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‣ Desenvolvimento e avaliação de modelo computacional para geração de alertas a partir de notificações de casos de meningite meningocócica; Development and evaluation of a computing model of alerts from meningococcal meningitis notification cases

Zaparoli, Wagner
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2008 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: este trabalho apresenta a arquitetura de um sistema de emissão de alertas para surtos e epidemias em tempo real, baseado em notificações eletrônicas da meningite, e discute os resultados dos testes e simulações realizados. MÉTODOS: esse sistema foi desenvolvido em quatro etapas: Concepção, Análise, Construção e Teste/Simulações. A Concepção contemplou a elicitação de requisitos, a qual definiu o que o sistema deve fazer. A Análise se preocupou com a modelagem e especificação das regras que definem como o sistema deve trabalhar. A Construção abrangeu a transformação das regras definidas e modeladas em linguagem de programação. A última etapa, Teste/Simulação, foi responsável por garantir que o sistema construído estava em conformidade com os requisitos elicitados na etapa de Concepção. RESULTADOS: vários artefatos foram criados e algumas constatações foram verificadas nesta etapa. Sobre os artefatos podemos citar os requisitos, casos de uso, diagrama de classes, modelo físico de dados, casos de teste e programas. Sobre as constatações podemos citar o disparo de alertas nas simulações realizadas pelo sistema dois dias antes que o alerta feito pelas autoridades de saúde do Estado de São Paulo usando os procedimentos habituais. DISCUSSÃO e CONCLUSÃO: O sistema desenvolvido pode ser classificado como um Early Warning System. Nas simulações...

‣ Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms for disease control in individuals with HIV/AIDS in priority cities of Bahia state

Lírio,Monique; Santos,Normeide Pedreira dos; Passos,Louran Andrade Reis; Kritski,Afrânio; Galvão-Castro,Bernardo; Grassi,Maria Fernanda Rios
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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The control of HIV / Tuberculosis (TB) co -infection remains a challenge for public health. Notification is mandatory for both diseases and the National Case Registry Database (Sinan) is responsible for the collection and processing of individual forms of reporting and monitoring. The adequate fulfillment of these fields chips (completeness) is essential to follow the dynamics of the disease and set priorities for intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of the notification forms of tuberculosis in the priority municipalities of Bahia (Camaçari , Feira de Santana , Ilhéus , Itabuna, Jequié, Lauro de Freitas , Porto Seguro , Teixeira de Freitas , Paulo Afonso, Barreiras and Salvador) to control the disease in individuals with HIV/AIDS using tabulations obtained from the Sinan in the period from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that despite the completeness of the field HIV be above 50 %, more than half the cases were met as "undone" or "being processed" in all municipalities assessed in the period. The low completeness of reporting forms may compromise the quality of surveillance of TB cases. The results suggest the need for greater availability of HIV testing in these individuals.

‣ Auditing and improving notification and chemoprophylaxis in bacterial meningitis.

Harvey, I; Kaul, S; Peters, T J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1992 Português
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STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to audit, against agreed standards, the control of bacterial meningitis, in particular completeness of notification and appropriateness of distribution of chemoprophylaxis to contacts; and to implement appropriate changes and monitor their impact. DESIGN--The first phase involved determination, for the years 1983 and 1984, of completeness of notification by comparison with a comprehensive case register. Information about chemoprophylaxis was obtained from case notes, questionnaires to general practitioners and other records. The second phase involved introducing a programme of clinician education in the hospital with the poorest observed notification performance and re-examining performance during 1988. Districtwide education regarding chemoprophylaxis was undertaken and the situation re-examined in 1988. SETTING--The study took place in Mid Glamorgan Health Authority (population 536,000), with four acute hospitals. POPULATION--Consisted of all the residents of Mid Glamorgan Health Authority. MAIN RESULTS--During the first phase of the audit only 28 out of 79 cases of bacterial meningitis were notified (35%). Performance in one hospital was significantly worse than in the other three. Chemoprophylaxis was distributed to 20 out of 26 (77%) cases of meningococcal meningitis but inappropriate drugs were used in four cases and prophylaxis was distributed more widely than is recommended in 10 cases. In the phase 2 re-examination...

‣ Under-notification of giardiasis in Auckland, New Zealand: a capture-recapture estimation.

