Página 1 dos resultados de 781 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

‣ Avaliação do desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central de camundongos Balb/c expostos à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal; Evaluation of the brain development in BALB/c mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period.

Torres-Pacheco, Larissa Helena Lobo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.13025%
Diversos estudos relatam os efeitos da exposição à nicotina nos períodos pré e pós-natal, contudo, pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos da fumaça do cigarro na cascata de eventos que caracteriza o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi esclarecer se a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao desenvolvimento do SNC na infância, e as possíveis consequências na adolescência e na fase adulta. Camundongos BALB/c foram expostos a uma mistura de fumaça central e lateral do cigarro referência 3R4F (Universidade de Kentucky, EUA), desde o 3° dia de vida pós-natal (P) até P14 por duas horas diárias. Nossos resultados indicam que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao processo de aprendizado e memória e aumento na ansiedade em todas as idades avaliadas, além de induzir diminuição da atividade locomotora na infância e na adolescência. Ainda, observamos diminuição dos níveis de BDNF e das proteínas sinápticas sinapsina e sinaptofisina no hipocampo, cerebelo, córtex pré-frontal e estriado. A fumaça do cigarro também induz diminuição na porcentagem de fibras mielinizadas no nervo óptico e aumento da proteína básica de mielina (PBM) no cerebelo na infância...

‣ Smoke-free homes programme : past, present and future; Programa “Domicílios Livres de Fumo” : passado, presente e futuro

Precioso, José; Calheiros, José; Samorinha, Catarina; Antunes, Henedina; Machado, José Eduardo; Macedo, Manuel; Bonito, Jorge; Vitória, Paulo; Ravara, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.21108%
Childhood exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is associated with serious health problems. Despite the recognised severity of childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), several studies show high prevalence of exposed children in the world and also in Portugal. In order to protect children of this serious health hazard an ETS type preventive programme, “Smoke free-homes”, was developed and tested in Portugal. Its main purpose is to increase the number of parents who do not smoke and / or to reinforce the norm of not allowing smoking at home and in the car, enabling “participant students” to proactively promote parents’ behaviour change and effectively reduce or avoid ETS home exposure. This is a school based programme, to be applied in the classroom by teachers.; A exposição das crianças ao Fumo Ambiental do Tabaco (FAT) está associada a graves problemas de saúde. Apesar da evidência científica sobre a gravidade da exposição das crianças ao FAT, muitos estudos mostram que existe uma elevada percentagem de crianças expostas ao FAT no Mundo (aproximadamente 50%) e também em Portugal (40% segundo alguns estudos realizados). Com o objectivo de proteger as crianças desta agressão, foi desenhado em Portugal o programa de prevenção denominado “Domicílios Livres de Fumo”. A sua principal finalidade é aumentar a prevalência de pais e mães que não fumam (e/ou não permitam que se fume) em casa e no carro. O programa foi desenhado para ser aplicado nas salas de aulas...

‣ Prevalência de alunos de escolas de Braga expostos ao fumo ambiental do tabaco em casa, antes e após a aplicação da lei antitabágica : estudo transversal; Exposure of students to tobacco smoke at home before and after a new anti-smoking law : a cross-sectional study

Precioso, José; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Machado, José Cunha; Samorinha, Catarina; Becoña, Elisardo; Antunes, Henedina
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.08463%
Objectivos: Esta investigação pretende avaliar o impacto da lei antitabágica Portuguesa – Lei n. o 37/2007, de 14 de agosto – na exposição das crianças ao Fumo Ambiental do Tabaco em casa Tipo de estudo: Realizaram-se três estudos observacionais, transversais e analíticos Local: Escolas do 1. o ciclo de Braga População: Alunos do 4. o ano, do 1. o ciclo das escolas de Braga Métodos: Foram utilizados questionários de autopreenchimento, aplicados em contexto de sala de aula. Na análise de dados foi utilizado o qui-quadrado por se tratar de variáveis de categoria. Utilizou-se a mesma metodologia em momentos diferentes, o primeiro em 2007 (antes da entrada em vigor da lei), o segundo em 2010 e o terceiro em 2011 (ambos após a entrada em vigor da lei). Resultados: Em 2007, a amostra era constituída por 793 alunos do 4. o ano e no segundo e terceiro estudos participaram, respetivamente, 513 e 509 alunos do mesmo ano de escolaridade de escolas de Braga – Portugal. FA prevalência de crianças expostas diária ou ocasionalmente ao FAT, pelo facto de pelo menos um dos conviventes fumar em casa, desceu de 43,2% em 2007 para 19,9% em 2011 (p<0,001). Conclusões: A entrada em vigor da lei antitabágica Portuguesa poderá estar associada a uma diminuição do consumo de tabaco no domicílio; Aims: This study aims to assess the impact of the new Portuguese anti-smoking law of 2007 on the exposure to tobacco smoke at home. Study type: Three observational and cross-sectional studies Setting: Elementary schools in Braga...

