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‣ Assessment of immediate conservative breast surgery reconstruction: A classification system of defects revisited and an algorithm for selecting the appropriate technique

MUNHOZ, Alexandre Mendonca; MONTAG, Eduardo; ARRUDA, Eduardo; PELLARIN, Leandro; FILASSI, Jose Roberto; PIATO, Jose Roberto; BARROS, Alfredo Carlos de; PRADO, Luis Carlos; FONSECA, Alexandre; BARACAT, Edmund; FERREIRA, Marcus Castro
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Although various techniques have been used for breast conservation surgery reconstruction, there are few studies describing a logical approach to reconstruction of these defects. The objectives of this study were to establish a classification system for partial breast defects and to develop a reconstructive algorithm. Methods: The authors reviewed a 7-year experience with 209 immediate breast conservation surgery reconstructions. Mean follow-up was 31 months. Type I defects include tissue resection in smaller breasts (bra size A/B), including type IA, which involves minimal defects that do not cause distortion; type III, which involves moderate defects that cause moderate distortion; and type IC, which involves large defects that cause significant deformities. Type II includes tissue resection in medium-sized breasts with or without ptosis (bra size C), and type III includes tissue resection in large breasts with ptosis (bra size D). Results: Eighteen percent of patients presented type I, where a lateral thoracodorsal flap and a latissimus dorsi flap were performed in 68 percent. Forty-five percent presented type II defects, where bilateral mastopexy was performed in 52 percent. Thirty-seven percent of patients presented type III distortion...

‣ Treatment of infrabony defects with or without enamel matrix proteins: A 24-month follow-up randomized pilot study

CHAMBRONE, Daniela; PASIN, Ivan Munhoz; CHAMBRONE, Leandro; PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; CONDE, Marina Clemente; LIMA, Luiz A.
Fonte: QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO INC Publicador: QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: To evaluate a comparison of open-flap debridement (OFD) with or without the use of enamel matrix proteins (EMP) for the treatment of infrabony defects. Method and Materials: Ten volunteers (38 infrabony defects) were randomized to receive OFD + EMP (test site) and OFD (control site). Clinical outcomes included mean changes in Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), gingival recession, width of keratinized tissue, and dental mobility at baseline and at 24 months. Results: A significant reduction of 4.21 +/- 0.97 mm was observed in PPD for the OFD + EMP group (from 6.30 +/- 0.99 mm to 2.09 +/- 0.97 mm) and of 3.28 +/- 1.23 mm for the OFD group (from 6.13 +/- 0.88 mm to 2.85 +/- 1.42 mm) (P < .001). The reduction in PPD was statistically significantly greater for OFD + EMP compared to OFD (P = .03). The mean RAL decreased from 13.26 +/- 1.88 mm to 7.57 +/- 2.05 mm for the OFD + EMP group (a gain of 5.69 +/- 1.96 mm) and from 13.37 +/- 1.71 mm to 8.13 +/- 1.34 min (P < .001) for the OFD group (a gain of 5.24 +/- 1.55 mm). Gingival recession was higher it) the OFD + EMP group than in the OFD group. The mean keratinized tissue significantly decreased from 4.41 +/- 1.39 mm to 3.63 +/- 1.54 mm for OFD flap group (P < .01). Conclusion: Both treatment modalities were efficient in improving RAL and PPD. Within groups...

‣ Bone healing pattern in surgically created circumferential defects around submerged implants: an experimental study in dog

Rossi, Fabio; Botticelli, Daniele; Pantani, Fabio; Pereira, Flavia Priscila; Salata, Luiz Antonio; Lang, Niklaus P.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: To describe the healing of marginal defects below or above 1 mm of dimension around submerged implants in a dog model. Material and methods: In 12 Labrador dogs, all mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally. After 3 months of healing, full-thickness flaps were elevated in the edentulous region of the right side of the mandible. Two recipient sites were prepared and the marginal 5mm were widened to such an extent to obtain, after implant installation, a marginal gap of 0.5mm at the mesial site (small defect) and of 1.25mm at the distal site (large defect). Titanium healing caps were affixed to the implants and the flaps were sutured allowing a fully submerged healing. The experimental procedures were subsequently performed in the left side of the mandible. The timing of the experiments and sacrifices were planned in such a way to obtain biopsies representing the healing after 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Ground sections were prepared and histomorphometrically analyzed. Results: The filling of the defect with newly formed bone was incomplete after 1 month of healing in all specimens. Bone formation occurred from the base and the lateral walls of the defects. A larger volume of new bone was formed in the large compared with the small defects. Most of the new bone at the large defect was formed between the 10- and the 20-day period of healing. After 1 month of healing...

