de uma empresa agrícola no Alentejo, com um investimento na produção de ovinos de aptidão leiteira. O presente trabalho de projeto é apresentado metodologicamente através de um plano de negócio, que se pretende constitua um guia de apoio á tomada de decisão na implantação e controlo desse projeto. Com base na caracterização e análise da situação atual da empresa, na análise do meio-envolvente e do mercado, serão apresentados os resultados e as alternativas para a viabilidade económica e financeira do investimento. A opção estratégica deste plano de negócios é o da especialização, concentrando as atividades da empresa, no segmento de produção de leite de ovelha para a indústria queijeira. A tendência na redução da oferta de leite de ovelha e a estabilidade no consumo de queijo, oferecem uma boa oportunidade para este agronegócio. O plano de negócios apresentado, gera benefícios financeiros, que permitem recuperar a totalidade do investimento aplicado, com uma rendibilidade superior à taxa de atualização, sendo interessante a sua concretização; ### Abstract: This work project aims to elaborate a business plan...

‣ Effects of grass silage and soybean meal supplementation on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles of grazing dairy cows

Rego, Oldemiro Aguiar do; Regalo, S. M. M.; Rosa, Henrique José Duarte; Alves, Susana Paula A.; Borba, Alfredo Emílio Silveira de; Bessa, Rui José B.; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, A. J. M.
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
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Copyright © American Dairy Science Association, 2008.; The effects of supplementation with grass silage and replacement of some corn in the concentrate with soybean meal (SBM) on milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square study using 16 dairy cows grazing pasture composed of ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and white clover. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The 4 dietary treatments were PC, 20 h of access to grazing pasture, supplemented with 6 kg/d of corn-based concentrate mixture (96% corn; C); PCSB, 20 h of access to grazing pasture, supplemented with 6 kg/d of corn- and SBM-based concentrate mixture (78% corn and 18% SBM; CSB); SC, 7 h of access to grazing pasture during the day and 13 h of ad libitum access to grass silage at night, supplemented with 6 kg/d of C concentrate; and SCSB, 7 h of access to grazing pasture during the day and 13 h of ad libitum access to grass silage at night, supplemented with 6 kg/d of CSB concentrate. The concentrate mixtures were offered twice each day in the milking parlor and were consumed completely. Grass silage supplementation reduced dietary crude protein and concentration of total sugars, and dietary SBM inclusion increased dietary crude protein concentration and decreased dietary starch concentration. Milk yield and energy-corrected milk were increased by SBM supplementation of cows with access to grass silage. Milk protein concentration was lower in cows offered grass silage...

‣ Milk as a rehydration fluid following exercise-induced loss of body mass

Seery, Suzanne
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
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peer-reviewed; The effectiveness of 0.1% fat milk (M) at restoring fluid balance after exercise and heat induced hypohydration was compared to a commercially available carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) sports drink and water (W) using a metered rate of fluid ingestion. After losing 2.1 (0.2) % body mass, participants (n = 7) consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss, over a period of 2.5-3 hours. A metered rate of fluid ingestion was chosen as it is widely acknowledged that rapid ingestion (< 60 min) of a large volume of fluid (>1000ml) can over-stimulate diuresis. Blood and urine samples were collected before and for 5 hours after exercise-induced loss of body mass. Mean plasma osmolality was higher in the M trial 289 (3) mOsmol/kg compared to W 286 (3) mOsmol/kg and CE 287 (3) mOsmol/kg, during this 5 hour period (p = 0.021). Indicative of a reduced diuretic response, urine volume was lower and urine osmolality higher in the M trial compared with CE and W. Total urine volume during the M trial was 774 (92) mL compared to CE 1314 (434) mL and W 1429 (345) mL (p = 0.023). A net positive fluid balance from 2h to 5h was achieved in the M trial, whereas the CE and W trials returned to net negative balance by the end of the 5h rehydration period. Final net fluid balance in the M trial was 117 (122) mL compared to CE -381 (460) mL and W trials -539 (390) mL (p = 0.049). This represents a final relative net fluid balance of 5.9 (5.9) % in the M trial compared with CE -22.7 (23.3) % (p = 0.048) and W - 30.9 (22.7) % (p = 0.012).

