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‣ Associação do padrão de ingestão lípidica com a qualidade da dieta, resistência insulínica e homocisteinemia em adultos

Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Moreto, Fernando; Corente, José Eduardo; Portero-McLellan, Kátia Cristina; Burini, Roberto Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 719-726
Português
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Objectives: To evaluate the association between the consumption of different dietary fats with the quality of the diet, insulin resistance, and hyperhomocysteinemia in adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 624 overweight subjects (73.7% females). Assessments of food intake (24h food recall and health eating index-HEI), anthropometry, and biochemical assays of fasting glucose, insulin (HOMA-IR and β calculus) and homocysteinemia were performed. Results: The low quality of diet was associated with the vegetable oil at 3rd quintile (≥1.5-2.0 servings) showed risk 2.9 times and cholesterol at quintiles 2nd, 3rd, and 4th was 2.0 times. HOMA-IR was higher at 5th quintile of saturated fat (≥10,7% - total caloric value) with risk of 60% and hyperhomocysteinemia the vegetable oil at 3rd quintile (>1.5-2.0 servings) with risk of 12.0 times and 5th (≥3.5 servings) 7.1 times. However, significance disappeared when adjusted for anthropometric variables. Conclusion: Dietary fats were associated with the harm diet quality, insulin resistance, and hyperhomocysteinemia. However, associations are dependant of demographic variables, dietetic, and nutritional state. © 2011 CELOM.

‣ Consumo de gorduras e escolaridade em adultos : estudo de base populacional no município de Campinas, SP; Intake fats and educational status in adults : population-based study in Campinas, SP

Lhais de Paula Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2015 Português
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O consumo de gorduras é essencial na alimentação humana. Os lipídios contribuem ativamente como precursores na síntese de hormônios, fazem parte da estrutura das membranas celulares, compõe a bile, participam da resposta autoimune e do transporte de vitaminas lipossolúveis e garantem o aporte energético da dieta. Contudo, o excesso na ingestão deste nutriente representa risco para o desenvolvimento de uma série de doenças crônicas e o aumento da ingestão de gorduras na dieta das populações foi uma característica marcante no processo de transição nutricional. O objetivo desta dissertação foi analisar o perfil de ingestão de gordura segundo escolaridade e sexo na população adulta residente no município de Campinas. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional que avaliou a dieta de 949 adultos residentes na área urbana do município de Campinas por meio do instrumento Recordatório de 24 horas (R24h). A composição nutricional da dieta foi calculada a partir do software NDS-R versão 2007 e para a análise dos dados foram calculadas as proporções e estimadas as médias com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% utilizando os modelos lineares generalizados, com base na distribuição do tipo Gamma...

‣ A interleucina-17 é produzida pelo intestino em resposta a ácidos graxos da dieta e regula a secreção de insulina = : Interlukin-17 is produced in the gut in response to dietary fats and regulates insulin secretion; Interlukin-17 is produced in the gut in response to dietary fats and regulates insulin secretion

Carina Solon Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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A interleucina-17 (IL17) está envolvida na resposta imune contra agentes patogénicos intestinais, e a sua expressão anómala no intestino pode ocorrer em condições tais como diabetes do tipo 1 (DM1), encefalomielite auto-imune e doença de Crohn. Fatores dietéticos podem alterar a microbiota intestinal desencadeando doenças metabólicas. Nossa hipótese é de que IL17 poderia ser diretamente modulada por nutrientes e pode desempenhar um papel na obesidade e diabetes tipo 2 (DM2). Aqui, nós demonstramos que as gorduras da dieta induzem a expressão IL17, predominantemente no íleo. In vivo, ilhotas pancreáticas isoladas estimuladas com IL17 apresentaram um aumento na secreção de insulina quando comparado a ilhotas não estimuladas, enquanto que a sua inibição sistémica resultou em intolerância à glicose. Animais knockout para o receptor de IL17 (IL17RA) eram intolerantes à glucose devido ao desenvolvimento embrionário anómalo das ilhotas pancreáticos, que eram menores e foram depletados de células produtoras de insulina. Nos seres humanos, os níveis circulantes de IL17 aumentaram após uma refeição. Este aumento foi significativamente maior nos indivíduos obesos normoglicêmicos do que em indivíduos obesos com diabetes. Semelhantes aos roedores...

‣ Modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein B, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA and plasma lipoprotein concentrations by defined dietary fats. Comparison of trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein.