‣ Avaliação genética-clínica e audiológica de indivíduos com anomalias de 1º e 2º arcos branquiais associadas à anomalia radial ; Clinical genetic and audiological evaluation in patients with first and second branchial arches abnormalities associated with radial defects

Vendramini, Siulan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2006 Português
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Objetivo: Avaliar, sob o ponto de vista genético-clínico e audiológico, uma amostra de indivíduos com EOAV associado à anomalia radial. Local: Serviço de Genética Clínica, Setor de Fonoaudiologia, Ambulatório de Saúde Pública e Centro de Pesquisas Audiológicas – HRAC – USP. Participantes: 14 indivíduos com EOAV associado à anomalia radial: 8 do sexo masculino e 6 do sexo feminino. Intervenções: Avaliação genética-clínica, avaliação radiológica, avaliação otorrinolaringológica e avaliação audiológica. Resultados: Os principais achados clínicos do EOAV com anomalia radial são malformações de orelha externa, média e interna; assimetria facial; hipoplasia mandibular e defeito radial, o qual é uma anomalia “sine qua non” para o diagnóstico clínico. Anomalias de orelha interna e perda auditiva sensorioneural representam achados relevantes desta condição. Outros sistemas podem, também, estar acometidos. Conclusões: O EOAV com anomalia radial representa uma síndrome de padrão de recorrência, de etiologia desconhecida, que cursa com anomalias de arcos branquiais, defeito radial e perda auditiva, principalmente sensorioneural. Considerando que alguns casos com EOAV associado à anomalia radial foram descritos em mães com história de diabetes...

‣ Avaliação da influência do cromo e molibdênio na solidificação e formação de rechupes em ferros fundidos cinzentos.; Evaluation of the influence of chromium and molibdenum in the solidification and shrinkage defects in grey cast iron.

Stuewe, Luciana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2008 Português
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Ferros fundidos cinzentos ligados com cromo e molibdênio são utilizados em cabeçotes de motor para se obter alta resistência à tração e à fadiga (com menores seções), maior resistência à temperaturas elevadas e maior estabilidade térmica. No presente trabalho é feita uma avaliação da influência da adição dos elementos de liga cromo e molibdênio na solidificação e na formação de rechupes em ferros fundidos cinzentos, através da fundição de corpos de prova com diferentes composições químicas, variando porcentagens de cromo e molibdênio comumente utilizadas em ferros fundidos cinzentos de alta resistência. Além da composição química, foi variada a porcentagem de inoculação nas ligas, através da adição de 0,2% e 0,6% do inoculante FeSi75. A simulação de fundição, utilizando o software para simulação do processo de fundição Magmasoft, foi aplicada para desenvolver um corpo de prova com tempo de solidificação similar ao de um cabeçote de motor. Depressões foram detectadas no topo dos corpos de prova, tendo sido caracterizadas como rechupes primários; microrechupes foram detectados no centro térmico, caracterizados por rechupes secundários. O volume das depressões foi medido, através de preenchimento com água. Os microrechupes foram avaliados de forma qualitativa através do ensaio de líquidos penetrantes e análise metalográfica. A avaliação da seqüência e morfologia de solidificação das fases formadas foi realizada através de análise térmica e...

‣ Propriedades vibracionais de defeitos de nitrogênio em nanotubos de carbono; Vibrational Properties of Nitrogen Defects on Carbon Nanotubes

Silva, Leandro de Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/11/2008 Português
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O trabalho anteriormente realizado pelo nosso grupo, onde foram simulados defeitos de nitrogênio em nanotubos de carbono, apresentou resultados interessantes relativos às energias e propriedades eletrônicas. A interpretacão dos resultados teóricos obtidos levou à proposta da Divacância rodeada por 4 Nitrogênios como estrutura mais estável para o nitrogênio tipo piridina, em constraste com aquela proposta pelos experimentais, uma Monovacância rodeada por 3 Nitrogênios. Os cálculos das propriedades eletrônicas da Divacância reproduziram as medidas experimentais na investigação de sensores de amônia. Dessa forma, como informação adicional na determinaçã da estrutura mais estável, o presente trabalho investigou as propriedades vibracionais daqueles sistemas que apresentaram menor energias de formação. Foram calculadas as freqüências vibracionais dos seguintes três defeitos: Nitrogênio Substitucional (1N), Monovacância rodeada por 3 Nitrogênios (3NV) e Divacância rodeada por 4 Nitrogênios (4ND) e comparadas com os resultados para os tubos puros. Utilizou-se a aproximação de supercélula, com 140 átomos para um tubo metálico (5,5) e 160 para um tubo semicondutor (8,0). Como o objetivo é identificar as características de cada sistema...