Hoque, M. E.; Hope, V. T.; Scragg, R.; Graham, J.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
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Estimation of the degree of undercount is important for disease surveillance. Capture-recapture techniques are now being used to evaluate the completeness of disease ascertainment. This study estimated the level of under-notification of giardiasis in the Auckland adult population using a capture-recapture method. Two independent datasets of giardiasis cases > or = 15 years were generated from the 1998-1999 Auckland Giardiasis Study (AGS) case database and cases notified to Auckland Regional Public Health Services (ARPHS) for the same period of time. Cases were matched and under-notification was estimated using a two-sample capture-recapture method. During the 12-month period, 199 cases participated in the AGS and 413 cases were notified to ARPHS. The capture-recapture calculation indicated that only 49% of cases were notified. Under-notification by a factor of 2 obscures the true burden of giardiasis. Socio-economic conditions and water quality may influence disease notification inversely. Capture-recapture techniques are useful in evaluating the completeness of surveillance.

‣ Cancer notification in India

Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

‣ An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control

Isere, Elvis E.; Fatiregun, Akinola A.; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians’ involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria.

‣ Performance of decentralised facilities in tuberculosis case notification and treatment success in Armenia

Davtyan, K.; Zachariah, R.; Davtyan, H.; Ramsay, A.; Denisiuk, O.; Manzi, M.; Khogali, M.; Van den Bergh, R.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Dara, M.
Fonte: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Publicador: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We assessed the performance of decentralised tuberculosis (TB) out-patient centres in tuberculosis (TB) case notification and treatment success in Armenia. An average threshold case notification of ⩾37/100 000 was seen in centres that had higher numbers of presumptive TB patients, where more TB was diagnosed by in-patient facilities and where TB contacts were examined. The number of doctors and/or TB specialists at centres did not influence case notification. Onsite smear microscopy was significantly associated with a treatment success rate of ⩾85% for new TB patients. Addressing specific characteristics of TB centres associated with lower case notification and treatment success and optimising their location may improve performance.

‣ Assisted partner notification services to augment HIV testing and linkage to care in Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

Wamuti, Beatrice Muthoni; Erdman, Laura Kelly; Cherutich, Peter; Golden, Matthew; Dunbar, Matthew; Bukusi, David; Richardson, Barbra; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Barnabas, Ruanne; Mutiti, Peter Maingi; Macharia, Paul; Jerop, Mable; Otieno, Felix Abuna; Poole, Dan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: HIV case-finding and linkage to care are critical for control of HIV transmission. In Kenya, >50% of seropositive individuals are unaware of their status. Assisted partner notification is a public health strategy that provides HIV testing to individuals with sexual exposure to HIV and are at risk of infection and disease. This parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of implementing HIV assisted partner notification services at HIV testing sites (clusters) in Kenya. Methods/design Eighteen sites were selected among health facilities in Kenya with well-established, high-volume HIV testing programs, to reflect diverse communities and health-care settings. Restricted randomization was used to balance site characteristics between study arms (n = 9 per arm). Sixty individuals testing HIV positive (‘index partners’) will be enrolled per site (inclusion criteria: ≥18 years, positive HIV test at a study site, willing to disclose sexual partners, and never enrolled for HIV care; exclusion criteria: pregnancy or high risk of intimate partner violence). Index partners provide names and contact information for all sexual partners in the past 3 years. At intervention sites...

‣ The right to know or not to know: risk notification and genetic counselling

Gilson, A.; Hemer, S.R.; Chur-Hansen, A.; Crabb, S.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing; Bingley Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing; Bingley
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2015 Português
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PURPOSE Risk notification is part of a focus on preventive medicine that is dominant in contemporary Western biomedicine. Genomics has forecasted great advances in alleviating disease and prolonging human life, moving from a reactive to a preventative practice. However, in doing so, genomics redraws boundaries, potentially classifying all people as possible carriers of malfunctioning genes. This chapter presents a critical review of the practice of ‘risk notification’ as undertaken by familial cancer genetic testing services, focusing on the right to be informed or not to be informed and implications of knowing. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH With backgrounds in anthropology, psychology and public health, the authors draw upon literature around risk notification from a range of disciplines. FINDINGS In the context of familial cancer, clients may be asked to provide contact information for biological family members to inform them of their potential genetic risk. Through these processes a number of tensions and issues may emerge that relate to fundamental bioethical principles. The ability and decision whether to know, or conversely, to not know, is ethically fraught. We consider the roles and rights of family members and clients, as well as the broader goal of population health. ORIGINALITY/VALUE While much attention has been devoted to clients’ right to know in the context of medical research and treatment...