‣ Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home and smoking prevalence in the general Portuguese population--the INAsma study

Pereira, AM; Morais-Almeida, M; Sá e Sousa, A; Jacinto, T; Azevedo, LF; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Bugalho de Almeida, A; Fonseca, JA
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.01488%
BACKGROUND: We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home in the Portuguese population; 2) estimate tobacco smoking prevalence in Portugal; 3) identify social and personal characteristics associated with smoking or exposure to ETS. METHODS: Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey. Overall, 6003 individuals completed the interview. ETS exposure at home was defined as exposure to at least one current smoker at home. A smoker was defined as someone with 15 years or older, smoking at least 1 cigarette per day during a year; a current smoker (CS) smoked in the last month. RESULTS: Exposure to ETS at home was reported by 26.6% (95%CI 25.5-27.7) of the participants. Living in households with ≥4 persons (OR=2.31; 95%CI[1.81-2.96]), being a current smoker (OR=7.29; 95%CI[5.74-9.26]) or having current asthma (OR=2.06; 95%CI[1.45-2.94]) were factors positively associated with ETS exposure. When analyzed by gender, the effect of current asthma was only relevant to females. Currently 19.0% (95%CI 18.0-20.0) of the Portuguese population smokes tobacco and 17.2% (95%CI 16.2-18.2) are ex-smokers. CS prevalence is higher in males than females (26.5%versus 12.2%, p<0,001). The odds of being a CS were higher for males...

‣ How Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Outdoor Air Pollutants, and Increased Pollen Burdens Influences the Incidence of Asthma

Gilmour, M. Ian; Jaakkola, Maritta S.; London, Stephanie J.; Nel, Andre E.; Rogers, Christine Anne
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.97291%
Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse factors, including increased awareness of the disease, altered lifestyle and activity patterns, and ill-defined changes in environmental exposures. It is well accepted that persons with asthma are more sensitive than persons without asthma to air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, traffic emissions, and photochemical smog components. It has also been demonstrated that exposure to a mix of allergens and irritants can at times promote the development phase (induction) of the disease. Experimental evidence suggests that complex organic molecules from diesel exhaust may act as allergic adjuvants through the production of oxidative stress in airway cells. It also seems that climate change is increasing the abundance of aeroallergens such as pollen, which may result in greater incidence or severity of allergic diseases. In this review we illustrate how environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollution, and climate change may act as environmental risk factors for the development of asthma and provide mechanistic explanations for how some of these effects can occur.

‣ Workplace exposure to passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease: summary of epidemiologic studies

Kawachi, Ichiro; Colditz, Graham A.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.9024%
We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies addressing the relationship between workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cardiovascular disease risk in three case-control studies and three cohort studies. Although the point estimates of risk for cardiovascular disease exceeded 1.0 in five of six studies, none of the relative risks was statistically significant because of the small number of cardiovascular end points occurring in individual studies. In common with most epidemiologic investigations of the health risks of ETS, none of the workplace studies included independent biochemical validation of ETS exposure. In contrast to the evidence on increased cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to spousal ETS, studies of ETS exposure in the workplace are still sparse and inconclusive. Conversely, there is no biologically plausible reason to believe that the hazards of ETS exposure that have been demonstrated in the home should not also apply to the workplace.

‣ Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

Gold, Diane R.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.25159%
Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma.

‣ Effect of Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Levels of Urinary Hormone Markers

Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Fan; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Lasley, Bill; Overstreet, James W.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Chen, ChangFeng; Ryan, Louise Marie; Xu, Xiang
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
108.97474%
Our recent study showed a dose–response relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the risk of early pregnancy loss. Smoking is known to affect female reproductive hormones. We explored whether ETS affects reproductive hormone profiles as characterized by urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugate (E1C) levels. We prospectively studied 371 healthy newly married nonsmoking women in China who intended to conceive and had stopped contraception. Daily records of vaginal bleeding, active and passive cigarette smoking, and daily first-morning urine specimens were collected for up to 1 year or until a clinical pregnancy was achieved. We determined the day of ovulation for each menstrual cycle. The effects of ETS exposure on daily urinary PdG and E1C levels in a ±10 day window around the day of ovulation were analyzed for conception and nonconception cycles, respectively. Our analysis included 344 nonconception cycles and 329 conception cycles. In nonconception cycles, cycles with ETS exposure had significantly lower urinary E1C levels (β= –0.43, SE = 0.08, p less than 0.001 in log scale) compared with the cycles without ETS exposure. There was no significant difference in urinary PdG levels in cycles having ETS exposure (β= –0.07...