‣ Estudo da influência de defeitos estruturais nas propriedades de nanotubos de carbono; Study of the influence of structural defects in the properties of carbon nanotube

Amorim, Rodrigo Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/11/2009 Português
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Nesse trabalho investigamos a influência de defeitos nas propriedades estruturais, eletrônicas e mecânicas de nanotubos de parede simples (SWCNT), em feixes de nanotubos e em nanotubos de parede múltipla (MWCNT). Todos os nossos resultados foram obtidos utilizando uma teoria de primeiros princípios de energia total, a Teoria do Funcional da Densidade (DFT). Investigamos as propriedades estruturais para quatro defeitos em nanotubos de parede simples: Stone-Wales (5577), monovacância e duas divacâncias (585) e (555777), e o comportamento da energia de formação em função do diâmetro para as quatro estruturas. Observamos que as divacâncias apresentam uma inversão de estabilidade, quando comparamos as energias de formação desses defeitos em nanotubos com o grafeno e, alám disso, as divacâncias são os defeitos mais importantes na modificação das propriedades de transporte em SWCNT. Estudamos a estabilidade e as propriedades de transporte desses sistemas e observamos que o defeito 585 é menos estável em grafeno devido à quebra de duas ligações dos pentágonos do defeito. O defeito 555777 torna-se mais estável do que o 585 para os CNT armchair (zigzag) com o diâmetro 40 °A (53 °A). Investigamos as propriedades estruturais e mecânicas de feixes de nanotubos com os defeitos do tipo vacância-vacância...

‣ Parâmetros genéticos para defeitos de pernas, características de desempenho e carcaça em frangos de corte; Genetic parameters of legs defects, performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

Pertile, Simone Fernanda Nedel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/07/2011 Português
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Os defeitos de pernas são decorrentes do rápido crescimento das aves, tornando-se necessário um estudo genético das associações entre essas características. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar os parâmetros genéticos para defeitos de pernas por escore visual, discondroplasia tibial, características de desempenho e carcaça, assim como estimar as tendências genéticas, ganho genético potencial e respostas correlacionadas, em uma linhagem de frangos de corte. O banco de dados utilizado neste estudo foi composto por registros de 128.459 aves, com informações de pedigree, manejo, desempenho, qualidades e defeitos de carcaça pertencentes a um rebanho elite de uma linhagem comercial de frangos de corte sob seleção. As características estudadas foram: os pesos vivos do animal aos sete (P7), 30 (P30) e 38 dias de idade (P38), peso ao abate (PA), peso eviscerado (PE), peso de peito (PPEI), peso de pernas (PPER), rendimento de carcaça (RCAR), rendimento de peito em relação ao peso ao abate (RPEI), rendimento de pernas em relação ao peso ao abate (RPER), eficiência alimentar (EFAL), defeito de pernas por escore visual (DPER), discondroplasia tibial (DT) e defeito de pernas total (DPERT). Para as características P7...

‣ Healing of buccal dehiscence defects at implants installed immediately into extraction sockets - an experimental study in dogs

Bressan, Eriberto; Sivolella, Stefano; Stellini, Edoardo; Almagro Urrutia, Zoraya; Lang, Niklaus Peter; Botticelli, Daniele
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 270-277
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Aim: To evaluate the influence of implant positioning into extraction sockets on bone formation at buccal alveolar dehiscence defects. Material and Methods: In six Labrador dogs the pulp tissue of the mesial roots of 4P4 was removed and the root canals were filled. Flaps were elevated bilaterally, the premolars hemi-sectioned and the distal roots removed. The implants were placed in contact with either the buccal (test site) or with the lingual (control site) bony wall of the extraction sockets. Healing abutments were affixed and triangular buccal bony dehiscence defects, about 2.7 mm deep and 3.5 mm wide, were then prepared. No regenerative procedures were done and a non-submerged healing was allowed. After 4 months of healing, block sections of the implant sites were obtained for histological processing and peri-implant tissue assessment. Results: After 4 months of healing, the bony crest and the coronal border of osseointegration at the test sites were located 1.71 ± 1.20 and 2.50 ± 1.21 mm apically to the implant shoulder, respectively. At the control sites, the corresponding values were 0.68 ± 0.63 and 1.69 ± 0.99 mm, respectively. The differences between test and control reached statistical significance (P < 0.05). Residual marginal bone defects were found both at the test and control sites. A statistically significant difference between test and control sites was only found at the lingual aspects (depth 2.09 ± 1.01 and 1.01 ± 0.48 mm...

