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‣ Perfil epidemiológico dos surtos de toxinfecções alimentares no município de Limeira-SP; Epidemiological profile of the foodborne disease outbreaks in the city of Limeira, SP

Barretto, Tiago Luis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2007 Português
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47.690127%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os surtos de toxinfecções alimentares ocorridos no município de Limeira, SP, no período de julho de 2005 a julho de 2006, por meio da estrutura existente na vigilância epidemiológica do município e, subsidiar ações com vistas à redução da ocorrência dos mesmos. Foram analisados os locais de ocorrência, os comensais envolvidos, as características da doença, os prováveis alimentos/preparações envolvidos - incriminados por meio do cálculo do Risco Relativo - RR, o nível de adequação das Boas Práticas de Higiene - BPH de acordo com a RDC nº216 da Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA (BRASIL, 2004) e os prováveis agentes etiológicos responsáveis. No período de estudo, foram notificados e investigados 7 surtos de toxinfecções alimentares com o envolvimento de 95 pessoas, das quais 67 (70,5%) adoeceram. Dos surtos investigados, 85,7% ocorreram em residências e a contaminação dos alimentos/preparações ocorreu principalmente nas etapas de manipulação e preparação. Os surtos ocorreram em locais nos quais a média percentual de itens não-conformes com as BPH variou de 30,4 a 76,9. Os fatores que contribuíram para a ocorrência dos surtos foram: armazenamento sob temperatura inadequada (71...

‣ Perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e genes de virulência em cepas de Salmonella spp. isoladas de alimentos associados ou não à toxinfecções alimentares; Antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence genes in Salmonella spp. strains isolated from foods associated and non-associated to foodborne disease outbreaks

Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/06/2008 Português
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Salmonella é o agente etiológico mais comumente envolvido em casos e surtos de doenças diarréicas de origem alimentar no Brasil e outros países. A preocupação com este patógeno é, ainda, maior quando se verifica o surgimento e disseminação de cepas multi-resistentes e potencialmente mais patogênicas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar 237 cepas Salmonella spp. distribuídas entre 50 sorovares diferentes, isoladas de alimentos associados e não associados à toxinfecções alimentares, quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e presença dos genes de virulência spvC, invA, sefA e pefA. O gene invA foi detectado em todas as cepas de Salmonella. Com relação aos demais genes estudados, spvC e pefA foram encontrados em 48,1% e 44,3% das cepas, respectivamente. O gene sefA foi detectado em 31,6% das cepas, estando presente somente entre as cepas de S. Enteritidis. Ainda com relação à presença dos genes de virulência, as cepas de S. Enteritidis foram classificadas em três perfis, com predominância (90,7%) do perfil constituído pelos quatro genes de virulência. Quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana, 46,8% do total de cepas avaliadas foram sensíveis a todos os agentes antimicrobianos...

‣ Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley Fever in Kenya

Anyamba,Assaf; Linthicum,Kenneth J.; Tucker,Compton J.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.49491%
All known Rift Valley fever(RVF) outbreaks in Kenya from 1950 to 1998 followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. On an interannual scale, periods of above normal rainfall in East Africa are associated with the warm phase of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Anomalous rainfall floods mosquito-breeding habitats called dambos, which contain transovarially infected mosquito eggs. The eggs hatch Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the RVF virus preferentially to livestock and to humans as well. Analysis of historical data on RVF outbreaks and indicators of ENSO (including Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures and the Southern Oscillation Index) indicates that more than three quarters of the RVF outbreaks have occurred during warm ENSO event periods. Mapping of ecological conditions using satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data show that areas where outbreaks have occurred during the satellite recording period (1981-1998) show anomalous positive departures in vegetation greenness, an indicator of above-normal precipitation. This is particularly observed in arid areas of East Africa, which are predominantly impacted by this disease. These results indicate a close association between interannual climate variability and RVF outbreaks in Kenya.