‣ Effects of short-term supplementation with selenised yeast on milk production and composition of lactating cows

Heard, Joanna W.; Walker, Glen P.; Royle, Peter J.; McIntosh, Graeme H.; Doyle, Peter T.
Fonte: Dairy Industry Assn Australia Publicador: Dairy Industry Assn Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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The work described was conducted to provide Se-fortified milk protein for cancer research using animal models by CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition. Sixty spring-calving cows grazing perennial pasture at a herbage allowance of 40 kg DM/cow/day were supplemented with crushed barley grain and a formulated concentrate containing selenised yeast. The effects of the selenium supplement (25 mg Se/day) on milk production, selenium concentration in milk and somatic cell counts were determined by comparison with 60 cows consuming a similar diet without the selenised yeast. There were no effects of short-term selenium supplementation on milk production, the concentrations of protein, fat or lactose in milk or on somatic cell counts. The selenium concentration in bulk milk samples increased from 10.3 to 128.3 µg/L from day 0 to day 9 of the treatment period. These results are discussed in relation to practical approaches to producing milk with enhanced selenium concentrations to meet human nutritional requirements or to be used for preventative health purposes.; http://www.cababstractsplus.org/abstracts/Abstract.aspx?AcNo=20043191964; Heard J. W., Walker G. P., Royle P. J., McIntosh G. H. and Doyle, P. T.

‣ Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial

Crichton, G.E.; Howe, P.R.C.; Buckley, J.D.; Coates, A.M.; Murphy, K.J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that regular consumption of dairy foods may counteract obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. However, human intervention trials are lacking. We aimed to determine the cardiometabolic health effects of increasing the consumption of reduced fat dairy foods in adults with habitually low dairy intakes in the absence of energy restriction. METHODS: An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day) or a low dairy control diet (LD, ≤1 serve/day) for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. A range of anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters including body composition, metabolic rate, blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial compliance were assessed at the end of each diet phase. RESULTS: Total energy intake was 1120 kJ/day higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. However, there were no significant differences between HD and LD in absolute measures of waist circumference, body weight, fat mass or any other cardiometabolic parameter. CONCLUSION: Recommended intakes of reduced fat dairy products may be incorporated into the diet of overweight adults without adversely affecting markers of cardiometabolic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000538347) on 24th October...

‣ Zambia - What Would it Take for Zambia’s Beef and Dairy Industries to Achieve Their Potential?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy
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This report is a window into a larger initiative, the jobs and prosperity: building Zambia's Competitiveness (JPC) program. The JPC program is a 'joint venture' between the governments of the Republic of Zambia, the Zambian private sector, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID), the African development bank group and the World Bank Group. As such, the report represents the collective efforts of many people who engaged in this work at different stages in the process. This report is part of a series produced by the World Bank's Africa Finance and Private Sector Development Unit (AFTFP). This report explores the potential contribution that the beef and dairy industries could make to jobs and prosperity in Zambia, and what it will take to achieve this potential. The Zambian government has been looking to increase growth and job creation, and the prosperity resulting from them, by developing a more competitive and diversified economy. This report explores the potential contribution that the beef and dairy industries could make to the government's ambition and sets out what it will take for the industries to achieve their potential. Two main factors provide Zambia with large potential for developing its beef and dairy industries: the country could sustain more than double its current population of cattle; the demand for beef and dairy products in the domestic and regional markets is likely to increase significantly. However...

‣ Advances in the role of a plant coagulant (Cynara cardunculus) in vitro and during ripening of cheeses from several milk species

Sousa, Maria José; Malcata, F. Xavier
Fonte: Dairy Science & Technology Publicador: Dairy Science & Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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47.68697%
Extracts from dried flowers of Cynara cardunculus have been employed successfully for many centuries in Portugal and some regions of Spain for the manufacture of traditional cheeses. Several studies have been performed in vitro and in actual cheeses focusing on the activity and specificity of proteinases from C. cardunculus, in attempts to further characterise this plant coagulant as a proteolytic agent in cheese ripening. In vitro studies encompassed extraction conditions, storage of extracts, proteolysis and specificity on caseins using experimental conditions that parallel milk and cheese during ripening. In vivo studies encompassed the effect of the type of milk (bovine, ovine and caprine) in terms of proteolysis, specificity of those plant proteinases during ripening, comparison of microbiological, chemical, proteolytic and lipolytic characteristics in ovine milk cheeses relative to animal rennet counterparts, and effect of native microflora, thermal processing and addition of starter cultures in ovine cheeses

‣ Effect of rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid on energy metabolism of dairy cows during early to mid-lactation