‣ Main functional elements having defects of illegal residential buildings: The case of Cova da Moura District

Vilhena, António; Pedro, João Branco; Coelho, António Baptista; Paiva, José Vasconcelos
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
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The purpose of the paper is to describe the main functional elements with defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main functional elements with defects in buildings and in dwellings? What are the main defects found? In which way these defects affect the use of buildings? The defects were identified during a survey to the building stock of the Cova da Moura District (Amadora, Portugal), carried out in 2008. This district is made of illegal constructions, occupies an area of 16.5 ha and has approximately 5,000 inhabitants. During the survey 833 buildings and 1884 units were inspected. The main results are: a) only 13% of these building presented defects in the building structure; b) about 60% of the buildings have defects in the roofing systems (e.g., damp and mould, infiltrations); c) more than 84% of the dwellings have defects in the technical installation such as gas or electrical installations most of them classified as severe defects. The main conclusion is that most of the defects detected configure serious risk scenarios, particularly in terms of the minimum habitability conditions and fire safety. However, defects related to structural stability were not as serious as expected for this kind of construction.

‣ Bioactive Glass Efficacy in the Periodontal Healing of Intrabony Defects in Monkeys

Villaça,José Henrique; Novaes Jr.,Arthur B.; Souza,Sérgio Luís Scombatti de; Taba Jr.,Mario; Molina,Gustavo Otoboni; Lamano Carvalho,Teresa Lúcia
Fonte: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 Português
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The purpose of this study was the histomorphologic analysis of the efficacy of bioactive glass particles with a narrow size range (Biogran) in the periodontal healing of 2-wall intrabony defects in monkeys. The 2-wall defects were made in the mesial area of the left and right second premolars of four monkeys, filled with gutta-percha and, after 15 days, they were debrided and either naturally filled with coagulum (control) or implanted with bioactive glass (test). In the control sites, the junctional epithelium migrated up to the base of the defect. The presence of newly formed cementum was more significant in the test defects. Both control and test sites showed newly formed bone at the base of the defect. The test defects presented foci of newly formed bone around and within the glass particles localized in the middle third, distant from the defect walls. Histologic analysis showed that the 300- to 355-µm bioactive glass particles aided new periodontal insertion. In conclusion, the tested bioactive glass had better healing potential than debridement only. The graft material showed a promising inhibition of apical migration of the junctional epithelium and greater cementum deposition on the radicular surface of the intrabony defects. The replacement of bioactive glass particles by new bone occurred due not only to an osteoconductive property...

‣ Surveillance of birth defects: Brazil and the US

Luquetti,Daniela Varela; Koifman,Rosalina Jorge
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss the potential utilizations, methodology options, limitations, and policy issues related to birth defects surveillance. Also, the birth defects surveillance programs from US and Brazil are described and compared as an illustration of the development of surveillance systems in two countries with clearly dissimilar health systems and resource allocation for birth defects programs. Finally, we propose measures for the improvement of the existing systems in both countries focusing at the utilization of preexisting resources.

‣ Structure and Defects of Hard-Sphere Colloidal Crystals and Glasses

Jensen, Katharine Estelle
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Colloidal particles provide convenient and useful building blocks for creating ordered and disordered structures with length scales on the order of a micrometer. These structures are useful materials in their own right, and also serve as excellent scale models for exploring properties of atomic materials that would otherwise be inaccessible to direct experiment. In this dissertation, we explore structure formation in hard-sphere colloidal systems using templated sedimentation techniques, and then use colloidal crystals and glasses formed in this way to study the development of extended defects in single crystals and shear defects in glasses. We find that it is possible to form large, defect-free colloidal single crystals extremely rapidly by centrifugation onto a deterministic template. On non-deterministic templates, we find a critical deposition flux above which the material always crosses over to forming a glass. With this understanding of the effects of template and deposition flux, we designed and tested amorphous templates that allow us to make colloidal glasses by sedimentation under gravity, as well as more complex structures. In face-centered cubic colloidal single crystals grown on (100) templates, extended defects (dislocations and stacking faults) can nucleate and grow if the crystal exceeds a critical thickness that depends on the lattice misfit with the template spacing. We account for the experimental observations of the density of misfit dislocations using the Frank-van der Merwe theory...