‣ Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.68887%
Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Results: Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 μg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR = 1.30; 95% CI...

‣ A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes

Cenko, C.; Pisaniello, D.; Esterman, A.
Fonte: Carfax Publishing Publicador: Carfax Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.9024%
Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM10) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine=15 mg/m3 and PM10=255mg/m3) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine=7 mg/ m3 and PM10=192 mg/m3). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within nonsmoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas.; Clinton Cenko, Dino Pisaniello and Adrian Esterman

‣ Biomonitoring the genetic effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in restaurant workers

Vital, Nádia; Louro, Henriqueta; Antunes, Susana; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia; Silva, Maria João
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 18/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.00635%
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is recognized as one of the most common indoor pollutants worldwide. Portuguese legislation prohibits smoking in most indoor public spaces. However, in some restaurants/bars smoking is still allowed, representing a potential risk factor for the workers health, particularly for chronic respiratory diseases and cancer onset.The aim of this study was to characterize early signs of ETS-associated adverse systemic effects in workers from restaurants with smoking permission in comparison with workers from smoke-free spaces, considering the modulating effects of genetic susceptibility.The ETS-exposed workers did not display differences in the frequencies of SCEs, cells with high frequency of SCEs (HFCs), MN or DNA strand breaks, as assessed by the comet assay, when compared to non-ETS workers. Smoking workers presented a significantly increased level of HFCs as compared to non-smokers. Interestingly, the ex vivo challenge of leukocytes with EMS resulted in a lower level of DNA breaks in ETS-exposed as compared to non-exposed workers (P<0,0001), suggesting an increased DNA repair capacity associated to ETS-exposure. Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, GSTM1 null genotype carriers presented increased frequencies of SCEs and HFCs associated with ETS exposure...

‣ How free of tobacco smoke are 'smoke-free' homes?

Rumchev, K.; Jamrozik, K.; Stick, S.; Spickett, J.
Fonte: Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd Publicador: Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.87074%
The risks of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are well established and 'harm reduction' strategies such as smoking outside to protect infants and children from exposure to ETS have been advocated for some time. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported smoking levels in residential settings. The participants were families (n = 92) randomly selected from lower socioeconomic areas of Perth, Western Australia. Each household was monitored for vapor phase nicotine and particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10). Of the 42% (39) households who reported that someone smoked cigarettes at home, only four (4%) said that smoking occurred inside the house. There was a 'moderate' agreement between parental-reported tobacco smoking and levels of nicotine (κ = 0.55, P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the median levels of air nicotine (P < 0.01) and PM10 (P < 0.05) between households in which smoking was reported as only occurring outside, and the smoke-free households.; K. Rumchev, K. Jamrozik, S. Stick and J. Spickett

‣ Research on Tobacco in Indonesia : An Annotated Bibliography and Review of Research on Tobacco Use, Health Effects, Economics, and Control Efforts

Djutaharta, Triasih; Viriya Surya, Henry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.236963%
This report summarizes 46 studies on various aspects of tobacco in Indonesia published since 1990. Studies are arranged alphabetically by author's last name. The studies include tobacco use surveys, studies on tobacco-related mortality and diseases including costs, and health problems associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Some studies cover interventions to reduce tobacco use, and tobacco control policies, including price increases. Some studies look at specific groups such as children, street vendors, drivers, youth, athletes or nurses. Studies were traced using bibliographies of an initial set of studies collected

‣ Research on Tobacco in India (including the Betel Quid and Areca Nut) : An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Use, Health Effects, Economics, and Control Efforts

Stewart Ray, Cecily; Gupta, Prakash; de Beyer, Joy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.062383%
This report is a compilation of references and abstracts of all research on tobacco in India from 1985 to 2003. Studies are organized by subject matter, and within each sub-topic, are arranged by year of publication with most recent studies listed first, and for studies published in the same year, alphabetically by author's last name. The studies include tobacco use surveys, studies on tobacco-related mortality, tobacco-related diseases both cancerous and non-cancerous, according to body system and site, and other health problems associated with tobacco use and environmental tobacco smoke. Other topics include the toxicity of tobacco products, educational interventions and the psychology of tobacco use, tobacco control measures and policies, reports on tobacco advertising and sponsorship and research into the tobacco health hazards faced by tobacco workers. It also includes studies on tobacco employment, tobacco growing and technology, and the economics of tobacco. The following databases were searched: Pub Med...