Shingfield, Kevin J.; Beever, David E.; Reynolds, Christopher K.; Gulati, S. K.; Humphries, D. J.; Lupoli, Berrit; Hervás, Gonzalo; Griinari, J. Mikko
Fonte: American Society of Animal Science; American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Society of Animal Science; American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 57416 bytes; application/pdf
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Contributed to: Joint Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), the American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) & the Poultry Science Association (PSA), St. Louis, Missouri, USA, Jul 25-29, 2004.; Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits milk fat synthesis and reduces milk energy content. Controlled decreases in milk energy secretion could be used to improve energy balance of the dairy cow during early lactation. Twelve multi-parous Holstein-British Friesian cows were used in a randomized block study to evaluate the effects of rumen protected CLA (RCLA) on energy metabolism in early lactation. Supplements were prepared by casein-formaldehyde treatment of CLA methyl esters containing equal amounts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. At calving, cows were paired and allocated at random to a control diet (C) or the same diet supplemented with 110 g of RCLA that supplied 14.3 g trans-10, cis-12 CLA/d. Energy balance (MJ/d) was estimated during weeks 3, 7, 11 and 15 of lactation using 6d excreta collection and respiration calorimetry. On average, RCLA reduced milk fat content (34.9 vs. 19.2 g/kg; P<0.001) and milk fat yield (1395 vs. 901 g/d; P<0.001), increased (P<0.05) milk yield (40.3 vs. 47.4 kg/d) and milk protein output (1.25 vs. 1.42 kg/d) and tended to increase DMI (22.2 vs. 24.6 kg/d; P=0.06) and BW (614 vs. 661 kg; P=0.11). The effects on DMI and production occurred within one week of lactation. RCLA increased (P=0.08) energy intake (389 vs. 434...

‣ Milk Production, Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content, and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation in Response to High Levels of Soybean Oil in Dairy Ewe Diet

Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Frutos, Pilar; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Juárez, Manuela; Fuente, Miguel Ángel de la; Hervás, Gonzalo
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 115948 bytes; application/pdf
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10 pages, 5 tables, 1 figure.-- PMID: 18349249 [PubMed].-- © 2008 American Dairy Science Association.; Previously published as proceeding at the XXXVIII Jornadas de Estudio AIDA (XII Jornadas sobre Producción Animal) (Zaragoza, Spain, May 16-17, 2007). https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/4374; Feeding vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy to enrich milk with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). However, high amounts of vegetable oil in the diet in free form could adversely affect animal performance, mainly in sheep. The aim of this work was to improve the ewe milk fatty acid profile by increasing potentially healthy acids such as CLA without any detrimental effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation with soybean oil (SBO) diet supplementation. Twenty-four ewes were assigned to 2 treatments and fed 2 diets (control or supplemented with 6% of SBO; 2 lots of 6 animals per treatment) and fed ad libitum for 4 wk. The forage:concentrate ratio was 20:80. Batch cultures of rumen microorganisms were used to study in vitro rumen fermentation. Changes in fatty acid profile were characterized as a reduction in C6:0 to C16:0 at the expense of an increase in C18:0, C18:1 isomers, and CLA concentrations. Proportions of milk CLA and trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid) went from 1.04 to 3.44 and 2.08 to 6.20 g/100 g of total fatty acids...

‣ A comparison of purine derivatives excretion with conventional methods as indices of microbial yield in dairy cows

González-Ronquillo, M.; Balcells, Joaquín; Belenguer, Álvaro; Castrillo, Carlos; Mota, Mariano
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 88114 bytes; application/pdf
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11 pages, 7 tables.--PMID: 15328235 [PubMed]; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15328235; Three multiparous, ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein-Friesian milking cows (558 +/- 14 kg BW) with a mean milk yield of 19.9 +/- 1.4 kg/d in their 4th mo of lactation were fed a mixed diet of forage and concentrate at 100, 85, and 75% of ad libitum intake in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Duodenal digesta flow was estimated using the dual-phase technique in which Cr-EDTA and Yb-acetate were used as liquid and solid markers, respectively. Microbial N (MN) was estimated using the duodenal flow of purine bases (PB); bacterial isolates from the rumen liquid and solid phases were used as references. Additionally, duodenal flow of PB and MN were estimated indirectly using the excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in urine and milk. Duodenal flow of PB and derived MN tended to decrease with feed restriction (from 258 to 154 mmol/d and 123.5 to 74.4 g/d, respectively). Estimates of PB and MN based on urinary PD showed the same trend, and decreases in PB (from 314 to 266 mmol/d, using LAB) were statistically significant. Using LAB, efficiencies of microbial protein synthesis in the ad libitum treatment were 12.9 and 17.0 g of MN/g of organic matter apparently digested in the rumen when estimated using duodenal PB and urinary excretion of PD...

‣ Synergistic effect between different milk-derived peptides and proteins

López Expósito, Iván; Pellegrini, A.; Amigo, Lourdes; Recio, Isidra
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 107567 bytes; application/pdf
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6 pages, 1 figure.-- PMID: 18487640 [PubMed].; Antimicrobial peptides derived from food proteins constitute a new field in the combined use of antimicrobial agents in food. The best examples of milk-derived peptides are those constituted by bovine lactoferricin [lactoferrin f(17–41)] (LFcin-B) and bovine α(s2)-casein f(183–207). The aim of this work was to study if the antimicrobial activity of a natural compound employed in food preservation, nisin, could be enhanced by combination with the aforementioned milk-derived peptides. Furthermore, the possibility of a synergistic effect between these peptides and bovine lactoferrin (LF) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis was also studied. Finally, the most active combinations were assayed against the foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella choleraesuis. Results showed a synergistic effect when LFcin-B was combined with bovine LF against E. coli. In the same way, the combination of LFcin-B with bovine LF was synergistic against Staph. epidermidis. Bovine LF and nisin increased their antimicrobial activity when they were assayed together with bovine α(s2)-casein f(183–207). It is important to note the synergistic effect among LFcin-B and bovine LF...

