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‣ Proposta de diretrizes para o desenvolvimento da arquitetura em terra no Rio Grande do Sul, a partir da interpretação de estratégias uruguaias; Proposal of guidelines for the development of earth architecture in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, through the interpretation of Uruguayan strategies

Bayer, Ana Paula
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43676%
A construção civil é, atualmente, apontada como responsável pela extração de grande parte dos recursos naturais do planeta consumidos pela humanidade. Nesse sentido, a utilização de materiais construtivos nãoconvencionais, como a terra, surge como alternativa para construir edificações mais amigáveis com o meioambiente e, assim, também, modos de vida mais saudáveis, mais sustentáveis. Entretanto, a falta de informações, por parte de grande parte da população, inclusive de instituições de ensino e de profissionais atuantes no ramo da construção civil, em relação ao tema, faz com que o preconceito para com esse tipo de bioconstrução seja considerável. Surge, pois, a possibilidade de promoção da utilização da terra enquanto material construtivo, para que esse método de construção amigável com o meio-ambiente possa, aos poucos, recuperar o importante papel que desempenhava no passado, quando tais construções eram tidas como convencionais por nossos ancestrais. Através da investigação das técnicas de construção em terra e dos programas que favorecem esse tipo de iniciativa, o presente estudo tem como meta estabelecer um conjunto de diretrizes para orientar profissionais do ramo da construção civil e entidades interessadas em contribuir com a promoção da arquitetura em terra. Além disso...

‣ Ver para aprender com o Google Earth

Freitas, Elisabete Maria Pacheco de
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Dissertação mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de especialização em Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação); Estando os nossos alunos habituados a conviver fora da Escola com meios tecnológicos, como televisão, computador, telemóvel e muitos outros, onde o processo de comunicação se desencadeia sobretudo através da imagem, optamos neste projecto por aproximar a sala de aula da vida quotidiana destes alunos. Neste sentido, e para a aprendizagem dos elementos básicos do Meio Físico envolvente (Formas de Relevo), através da sua visualização, criamos o Microworld “Caça às Formas de Relevo”, respeitando as características de um ambiente de aprendizagem significativa, onde o Google Earth serviu de apoio/parceria para a construção destes conceitos. A metodologia escolhida foi o estudo de caso, levado a cabo com um grupo de alunos do 2º ano de escolaridade, sendo o método da recolha de dados a observação participante, os artefactos físicos e as entrevistas. Os resultados obtidos levam-nos a acreditar que programas como o Google Earth ao providenciar/servir de apoio à visualização de conceitos “deu-lhes vida”, sendo o conhecimento construído neste ambiente significativo, pessoal e presumivelmente perdurável...

‣ TWO DECADES OF EARTH SCIENCE RESEARCH

Silva, A.M.; Araújo, A.A.; Reis, A.H.; Morais, M.; Bezzeghoud, M.
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Livro
Português
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37.232532%
In 2012, the Évora Geophysics Centre (CGE) celebrates 20 years of activity. In these two decades, the national scientific system underwent a profound transformation, new organizational structures appeared, and participation in structures and international networks, and scientific integration reached very high levels. The national scientific environment is now more qualified and competitive; however the available funding per researcher became scarcer. Currently the CGE team includes 67 full members, and is organized in two main Lines of Research: (1) Atmosphere and Hydrosphere, (ii) Solid Earth. The first one comprises the centers of activity: Meteorology & Climate, Water, Environment, & Surface Processes, and Energy & Flow Structures, while the latter is composed of the centers of activity: Active Tectonics & Risks, Lithosphere, Mantle & Geological Resources, and Heritage & Archeometry. The time of maturity has come for GCE as a research unit, with a growth trajectory that was not always linear; however it has been progressive with respect to scientific quality, organizational structure, and the scientific and training outputs that were made available to the community. It is also the time to reflect on the past and to define future strategies. This debate is carried out within the evolving framework in which the CGE develops its activity. Actually...

‣ Bioaccumulation of cerium and neodymium by Bacillus cereus isolated from rare earth environments of Chavara and Manavalakurichi, India

Challaraj Emmanuel, E. S.; Vignesh, V.; Anandkumar, B.; Maruthamuthu, S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.430283%
Rare earth elements (REEs) are among the common minerals in the Rare earth environment that are very precious and also enhance soil properties. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the accumulation of REEs by bacterial isolates of rare earth environment. Morphological and biochemical characterization were done for 37 bacterial isolates and also molecular studies were carried out using 16S rRNA sequencing method. The assessment of REEs composition in soil samples of Chavara and Manavalakurichi analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed the abundance of Cerium and Neodymium among lanthanides. The bioaccumulation study of rare earth elements by Bacillus cereus were accomplished employing FT-IR spectrum and ICP-OES analysis. The significant accumulation of rare earth elements especially Cerium and Neodymium was noticed in Bacillus cereus isolated from rare earth environment.

‣ Science, technology and the Earth Charter

Mackey, Brendan G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 66644 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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37.198525%
The Earth Charter aims to describe a set of fundamental principles that underpin sus-tainable development, defining new norms of behaviour of how individuals and socie-ties relate to the environment. The Earth Charter principles are therefore aimed at providing guidance to human and social be-haviour in order to promote environmental protection and sustainable living. The Earth Charter can be viewed as the third pillar of global governance, following (a) The United Nations Convention and (b) the International Declaration of Human Rights. The former governs how nations treat each other, while the latter deals with how people treat people. The aim of the Earth Charter is to provide guidance as to how people and societies in-teract with Earth. Accordingly it must pro- vide a blue print for the protection of Earth as a home for humanity, and for meeting the needs of present and future generations. Further information about the Earth Charter process can be found at the Earth Council Website [1]. This paper discusses the role that sci-ence and technology have to play in the for-mulation of the Earth Charter, and aims to identify a set of scientifically based principles that should be included in such a Charter. By science I mean scientific knowledge and un-derstanding about how Earth works...