‣ Differences in Virulence among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from Humans during Disease Outbreaks and from Healthy Cattle▿

Baker, Diane R.; Moxley, Rodney A.; Steele, Mike B.; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Chen, Ding-Geng; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Francis, David H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes life-threatening outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and significant economic loss in agriculture and could be a potential agent of bioterrorism. Although the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and other species with which humans have frequent contact is high, human infections are relatively uncommon, despite a low infectious dose. A plausible explanation for the low disease incidence is the possibility that not all strains are virulent in humans. If there are substantial differences in virulence among strains in nature, then human disease may select for high virulence. We used a gnotobiotic piglet model to investigate the virulence of isolates from healthy cattle and from humans in disease outbreaks and to determine the correlation between production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Stx2 and virulence. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from healthy cattle were less virulent in gnotobiotic piglets than strains isolated from humans during disease outbreaks. The amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains correlated with strain virulence as measured by a reduction in piglet survival and signs of central nervous system disease due to brain infarction. The amount of Stx1 produced in culture was not correlated with the length of time of piglet survival or with signs of central nervous system disease. We suggest that disease outbreaks select for producers of high levels of Stx2 among E. coli O157:H7 strains shed by animals and further suggest that Stx1 expression is unlikely to be significant in human outbreaks.

‣ Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention.

Wheelis, M.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control Publicador: Centers for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.237085%
The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, and stockpiling of biological weapons agents or delivery devices for anything other than peaceful purposes. A protocol currently in the final stages of negotiation adds verification measures to the convention. One of these measures will be international investigation of disease outbreaks that suggest a violation of the convention, i.e., outbreaks that may be caused by use of biological weapons or release of harmful agents from a facility conducting prohibited work. Adding verification measures to the current Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention will affect the international public health and epidemiology communities; therefore, active involvement of these communities in planning the implementation details of the protocol will be important.

‣ Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada

van Dijk, Adam; Aramini, Jeff; Edge, Graham; Moore, Kieran M.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.0968%
To validate the utility of a chief complaint–based emergency department surveillance system, we compared it with respiratory diagnostic data and calls to Telehealth Ontario about respiratory disease. This local syndromic surveillance system accurately monitored status of respiratory diseases in the community and contributed to early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks.

‣ SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany

Krause, Gérard; Altmann, Doris; Faensen, Daniel; Porten, Klaudia; Benzler, Justus; Pfoch, Thomas; Ammon, Andrea; Kramer, Michael H.; Claus, Hermann
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2007 Português
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Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany

‣ Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks

Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species...

‣ Using network theory to identify the causes of disease outbreaks of unknown origin

Bogich, Tiffany L.; Funk, Sebastian; Malcolm, Trent R.; Chhun, Nok; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Chmura, Aleksei A.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Brownstein, John S.; Hutchison, O. Clyde; Doyle-Capitman, Catherine; Deaville, Robert; Morse, Stephen S.; Cunningham, Andrew
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The identification of undiagnosed disease outbreaks is critical for mobilizing efforts to prevent widespread transmission of novel virulent pathogens. Recent developments in online surveillance systems allow for the rapid communication of the earliest reports of emerging infectious diseases and tracking of their spread. The efficacy of these programs, however, is inhibited by the anecdotal nature of informal reporting and uncertainty of pathogen identity in the early stages of emergence. We developed theory to connect disease outbreaks of known aetiology in a network using an array of properties including symptoms, seasonality and case-fatality ratio. We tested the method with 125 reports of outbreaks of 10 known infectious diseases causing encephalitis in South Asia, and showed that different diseases frequently form distinct clusters within the networks. The approach correctly identified unknown disease outbreaks with an average sensitivity of 76 per cent and specificity of 88 per cent. Outbreaks of some diseases, such as Nipah virus encephalitis, were well identified (sensitivity = 100%, positive predictive values = 80%), whereas others (e.g. Chandipura encephalitis) were more difficult to distinguish. These results suggest that unknown outbreaks in resource-poor settings could be evaluated in real time...