Bennett, A J; Billett, M A; Salter, A M; Mangiapane, E H; Bruce, J S; Anderton, K L; Marenah, C B; Lawson, N; White, D A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1995 Português
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Different dietary fatty acids exert specific effects on plasma lipids but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Hamsters were fed on low-cholesterol diets containing triacylglycerols enriched in specific saturated fatty acids, and effects on plasma lipids and the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism were measured. Trimyristin and tripalmitin caused significant rises in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol which were accompanied by significant reductions in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. Tripalmitin also increased hepatic expression of the apolipoprotein B gene, implying an increased production of LDL via very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and decreased removal of LDL in animals fed this fat. Hepatic levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA did not vary significantly between the groups. Compared with triolein, tristearin had little effect on hepatic gene expression or total plasma cholesterol. However, it caused a marked decrease in VLDL cholesterol and a rise in LDL cholesterol such that overall it appeared to be neutral. Lipid analysis suggested a rapid desaturation of much of the dietary stearate. The differential changes in plasma lipids and hepatic mRNA levels induced by specific dietary fats suggests a role for fatty acids or a metabolite thereof in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism.

‣ Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also summarizes controlled feeding studies on the effects of dietary fats on metabolic mediators, such as insulin resistance. Taken together, the evidence suggests that replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with unsaturated (polyunsaturated and/or monounsaturated) fats has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and is likely to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. Among polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid from the n-6 series improves insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, long-chain n-3 fatty acids do not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism. In dietary practice, foods rich in vegetable oils, including non-hydrogenated margarines, nuts, and seeds, should replace foods rich in saturated fats from meats and fat-rich dairy products. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats should be minimized. Additional controlled...

‣ Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence

Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Chee-Yan; Chang, Lin Faun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2014 Português
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Obesity plays a pivotal role in the development of low-grade inflammation. Dietary fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pro-inflammatory effects. n-3 PUFA in particular, possess anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous clinical studies have been conducted over decades to investigate the impact of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory response in obese individuals, however the findings remained uncertain. High fat meals have been reported to increase pro-inflammatory responses, however there is limited evidence to support the role of individual dietary fatty acids in a postprandial state. Evidence in chronic studies is contradictory, the effects of individual dietary fatty acids deserves further attention. Weight loss rather than n-3 PUFA supplementation may play a more prominent role in alleviating low grade inflammation. In this context, the present review provides an update on the mechanistic insight and the influence of dietary fats on low grade inflammation, based on clinical evidence from acute and chronic clinical studies in obese and overweight individuals.

‣ Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2014 Português
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Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010.

‣ Mfge8 promotes obesity by mediating the uptake of dietary fats and serum fatty acids

Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; McKleroy, William; Sakuma, Stephen; Cheung, Yuk Yin; Tharp, Kevin; Qiu, Yifu; Turner, Scott M; Chawla, Ajay; Stahl, Andreas; Atabai, Kamran
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Fatty acids are integral mediators of energy storage, membrane formation and cell signaling. The pathways that orchestrate uptake of fatty acids remain incompletely understood. Expression of the integrin ligand Mfge8 is increased in human obesity and in mice on a high-fat diet, but its role in obesity is unknown. We show here that Mfge8 promotes the absorption of dietary triglycerides and the cellular uptake of fatty acid and that Mfge8-deficient (Mfge8−/−) mice are protected from diet-induced obesity, steatohepatitis and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, we found that Mfge8 coordinates fatty acid uptake through αvβ3 integrin– and αvβ5 integrin–dependent phosphorylation of Akt by phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase and mTOR complex 2, leading to translocation of Cd36 and Fatp1 from cytoplasmic vesicles to the cell surface. Collectively, our results imply a role for Mfge8 in regulating the absorption and storage of dietary fats, as well as in the development of obesity and its complications.

‣ Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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48.708896%
Objectives: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3...

‣ Dietary fats do not contribute to hyperlipidemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Wiltshire, E.; Hirte, C.; Couper, J.
Fonte: Amer Diabetes Assoc Publicador: Amer Diabetes Assoc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative influence of diet, metabolic control, and familial factors on lipids in children with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed fasting serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein (apo)-A1, and apoB in 79 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 61 age- and sex-matched control subjects, together with dietary intakes using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, HDL cholesterol, and apoA1 were significantly higher in children with diabetes. Children with diabetes had higher percentage energy intake from complex carbohydrates (P = 0.001) and fiber intake (P = 0.02), and they had lower intake of refined sugar (P < 0.001) and percentage energy from saturated fat (P = 0.045) than control subjects. Total cholesterol (beta = 0.43, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (beta = 0.4, P < 0.001), and apoB (beta = 0.32, P = 0.006) correlated independently with HbA(1c) but not dietary intake. HDL cholesterol (beta = 0.24, P = 0.05) and apoA1 (beta = 0.32, P = 0.004) correlated independently with HbA(1c), and HDL cholesterol (beta = -0.34, P = 0.009) correlated with percentage energy intake from complex carbohydrates. Triglycerides correlated independently with percentage energy intake from complex carbohydrates (beta = 0.33...