‣ Defects in Self Assembled Colloidal Crystals

Koh, Yaw Koon; Teh, L. K.; Wong, Chee Cheong
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 483498 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Colloidal self assembly is an efficient method for making 3-D ordered nanostructures suitable for materials such as photonic crystals and macroscopic solids for catalysis and sensor applications. Colloidal crystals grown by convective methods exhibit defects on two different scales. Macro defects such as cracks and void bands originate from the dynamics of meniscus motion during colloidal crystal growth while micro defects like vacancies, dislocation and stacking faults are indigenous to the colloidal crystalline structure. This paper analyses the crystallography and energetics of the microscopic defects from the point of view of classical thermodynamics and discusses the strategy for the control of the macroscopic defects through optimization of the liquid-vapor interface.; Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA)

‣ Defeitos cong??nitos diagnosticados em ruminantes na regi??o Sul do Rio Grande do Sul; Congenital defects in ruminants in Southern Brazil

PEREIRA, Clairton Marcolongo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Veterin??ria; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Veterin??ria; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Congenital defects and hereditary diseases in cattle, sheep and buffaloes were studied through a review of necropsy files of the Laborat??rio Regional de Diagn??stico (LRD) of the Faculdade of Veterin??ria of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) between 1978 and 2009. The occurrence of congenital defects and/or hereditary diseases in cattle, sheep and buffaloes were 0.89%, 0.36% e 7.55% respectively from all received material. The defects were classified according the affected system. From 48 of congenital defects and/or hereditary diseases observed in cattle 21 (43.75%) affected the skeletal system (chondrodysplasia, scoliosis, lateral deviation of mandible, palatoschisis and unclassified malformation) nine (18.75%) the central nervous system (hypoplasia of olfatory and frontal lobes, cerebellar cortical degeneration, spina bifida, congenital hypomielinogenesis, hereditary hypermetria, cerebellar hypoplasia and pachygiria), nine (18.75%) the muscular system (arthrogryposis), three (6.25%) the cardiovascular system (patent ductus arteriosus and unclassified malformation), one (2.08%) the lymphatic system (hereditary lymphatic hypoplasia), one (2.08%) o alimentary system (atresia ani) and one (2.08%) the eye (congenital cataract). In five cases (10.42%) different systems were affected (diprosopus and decephalus dipos dibraqius). In sheep all observed defects affected various systems (anomalous twins and aprosopia). Of eight cases of congenital defects/hereditary diseases diagnosed in buffaloes three (37.5%) affected the muscular system (arthrogriposis and double muscle)...

‣ The sensitivity of ultrasound and serum alpha-fetoprotein in population-based antenatal screening for neural tube defects, South Australia 1986-1991

Chan, A.; Robertson, E.; Haan, E.; Ranieri, E.; Keane, R.
Fonte: BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD Publicador: BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity of antenatal screening methods for neural tube defects in population-based screening in South Australia in 1986-1991, and whether ultrasound can replace serum alpha-fetoprotein screening in terms of achieving an equivalent level of sensitivity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ascertainment of all births and terminations of pregnancy with neural tube defects from multiple sources for 1986-1991 in South Australia. Serum and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein results were obtained from the only laboratory performing the tests as a Statewide antenatal screening programme, and information on ultrasound screening from case notifications, hospital case records and medical practitioners who cared for the women. SUBJECTS: All 243 births and terminations of pregnancy with neural tube defects in South Australia in 1986-1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The sensitivity of individual screening methods and of all methods used, particularly for spina bifida. RESULTS: For pregnancies with neural tube defects screened by any method (serum alpha-fetoprotein, ultrasound or amniocentesis), 86% sensitivity was achieved. Ultrasound screening for anencephaly achieved 100% sensitivity even in low risk pregnancies, compared with 92% for serum alpha-fetoprotein. For spina bifida...