‣ Analysis of Barmah Forest virus disease activity in Queensland, Australia, 1993-2003: Identification of a large, isolated outbreak of disease

Quinn, Helen; Gatton, M L; Hall, Gillian; Young, M; Ryan, P A
Fonte: Entomological Society of America Publicador: Entomological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is the second most common mosquito-borne disease in Australia. Although the majority of notifications are received from Queensland, little is known about the distribution of the disease within the state, or the important

‣ A review of national legionellosis surveillance in Australia, 1991 to 2000

Li, Janet; O'Brien, Eddie; Guest, Charles
Fonte: National Centre for Disease Control Publicador: National Centre for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A study was undertaken to analyse legionellosis notifications for the period 1991 to 2000 to establish the distribution of legionellosis in Australia with the aim of identifying risk factors amenable to public health intervention. Legionellosis notification rates ranged from 0.6 cases per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.5 cases per 100,000 population in 2000. Notifications were highest in autumn (March to May). Sixty-nine per cent of cases were males. At-risk population included those aged over 50 years. The upward trend in notification rates of legionellosis indicated that this disease remains a significant public health problem particularly among older people. Seasonal differences in notification rates require further investigation to develop appropriate prevention and control strategies. To have a better understanding of the epidemiology of legionellosis, further information is needed on smoking history, chronic illnesses, whether the notification is outbreak-related and the species of Legionella isolated.

‣ Evaluation of Australia's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System

Miller, Megge; Roche, Paul W; Spencer, Jenean; Deeble, Mary
Fonte: National Centre for Disease Control Publicador: National Centre for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) is a passive surveillance system that collects information on communicable diseases. The Australian Government manages NNDSS under the auspices of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA). Data collected by each state and territory are collated, analysed and disseminated by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. We report the first evaluation of NNDSS since it was established in 1991. Three primary stakeholder groups were surveyed: (a) CDNA members, (b) the National Surveillance Committee and (c) the readership of Communicable Diseases Intelligence, the primary means of data dissemination from NNDSS. The evaluation revealed that the system was acceptable, structurally simple, and that the data collected were actively used by stakeholders. However, the lack of clearly documented aims and objectives for NNDSS, inflexibility to changing needs, lack of timeliness and complexity in processes were seen as problematic. The results of this evaluation, supported by recent federal funding to enhance national biosecurity, will provide the framework for enhancing NNDSS to meet national communicable disease surveillance requirements in Australia.

‣ Efeito da remoção de notificações repetidas sobre a incidência da tuberculose no Brasil; Impact on tuberculosis incidence rates of removal of repeat notification records

Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Stevens, Antony Peter; Gomes, Adriana Bacelar Ferreira; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Glatt, Ruth; Carvalho, Carolina Novaes; Oliveira Junior, João Gregório de; Souza, Maria de Fátima Marinho de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2007 Português
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OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto nas taxas de incidência de tuberculose com a exclusão de registros indevidamente repetidos no sistema de notificação. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde, referentes ao período de 2000 a 2004. Os registros repetidos foram identificados por pareamento probabilístico e classificados em seis categorias excludentes que determinaram suas remoções, vinculações ou permanências na base. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que 73,7% das notificações eram únicas, 18,9% formavam duplas, 4,7% triplas e 2,7% grupos de quatro ou mais registros. Dentre os registros repetidos, 47,3% foram classificados como transferência entre unidades de saúde, 23,6% reingresso, 16,4% duplicidade verdadeira, 10% recidiva, 2,5% foram inconclusivos e 0,2% tinham dados incompletos. Essas percentagens variaram entre estados. A exclusão de registros indevidamente repetidos resultou em redução na taxa de incidência por 100.000 habitantes de 6,1% em 2000 (de 44 para 41,3), 8,3% em 2001 (de 44,5 para 40,8), 9,4% em 2002 (de 45,8 para 41,5), 9,2% em 2003 (de 46,9 para 42,6) e 8,4% em 2004 (de 45,4 para 41,6). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que as taxas observadas de incidência de tuberculose representem estimativas mais próximas do que seriam os valores reais do que as obtidas com a base em seu estado bruto...