‣ Inulin-enriched dairy desserts: Physicochemical and sensory aspects

González Tomás, Luis; Bayarri, Sara; Costell, Elvira
Fonte: American Dairy Science Association Publicador: American Dairy Science Association
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 22195 bytes; application/pdf
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12 pages, 4figures, 5 tables.; The aim of this work was to study how adding inulin of different average chain lengths (long-chain, native, and short-chain inulin) at a concentration of 7.5% (wt/wt) would affect the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of starch-based dairy desserts formulated with either skim or whole milk. The results have shown that the effect of adding 7.5% inulin of different average chain length can give rise to products with different rheological behavior and different sensory characteristics. The skim milk sample with long-chain inulin and the whole milk sample without inulin showed similar flow behavior. Both samples were perceived to have the same creaminess and consistency intensity, but addition of long-chain inulin increased roughness intensity and, consequently, the sensory quality could be negatively affected. The information obtained may be of great interest in designing new products with nutritional and sensory characteristics that meet consumer demands.; The authors acknowledge the Instituto Danone for the fellowship awarded to author L. González, the Fondo Social Europeo for financing the contract of author S. Bayarri in the program I3P from Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas...

‣ Milk as a rehydration fluid following exercise-induced loss of body mass.

Seery, Suzanne
Fonte: U*niversity of Limerick Publicador: U*niversity of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
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peer-reviewed; The effectiveness of 0.1% fat milk (M) at restoring fluid balance after exercise and heat induced hypohydration was compared to a commercially available carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) sports drink and water (W) using a metered rate of fluid ingestion. After losing 2.1 (0.2) % body mass, participants (n = 7) consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss, over a period of 2.5-3 hours. A metered rate of fluid ingestion was chosen as it is widely acknowledged that rapid ingestion (< 60 min) of a large volume of fluid (>1000ml) can over-stimulate diuresis. Blood and urine samples were collected before and for 5 hours after exercise-induced loss of body mass. Mean plasma osmolality was higher in the M trial 289 (3) mOsmol/kg compared to W 286 (3) mOsmol/kg and CE 287 (3) mOsmol/kg, during this 5 hour period (p = 0.021). Indicative of a reduced diuretic response, urine volume was lower and urine osmolality higher in the M trial compared with CE and W. Total urine volume during the M trial was 774 (92) mL compared to CE 1314 (434) mL and W 1429 (345) mL (p = 0.023). A net positive fluid balance from 2h to 5h was achieved in the M trial, whereas the CE and W trials returned to net negative balance by the end of the 5h rehydration period. Final net fluid balance in the M trial was 117 (122) mL compared to CE -381 (460) mL and W trials -539 (390) mL (p = 0.049). This represents a final relative net fluid balance of 5.9 (5.9) % in the M trial compared with CE -22.7 (23.3) % (p = 0.048) and W - 30.9 (22.7) % (p = 0.012).

‣ Determination of the physical-chemical composition of dairy products: exploratory study to compare the results obtained by classic methodology and by ultra-sound; Determinação da composição físico-química de produtos lácteos: estudo exploratório de comparação dos resultados obtidos por metodologia oficial e por ultra-som

Venturoso, Raphael Costa; Almeida, Keila Emílio de; Rodrigues, Alexandre Mariani; Damin, Maria Regina; Oliveira, Maricê Nogueira de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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The present paper aims to compare the official methods of physical-chemical determination of dairy products (defatted dry matter, protein, fat and density) with methodology using ultra-sound. Different products were analyzed: milks (integral and skimmed conventional and organic), commercial fermented milks and dairy milk bases prepared in laboratory and whey totalizing twenty dairy products of different characteristics. The method using ultra-sound is fast and the results are correlated with those of the official analyses. However, the operator of the equipment should be attentive to employ a specific profile of the equipment according to the analysis to be carried out and, to calibrate the equipment based in the information obtained by the official analyses. The results of this exploratory article suggest the need to perform a study with a great number of samples in order to validate the obtained conclusions. The evidences described in this article are important for the Brazilian industry of dairy products.; O presente trabalho tem como objetivo comparar os métodos oficiais de determinação físico-química de produtos lácteos (extrato seco desengordurado, proteína, gordura e densidade) com metodologia de ultra-som. Foram analisados diferentes leites (integral e desnatado...