‣ Risk factors in the occurrence of enamel defects of the first permanent molars among schoolchildren in Western Australia

Arrow, P.
Fonte: Blackwell Munksgaard Publicador: Blackwell Munksgaard
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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348.08945%
Background: The prevalence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars among children in Western Australia is higher than that reported for some European countries. The cause(s) of the defects, both white diffuse opacities and demarcated opacities, with or without hypoplasia, continue to be investigated. A recent review identified childhood illnesses and exposure to environmental toxins as putative causal factors for the occurrence of demarcated opacities (usually in association with hypoplasia). Diffuse opacities have been reported to be associated with exposure to the antibiotic amoxicillin, adjusted for otitis media and fluoride. The aim of this study was to examine the possible risk factors for enamel defects in the first permanent molars among children in Western Australia. Methods: Children attending pre-primary schools (1999–2000 year of birth) in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, were invited to participate in the study. In 2005, before the child’s first permanent molars had erupted, parents completed a questionnaire about the mother’s health during pregnancy, and their child’s health for the first 3 years. The first permanent molars were classified for type and extent of enamel defects using the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) index. Caries experience and the presence of enamel defects on the deciduous molars and canines were also recorded using the WHO criteria. Bivariate...

‣ Prevalence of developmental enamel defects of the first permanent molars among school children in Western Australia

Arrow, P.
Fonte: Australian Dental Assn Inc Publicador: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Background:  The prevalence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars among children has been reported to be high and may be on the increase, particularly in the European countries. Little information is available on the prevalence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars among children in Australia. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars among school children in Western Australia. Methods:  Informed consent was obtained from parents of children attending pre-primary schools within an administrative area of the School Dental Service of Western Australia in metropolitan Perth to participate in the study in 2005. Parents completed a questionnaire about the mother’s health status during pregnancy, and their child’s health status for the first three years. Participating children were examined during 2006 and 2007 by one examiner. Teeth were classified on the type and extent of enamel defects using the modified DDE index, and deciduous tooth caries experience of molars and canines was recorded using the WHO criteria. Results:  Parents of 634 children out of the eligible 1135 (56 per cent participation) completed the questionnaire. Five hundred and eleven children with at least one erupted first permanent molar were examined (mean age 7.1 years...

‣ Main spatial defects of illegal residential buildings: The case of Cova da Moura District.

Pedro, João Branco; Vilhena, António; Paiva, José Vasconcelos; Coelho, António Baptista; Cruz, Cláudio
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
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The purpose of the paper is to describe the main spatial defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main spatial defects of the dwellings? What are the main spatial defects in the relation between buildings? What is the impact of spatial defects to the minimum habitability conditions of dwellings? The defects were identified during a survey of the buildings of the Alto da Cova da Moura District (Amadora, Portugal), carried out in 2008. This district is made-up of illegal constructions, covers an area of 16.5 ha and has approximately 5,000 inhabitants. During the survey 833 buildings and 1,884 units were inspected. The main results are: a) 65% of buildings have problems with windows; b) about 20% of buildings have spatial defects in common stairways; and c) more than 50% of dwellings have spatial defects. The main conclusion is that the lack of urban planning, the confinement of the terrain and the continuous arrival of new residents have led to an overcrowded and disordered urban fabric. Furthermore, buildings are mainly self-built by residents without design and do not comply with recognized technical good practices. As a result, there is a general lack of habitability and a quick decay of buildings' condition.

‣ Nature of Planar Defects in Ion-implanted GaN

Wang, You-Gan; Zou, Jin; Kucheyev, Sergei O; Williams, James; Jagadish, Chennupati; Li, Gang
Fonte: Electrochemical Society Inc Publicador: Electrochemical Society Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Wurtzite GaN films bombarded with keV ions were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that irradiation under a wide range of implant conditions (such as ion mass, dose, and implant temperature) led to the formation of planar defects which were parallel to the basal plane of the wurtzite structure. For all implant conditions studied, all planar defects observed in the ∼20 nm thick near-surface layers of GaN were interstitial in nature and had Burgers vectors of either 1/2[0001] or 1/6(2203). Although the nature of these irradiation-produced planar defects appeared to be independent of implant conditions, irradiation parameters were found to influence the average defect size and density. In particular, larger planar defects were observed for higher irradiation temperatures. Possible physical mechanisms for the formation of such planar defects are discussed.