‣ Proposta de vigilância de óbitos por tuberculose em sistemas de informação; Propuesta de vigilancia de óbitos por tuberculosis en sistemas de información; Proposal for tuberculosis death surveillance in information systems

Selig, Lia; Kritski, Afranio Lineu; Cascão, Angela Maria; Braga, José Ueleres; Trajman, Anete; Carvalho, Regina Maria Guedes de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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OBJETIVO: Propor estratégia de vigilância de óbitos relacionados à tuberculose com base no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Dados sobre os 55 óbitos relacionados à tuberculose, ocorridos em dois hospitais de grande porte do Rio de Janeiro entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006, foram obtidos no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade. Esses casos foram confrontados com os registros no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan). O incremento no número de notificações e na completitude dos dados foi avaliado, bem como o tipo de entrada e desfecho no Sinan. RESULTADOS: Dos 55 óbitos, 28 estavam notificados no Sinan. O relacionamento dos sistemas possibilitou as seguintes correções: 27 casos novos notificados, 14 novas notificações realizadas pela unidade em que ocorreu o óbito e o encerramento de dez notificações. Isso representou incremento de 41 (28%) notificações às 144 realizadas pelos dois hospitais em 2006. Nove casos foram reclassificados da condição de tuberculose sem confirmação para tuberculose com confirmação diagnóstica, e cinco casos foram reclassificados de tuberculose para Aids como causa básica de morte. CONCLUSÕES: A vigilância de óbitos por tuberculose proposta permitiu aumentar a completitude dos sistemas de informação...

‣ Análise dos registros de leishmaniose visceral pelo método de captura-recaptura; Analysis of visceral leishmaniasis reports by the capture-recapture method

Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Carmo, Eduardo Hage; Sousa-Gomes, Marcia Leite; Mota, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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OBJETIVO: Analisar o número de casos, óbitos, incidência e letalidade e estimar a subnotificação da leishmaniose visceral, bem como a cobertura dos sistemas nacionais de informações. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados casos confirmados de leishmaniose visceral com base nos sistemas: Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan), Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH), nos anos de 2002 e 2003. As variáveis utilizadas no relacionamento para identificação dos pares foram: nome do paciente, nome da mãe, data de nascimento, sexo, município de residência e endereço. Para cálculo das estimativas aplicou-se a metodologia de captura-recaptura, utilizando a fórmula de Chapman. RESULTADOS: A subnotificação estimada para casos de leishmaniose visceral no Sinan, em relação ao SIH e SIM, foi 42,2% e 45,0%, respectivamente. A subnotificação estimada de óbitos no SIM foi 53,0% e 46,5%, quando comparada com Sinan-óbitos e SIH-óbitos, respectivamente. Comparando o Sinan e o SIH, a incidência estimada foi de 2,9 por 100.000 habitantes, 70,5% mais alta que a encontrada utilizando somente os dados do Sinan. Da comparação dos dados do SIM e Sinan-óbitos a letalidade estimada de 8%...

‣ CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE TO AN EMERGENCY UNIT FOR COMPULSORY NOTIFICATION OF DISEASES; CONTRIBUIÇÃO DO NÚCLEO DE VIGILÂNCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA EM UMA UNIDADE DE PRONTO ATENDIMENTO PARA A NOTIFICAÇÃO COMPULSÓRIA DE AGRAVOS