‣ Differences exist in the relationship between dietary linoleic and <-Linolenic acids and their respective long chain metabolites

Mantzioris, E.; James, M.; Gibson, R.; Cleland, L.
Fonte: The American Society for Clinical Nutrition Publicador: The American Society for Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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Increased concentrations of cellular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be beneficial in coronary heart disease, hypertension, and inflammatory disorders. Successful long-term strategies for increasing cellular EPA concentrations require information on the relationships between cellular concentrations of EPA and dietary amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LA), a precursor of EPA, and dietary amounts of linoleic acid (LA), an antagonist of alpha-LA conversion to EPA. A dietary intervention study with healthy human volunteers that incorporated alpha-LA-rich vegetable oil (flaxseed oil), against a background diet low in LA, allowed us to examine these relationships. Linear relationships were found between dietary alpha-LA and EPA in plasma fractions and in cellular phospholipids. By contrast there was no relationship observed between dietary LA and tissue concentrations of its metabolite, arachidonic acid (AA). There was an inverse relationship between dietary alpha-LA and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in the phospholipids of plasma, neutrophils, mononuclear cells, and platelets. The results indicate that increasing dietary alpha-LA will elevate tissue EPA concentrations in a predictable manner. This insight will facilitate the rational planning of practical dietary strategies for the long-term elevation of EPA concentrations in tissues.

‣ Effect of Dietary Macronutrients on Food Intake, Body Weight, and Tail Width in the Marsupial S. crassicaudata

Ng, K.; Vozzo, R.; Hope, P.; Chapman, I.; Morley, J.; Horowitz, M.; Wittert, G.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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The role of dietary fat, as opposed to total energy intake, in the etiology of obesity is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of macronutrient content, specifically changes in dietary fat on body weight, fat stores, and food intake in S. crassicaudata, a marsupial that stores about 25% of total body fat in its tail. Female animals were divided into three groups (n = 7-9) matched for food intake per gram of body weight. Each group of animals was fed, ad lib an isocaloric diet (1.01 kcal/g), which contained either 10, 20, or 40% of calories from fat. Body weight, food intake, and tail width (an index of body fat stores) were measured daily. Over 21 days, cumulative energy intake was less (p = 0.026) in the 40% fat group compared to the 10% fat group. Despite the differences in food intake, body weight in each group remained stable throughout the study, so that at day 21 there were no differences in the body weights between the three groups. In contrast, tail width increased in the animals who received the 40% fat diet compared to either the 10% (p = 0.016) or 20% (p = 0.001) fat intake groups, whereas there was no significant change in tail width in either of these two groups. These observations indicate that macronutrient composition has a role...

‣ Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production

James, M.; Gibson, R.; Cleland, L.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.

‣ Polyunsaturated dietary fats change the properties of calcium sparks in adult rat atrial myocytes

Honen, B.; Saint, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Bonny N. Honen, David A. Saint; © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

‣ Dietary effects on fertility treatment and pregnancy outcomes

Lim, S.; Noakes, M.; Norman, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Ltd. Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the dietary modifications that optimize fertility treatment outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Body weight and nutritional status are closely related to reproductive function. However, few studies have investigated the direct effects of dietary modification on fertility treatment outcomes. Research on nutrition in pregnancy suggests that reduction in glycemic load and micronutrient supplementation may improve pregnancy outcomes. SUMMARY: Body weight and specific dietary factors may affect fertility but evidence regarding dietary effects on fertility treatment outcomes is lacking. Research suggests that diets with a low glycemic load during pregnancy may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or large-for-gestational-age births after adjusting for body mass index and total energy intake, but the effect of protein modification remains controversial. There is also lack of information on the impact of energy restriction during pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes. Folate supplementation is recommended for prevention of birth defects but further research is required to determine the optimal dose to reduce the risks of multiple gestations. Further information on the upper limits of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy would also be useful.; Siew S. Lim...

‣ Dietary effects on incretin hormone secretion

Wu, T.; Rayner, C.; Jones, K.; Horowitz, M.
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The delivery of nutrients from the stomach into the duodenum and their subsequent interaction with the small intestine to stimulate incretin hormone release are central determinants of the glycemic response. The incretin effect has hitherto been attributed to the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal epithelium. A number of recent studies have yielded fundamental insights into the influence of individual nutrients on incretin release and the mechanisms involved in the detection of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins by enteroendocrine cells, including the K(ATP) channel, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs), and oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1). Dietary modification, including modifying macronutrient composition or the consumption of "preloads" in advance of a meal, represents a novel approach to manipulate the incretin response and thereby regulate glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the effects of individual nutrients on incretin hormone secretion, our current understanding of the signaling mechanisms that trigger secretion by enteroendocrine cells...