‣ Smoke-Free Workplaces; Lugares de trabajo libres de humo de tabaco Lieux de travail sans tabac

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.639517%
Smoking harms the health of smokers and those around them. Smokers are at far higher risks of strokes, heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases; cancers of the lungs, mouth, larynx, bladder, pancreas, kidneys and stomach; emphysema, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. These diseases cause serious illness, disability and premature death. Tobacco causes 4 million deaths worldwide each year, and the numbers are rising fast. Tobacco smoke also harms non-smokers exposed to so-called second-hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In addition to smell and irritation to eyes, ETS exposure increases the risk of lung cancer and cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases. ETS exposure is common in workplaces. In 1996, an estimated 130 million adult non-smokers in China were exposed to workplace ETS. In the UK in 1999, more than 3 million non-smokers were continuously or frequently exposed to tobacco smoke at work. In France, where there are laws restricting smoking in public spaces, 40 percent of employees are still exposed to ETS. ETS can interact with chemicals and radiation in workplaces to produce an additive or multiplicative effect and increase significantly the risk of many occupational diseases. In some countries...

‣ Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children

Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.88274%
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (β = 0.34...

‣ New experimental model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

Brito,Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima,Edson Yuzur; Silveira,Edvaldo Lima; Yamaki,Vitor Nagai; Teixeira,Renan Kleber Costa; Feijó,Daniel Haber; Gonçalves,Thiago Barbosa
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.988984%
PURPOSE: To describe a new model to passive smoking for rodents. METHODS: Twenty rats were distributed into two study groups (N=10): control group (CG), that was not exposed to tobacco smoke and used as normal standard for biochemical and histological analysis; Experimental Group (EG), that Animals were exposed to the passive smoking; Euthanasia was performed after 14 days of exposure. The serum level of nicotine and histological analysis were performed. RESULTS: There was a statistical difference on the nicotine serum levels between Experimental and Control group, with level of 286 ±23 nanograma/mL in the EG and undetectable on CG (p<0.01). The histological study suggested the model efficacy producing alveolar destruction and emphysema in the EG compared with the insignificant lesions in the CG's lung. CONCLUSION: The model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for rodents induced easily the changes related to secondhand smoke.

‣ Efectos de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en no fumadores; EFFECTS IN PASSIVE SMOKERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

Michalland H., Susana; Salinas C., Judith; Soto I., Marina; Contreras N., Carla; Bello S., Sergio
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.40594%
National and international environmental tobacco smoke studies were reviewed regarding its effects on passive smokers’ health. Environmental tobacco smoke is composed by more than 4,000 known substances, which are different if they are in the mainstream or sidestream. Studies with biomarkers like cotinine have concluded that exposed nonsmokers have an increased cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Passive smokers also have an increased risk of lung, nasal sinus and breast cancer. Children have more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms, low respiratory infections, otitis and sudden infant death syndrome. Environmental tobacco smoke induces asthma and causes exacerbations in both children and adults. In reproductive health, it decreases the age of menopause and produces menstrual disorders. Newborn infants of passive smoking mothers have a higher probability of l

‣ Reducing exposure of pre-school children to environmental tobacco smoke: Feasibility of a program for parents and other caregivers

Robles,Elias; Vargas,Perla A.; Perry,Tamara T.; Feild,Charles R.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.90655%
The aim of this study was to assess the viability and potential efficacy of an environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure reduction intervention for at-risk children. The study consisted of a 12-week behavioral intervention and a 6-month follow-up, conducted on a convenience sample (N=43) of low-income, self-identified, adult smokers who were caregivers of 3-5 year old children. The intervention included a manualized program, plus nicotine replacement therapy, and monetary reinforcement of abstinence. Outcome measures included breath carbon monoxide (CO), self-reported smoking practices, level of nicotine dependence, and depression symptoms. Significant reductions were observed in CO concentration, frequency of smoking around children, and nicotine dependence and depression scores. Sixty-one percent of the participants attended 8 or more weekly sessions, and one third remained smoke-free at follow-up. Those who did not quit reported not changing their smoking behavior patterns in vehicles or indoors. The cessation intervention compared well with other interventions for treatment-seeking smokers, suggesting that implementing evidence-based cessation and education programs for caregivers at school sites may be effective in reducing daily exposure to ETS of pre-school children.

‣ The need for gender specific tobacco control strategies: KAP survey findings on environmental tobacco smoke exposure among women in the reproductive age group

Brown,E; Maharaj,S; James,K
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
99.20217%
OBJECTIVE: The study was done to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of women within the child bearing age with regard to smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's health. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative components was designed to collect data from women in the child-bearing age. The sample comprised of persons from the two largest combined family planning and antenatal clinics in Kingston, Jamaica. RESULTS: The women surveyed had a fair level of knowledge about ETS health risks, negative attitudes to smoking in general, and most supported a ban on smoking in public places. Significant knowledge differences existed between young and older women and between smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION: Women with the highest level of knowledge were the non-smokers: of the low knowledge score group (current smokers), 50% were in the 15-24-year age range. There is a need for more public education on smoking and the consequences ofenvironmental tobacco smoke exposure on children s health.