DANTAS, Daniel Idelfonso; FREITAS, Renan Figueiredo de; BATISTA, Daniel de Araújo; ALMEIDA, Roberta Barros de; GUERREIRO, Jória Viana
Fonte: Universidade Federal da Paraíba Publicador: Universidade Federal da Paraíba
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/11/2014 Português
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Introduction: The Centers for Epidemiological Surveillance (CES) develop actions related to the detection and investigation of any suspected or confirmed notifiable disease, and are considered the centers responsible for applying control measures to combat the transmission of diseases. Thus, it is necessary that epidemiological monitoring occurs at all levels of the healthcare system, including secondary care services. Objective: To report the contribution of CES actions to a 24-h Emergency Unit (EU) in the city of João Pessoa, PB. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study using data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (SINAN) regarding the 24-h EU “Oceania” from June 2012 to January 2014. Data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel worksheets, version 2013. Results: A total of 36,714 notifiable diseases were registered in João Pessoa, and the EU accounted for 1,667 cases, representing 4.5% of all notifications. The majority of reported cases were of dengue (1,543), corresponding to 17.3% of all cases. In addition, 6.9% of the cases were related to rash illness and one case of spotted fever, which was only one notified in the city for that period. The other cases were related to five other diseases. Conclusion: The implementation of a CES in an Emergency Unit brings an actual contribution to the epidemiological surveillance system due to the possibility of increasing sensitivity and detection of notifiable diseases. DESCRIPTORS Epidemiological Surveillance. Secondary Care. Disease Notification.; Introdução: Os Núcleos de Vigilância Epidemiológica (NVE) desenvolvem ações de detecção e investigação de qualquer agravo suspeito ou confirmado de doença de notificação compulsória...

‣ The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks

Durrheim,David N.; Harris,Bernice N.; Speare,Rick; Billinghurst,Kelvin
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiences in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga’s 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting...

‣ Surveillance for leptospirosis in the Americas, 1996-2005: a review of data from ministries of health

Costa,Federico; Martinez-Silveira,Martha Silvia; Hagan,José E.; Hartskeerl,Rudy A.; Reis,Mitermayer Galvão dos; Ko,Albert Icksang
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To characterize current leptospirosis reporting practices in the Americas. METHODS: Information was collected from the official websites of national ministries of health from the Americas region and two international organizations; personal communications; and three international morbidity databases. For all sources other than the morbidity databases, the review was limited to official reports citing clinically suspected and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases or deaths during the period 1996-2005. RESULTS: A total of 73 out of 1 644 reports met the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Published leptospirosis data were available from half of the countries/sovereign territories (24 out of 48), and 18 of them had mandatory notification policies for leptospirosis. The sum of the median number of leptospirosis cases notified annually by the 24 countries/territories was 4 713.5, but just three countries (Brazil, Costa Rica, and Cuba) accounted for 83.1% (3 9cas20 es) of the notifications. Eight (16.7%) countries reported deaths due to leptospirosis. The sum of the median number of deaths reported annually for the eight countries was 380, but 349 (91.8%) were reported by Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Notification practices in the Americas for leptospirosis are limited. Therefore...

‣ Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa

Booman,Marlize; Durrheim,Dave N.; La Grange,Kobus; Martin,Carrin; Mabuza,Aaron M.; Zitha,Alpheus; Mbokazi,Frans M.; Fraser,Colleen; Sharp,Brian L.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Sustainable control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In Mpumalanga province, South Africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). METHODS: To better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. The introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. RESULTS: The geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, Barberton and Nkomazi. The conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the Mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts)...

‣ Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms for disease control in individuals with HIV/AIDS in priority cities of Bahia state

Lírio,Monique; Santos,Normeide Pedreira dos; Passos,Louran Andrade Reis; Kritski,Afrânio; Galvão-Castro,Bernardo; Grassi,Maria Fernanda Rios
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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The control of HIV / Tuberculosis (TB) co -infection remains a challenge for public health. Notification is mandatory for both diseases and the National Case Registry Database (Sinan) is responsible for the collection and processing of individual forms of reporting and monitoring. The adequate fulfillment of these fields chips (completeness) is essential to follow the dynamics of the disease and set priorities for intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of the notification forms of tuberculosis in the priority municipalities of Bahia (Camaçari , Feira de Santana , Ilhéus , Itabuna, Jequié, Lauro de Freitas , Porto Seguro , Teixeira de Freitas , Paulo Afonso, Barreiras and Salvador) to control the disease in individuals with HIV/AIDS using tabulations obtained from the Sinan in the period from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that despite the completeness of the field HIV be above 50 %, more than half the cases were met as "undone" or "being processed" in all municipalities assessed in the period. The low completeness of reporting forms may compromise the quality of surveillance of TB cases. The results suggest the need for greater availability of HIV testing in these individuals.