‣ Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

Bassett, J.; Severi, G.; Hodge, A.; MacInnis, R.; Gibson, R.; Hopper, J.; English, D.; Giles, G.
Fonte: Wiley-liss Publicador: Wiley-liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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48.02718%
Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it. We performed a case–cohort analysis within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression. Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA...

‣ Effect of dietary n-9 eicosatrienoic acid on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipid fractions and tissue phospholipids

Cleland, L.G.; Neumann, M.A.; Gibson, R.A.; Hamazaki, T.; Akimoto, K.; James, M.J.
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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n-9 Eicosatrienoic acid (ETrA), also known as Mead acid, is a minor fatty acid in essential fatty acid (EFA)-sufficient healthy subjects but is found at increased levels in EFA deficiency. This study examined the influence of dietary ETrA from a biological source on plasma and tissue ETrA. A synthetic fat-free diet was prepared to which was added Mut 48 oil which contains 19% ETrA (wt%) as well as other n-9 fatty acids. Blends of vegetable oils were used to achieve overall diets with 5% fat (wt%) and varying amounts of ETrA at two different dietary levels of linoleic acid (LA), approximately 4.4 and 19% of total fatty acids. These diets were fed to 5-week-old Dark Agouti rats for four weeks. Plasma lipid fractions and liver, spleen, and peritoneal exudate (PE) cells were analyzed for fatty acid composition. ETrA was present at up to 20% total fatty acids in plasma triglyceride, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid fractions. ETrA also accumulated to substantial levels in phospholipids of liver and spleen (up to 15% of total fatty acids) and PE cells (up to 11%). ETrA was found in plasma and tissue phospholipids in proportion to the amount of ETrA present in the diet. The incorporation was reduced in diets with higher LA content compared to diets containing similar amounts of ETrA but lower LA. All rats remained apparently healthy...

‣ Plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids as predictors of type 2 diabetes: interpreting the role of linoleic acid

Hodge, A.; English, D.; O'Dea, K.; Sinclair, A.; Makrides, M.; Gibson, R.; Giles, G.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Background: Dietary fatty acids may be associated with diabetes but are difficult to measure accurately. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of fatty acids in plasma and diet with diabetes incidence. Design: This was a prospective case-cohort study of 3737 adults aged 36-72 y. Fatty acid intake (/kJ) and plasma phospholipid fatty acids (%) were measured at baseline, and diabetes incidence was assessed by self-report 4 y later. Logistic regression excluding (model 1) and including (model 2) body mass index and waist-hip ratio was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids. Results: In plasma phospholipid, positive associations with diabetes were seen for stearic acid [OR model 1, highest versus lowest quintile: 4.14 (95% CI: 2.65, 6.49), P for trend < 0.0001] and total saturated fatty acids [OR model 1: 3.76 (2.43, 5.81), P for trend < 0.0001], whereas an inverse association was seen for linoleic acid [OR model 1: 0.22 (0.14, 0.36), P for trend < 0.0001]. Dietary linoleic [OR model 1: 1.77 (1.19, 2.64), P for trend = 0.002], palmitic [OR model 1: 1.65 (1.12, 2.43), P for trend = 0.012], and stearic [OR model 1: 1.46 (1.00, 2.14), P for trend = 0.030] acids were positively associated with diabetes incidence before adjustment for body size. Within each quintile of linoleic acid intake...

‣ Sociodemographic determinants of energy, fat and dietary fibre intake in Australian adults

Evans, Heather (Ann); Booth, Heather; Cashel, Karen
Fonte: CABI Publishing Publicador: CABI Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.727896%
Objective: To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors (sex, age, education, occupation and region of birth) and absolute levels of energy, fat and fibre intake in adults at the national level. Design, setting and subjects: The 1983 National Dietary Survey of Adults (NDSA), covering six Australian capital cities, collected food and nutrient intake data using the 24-hour recall method, from subjects aged 25-64 years (n=6255). Results: Interactions of variables occurred, especially for males. The greatest effect on male intake of all three dietary components was a combination of age and education. For females, the main explanatory variable for fat and energy intake was age, but that for fibre was a combination of region of birth and education. Both education (alone or in combination) and region of birth (alone or in combination) had a greater effect than occupation (alone or in combination). Conclusions: Energy, fat and fibre intakes vary considerably between sociodemographic groups. Such variability must be taken into account in formulating policy and planning decisions and in assessing temporal change.