‣ On SARS Type Economic Effects During Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Brahmbhatt, Milan; Dutta, Arindam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Infectious disease outbreaks can exact a high human and economic cost through illness and death. But, as with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in East Asia in 2003, or the plague outbreak in Surat, India, in 1994, they can also create severe economic disruptions even when there is, ultimately, relatively little illness or death. Such disruptions are commonly the result of uncoordinated and panicky efforts by individuals to avoid becoming infected, of preventive activity. This paper places these "SARS type" effects in the context of research on economic epidemiology, in which behavioral responses to disease risk have both economic and epidemiological consequences. The paper looks in particular at how people form subjective probability judgments about disease risk. Public opinion surveys during the SARS outbreak provide suggestive evidence that people did indeed at times hold excessively high perceptions of the risk of becoming infected, or, if infected, of dying from the disease. The paper discusses research in behavioral economics and the theory of information cascades that may shed light on the origin of such biases. The authors consider whether public information strategies can help reduce unwarranted panic. A preliminary question is why governments often seem to have strong incentives to conceal information about infectious disease outbreaks. The paper reviews recent game-theoretic analysis that clarifies government incentives. An important finding is that government incentives to conceal decline the more numerous are non-official sources of information about a possible disease outbreak. The findings suggest that honesty may indeed be the best public policy under modern conditions of easy mass global communications.

‣ Reducing Climate-Sensitive Disease Risks

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Disease risks to humans, animals, and plants are determined by interconnected environmental variables that affect incidence, transmission, and outbreak. Climate change affects many of the environmental variables that lead to disease. Regardless of the species involved, the impacts can ultimately affect the health, livelihood, and economic security of humans. The objective of this World Bank economic and sector work is to build on scientific and operational knowledge of early action tools to help practitioners reduce the risks of key climate-sensitive infectious diseases by strengthening risk management systems for disease outbreaks. The report includes an assessment of known interventions such as the establishment of surveillance systems, the development of region and nation-specific disease outlooks, the creation of climate-sensitive disease risk maps, and the construction and implementation of early warning advisory systems. This research highlights the need for better understanding of the evolving interactions between the environment and emerging and reemerging disease pathogens. It also points to the inseparable interactions between animal health and human health...

‣ Calculation of disease dynamics in a population of households

Ross, J.; House, T.; Keeling, M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.0968%
Early mathematical representations of infectious disease dynamics assumed a single, large, homogeneously mixing population. Over the past decade there has been growing interest in models consisting of multiple smaller subpopulations (households, workplaces, schools, communities), with the natural assumption of strong homogeneous mixing within each subpopulation, and weaker transmission between subpopulations. Here we consider a model of SIRS (susceptibleinfectious- recovered-susceptible) infection dynamics in a very large (assumed infinite) population of households, with the simplifying assumption that each household is of the same size (although all methods may be extended to a population with a heterogeneous distribution of household sizes). For this households model we present efficient methods for studying several quantities of epidemiological interest: (i) the threshold for invasion; (ii) the early growth rate; (iii) the household offspring distribution; (iv) the endemic prevalence of infection; and (v) the transient dynamics of the process. We utilize these methods to explore a wide region of parameter space appropriate for human infectious diseases. We then extend these results to consider the effects of more realistic gamma-distributed infectious periods. We discuss how all these results differ from standard homogeneous-mixing models and assess the implications for the invasion...

‣ Spatial algorithm for detecting disease outbreaks in Australia

Eagleson, S.; Veenendaa, B.; Watkins, R.; Wright, G.; Plant, A.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 217300 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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La detección temprana de brotes de enfermedades es esencial de cara a una intervención pronta en problemas de salud pública. Actualmente en Australia, las enfermedades notificables son recogidas y almacenadas, y referenciadas geográfica y temporalmente. Sin embargo, el proceso para la búsqueda de brotes de enfermedad sobre escalas espaciales distintas no está bien definido. Los brotes son de detección difícil. Algunas enfermedades aparecen relativamente rápido, mientras otras requieren más tiempo para su incubación y sólo se hacen evidentes sobre largos intervalos temporales. En la práctica, los epidemiólogos combinan diferentes conjuntos de evidencias para determinar la probabilidad de la existencia de un brote. Gracias al progresivo incremento de disponibilidad de bases de datos electrónicas y de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG), el potencial para la utilización de técnicas de análisis espacial para la visualización, exploración y modelado de notificaciones de enfermedades para la detección temprana de brotes, es hoy mayor que en el pasado. En este artículo, los autores presentan un algoritmo que emplea bases de datos de la administración, análisis espacial y SIG para la detección de clusters de enfermedades en el Estado de Australia Occidental. El algoritmo revisa los códigos postales de forma rutinaria hasta encontrar un número de casos que supera los valores que serían esperados en la región considerada. El algoritmo está diseñado para su uso por profesionales de la salud pública para asistir en la identificación y seguimiento de clusters en tiempo real.; The early detection of disease outbreaks is essential for early intervention in potential public health problems. Currently in Australia...

‣ MedMyst: Animal Alert! Students learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks.

Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning
Fonte: Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning; Rice University, Houston Texas Publicador: Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning; Rice University, Houston Texas
Tipo: Instructional Material; Game; Simulation Formato: text/html
Português
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57.132764%
In MedMyst: Animal Alert!, players learn about a mysterious disease that is affecting people in a distant tropical region. Players can choose to work as an epidemiologist, microbiologist, or veterinarian to determine what is making people sick. Animal Alert! can be played after Disease Defenders or independently of that mission. While role-playing as an expert, players will learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks. Each expert path has its own learning objectives.

‣ Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%)...

‣ Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks

Fernández Sirera, Laura; Cabezón Ponsoda, Óscar; Allepuz Palau, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano Ferron, Emmanuel; Lavín González, Santiago; Marco Sánchez, Ignasi
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.58672%
Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species...

‣ Evaluation of Australia's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System

Miller, Megge; Roche, Paul W; Spencer, Jenean; Deeble, Mary
Fonte: National Centre for Disease Control Publicador: National Centre for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7636%
The Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) is a passive surveillance system that collects information on communicable diseases. The Australian Government manages NNDSS under the auspices of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA). Data collected by each state and territory are collated, analysed and disseminated by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. We report the first evaluation of NNDSS since it was established in 1991. Three primary stakeholder groups were surveyed: (a) CDNA members, (b) the National Surveillance Committee and (c) the readership of Communicable Diseases Intelligence, the primary means of data dissemination from NNDSS. The evaluation revealed that the system was acceptable, structurally simple, and that the data collected were actively used by stakeholders. However, the lack of clearly documented aims and objectives for NNDSS, inflexibility to changing needs, lack of timeliness and complexity in processes were seen as problematic. The results of this evaluation, supported by recent federal funding to enhance national biosecurity, will provide the framework for enhancing NNDSS to meet national communicable disease surveillance requirements in Australia.

‣ The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks

Durrheim,David N.; Harris,Bernice N.; Speare,Rick; Billinghurst,Kelvin
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiences in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga’s 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting...

‣ Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97

Tulchinsky,Theodore H.; Burla,Etti; Clayman,Marla; Sadik,Chantal; Brown,Alex; Goldberger,Shalom
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.711465%
Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel’s community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis...

‣ Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley Fever in Kenya

Anyamba,Assaf; Linthicum,Kenneth J.; Tucker,Compton J.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.49491%
All known Rift Valley fever(RVF) outbreaks in Kenya from 1950 to 1998 followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. On an interannual scale, periods of above normal rainfall in East Africa are associated with the warm phase of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Anomalous rainfall floods mosquito-breeding habitats called dambos, which contain transovarially infected mosquito eggs. The eggs hatch Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the RVF virus preferentially to livestock and to humans as well. Analysis of historical data on RVF outbreaks and indicators of ENSO (including Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures and the Southern Oscillation Index) indicates that more than three quarters of the RVF outbreaks have occurred during warm ENSO event periods. Mapping of ecological conditions using satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data show that areas where outbreaks have occurred during the satellite recording period (1981-1998) show anomalous positive departures in vegetation greenness, an indicator of above-normal precipitation. This is particularly observed in arid areas of East Africa, which are predominantly impacted by this disease. These results indicate a close association between interannual climate variability and RVF outbreaks in Kenya.