‣ Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

Mukherjee, Saumitra
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2008 Português
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SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cosmic anomaly periods the environment of the Earth is affected. The Star-Sun-Earth connection has the potential to influence the thermosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere and lithosphere. Initial correlation of the cosmic and Sun-Earth connection has shown the possibility of predicting earthquakes, sudden changes in atmospheric temperatures and erratic rainfall/snowfall patterns.

‣ UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars Through Geological Evolution

Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/06/2015 Português
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The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars at the 1AU equivalent distance for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago and modern Earth (Following Kaltenegger et al. 2007). In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth-Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.; Comment: 10 pages...

‣ Mars Encounters cause fresh surfaces on some near-Earth asteroids

DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Lockhart, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/09/2013 Português
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All airless bodies are subject to the space environment, and spectral differences between asteroids and meteorites suggest many asteroids become weathered on very short (<1My) timescales. The spectra of some asteroids, particularly Q-types, indicate surfaces that appear young and fresh, implying they have been recently been exposed. Previous work found that Earth encounters were the dominant freshening mechanism and could be responsible for all near-Earth object (NEO) Q-types. In this work we increase the known NEO Q-type sample of by a factor of three. We present the orbital distributions of 64 Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and seek to determine the dominant mechanisms for refreshing their surfaces. Our sample reveals two important results: i) the relatively steady fraction of Q-types with increasing semi-major axis and ii) the existence of Q-type near-Earth asteroids with Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) that do not have orbit solutions that cross Earth. Both of these are evidence that Earth-crossing is not the only scenario by which NEO Q-types are freshened. The high Earth-MOID asteroids represent 10% of the Q-type population and all are in Amor orbits. While surface refreshing could also be caused by Main Belt collisions or mass shedding from YORP spinup...

‣ Constraining the Radiation and Plasma Environment of the Kepler Circumbinary Habitable Zone Planets

Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas, Pablo A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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The remarkable discovery of many planets and candidates using the Kepler telescope even includes ten planets orbiting eight binaries. Three out of the eight, Kepler 16, Kepler 47, and KIC 9632895, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). In previous work (Mason et al. 2013), we investigated the potential habitability of Earth-like circumbinary planets. In particular, we highlighted the role of mutual stellar tidal interaction and the resulting impact on terrestrial planet habitability. The Kepler binaries with planets in the BHZ are studied in order to constrain the high energy radiation and plasma environment of potentially habitable circumbinary planets. The limits of the BHZ in these binaries as a function of time are estimated and the habitability lifetime is calculated. A self-consistent model of the evolution of stellar rotation including the effect of tidal interaction is key to establishing the plasma and radiation environment. A comprehensive model of the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties, as proxies for stellar aggression towards planetary atmospheres is developed. We find that Kepler-16 has had a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47 making its radiation environment less harsh than solar system and a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. (2013). KIC-9632895 has a plasma and radiation environment similar to that of solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ.; Comment: 15 pages...

‣ Visualization of and Access to CloudSat Vertical Data through Google Earth

Aijun Chen; Gregory Leptoukh; Liping Di; Steven Kempler; Christopher Lynnes
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.06352%
Online tools, pioneered by the Google Earth (GE), are facilitating the way in which scientists and general public interact with geospatial data in real three dimensions. However, even in Google Earth, there is no method for depicting vertical geospatial data derived from remote sensing satellites as an orbit curtain seen from above. Here, an effective solution is proposed to automatically render the vertical atmospheric data on Google Earth. The data are first processed through the Giovanni system, then, processed to be 15-second vertical data images. A generalized COLLADA model is devised based on the 15-second vertical data profile. Using the designed COLLADA models and satellite orbit coordinates, a satellite orbit model is designed and implemented in KML format to render the vertical atmospheric data in spatial and temporal ranges vividly. The whole orbit model consists of repeated model slices. The model slices, each representing 15 seconds of vertical data, are placed on the CloudSat orbit based on the size, scale, and angle with the longitude line that are precisely and separately calculated on the fly for each slice according to the CloudSat orbit coordinates. The resulting vertical scientific data can be viewed transparently or opaquely on Google Earth. Not only is the research bridged the science and data with scientists and the general public in the most popular way...

‣ Visualization of and Access to CloudSat Vertical Data through Google Earth

Aijun Chen; Gregory Leptoukh; Liping Di; Denis Nadeau; John Farley; Christopher Lynnes; Steven Kempler
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.06352%
Online tools, pioneered by the Google Earth (GE), are facilitating the way in which scientists and general public interact with geospatial data in real three dimensions. However, even in Google Earth, there is no method for depicting vertical geospatial data derived from remote sensing satellites as an orbit curtain seen from above. Here, an effective solution is proposed to automatically render the vertical atmospheric data on Google Earth. The data are first processed through the Giovanni system, then, processed to be 15-second vertical data images. A generalized COLLADA model is devised based on the 15-second vertical data profile. Using the designed COLLADA models and satellite orbit coordinates, a satellite orbit model is designed and implemented in KML format to render the vertical atmospheric data in spatial and temporal ranges vividly. The whole orbit model consists of repeated model slices. The model slices, each representing 15 seconds of vertical data, are placed on the CloudSat orbit based on the size, scale, and angle with the longitude line that are precisely and separately calculated on the fly for each slice according to the CloudSat orbit coordinates. The resulting vertical scientific data can be viewed transparently or opaquely on Google Earth. Not only is the research bridged the science and data with scientists and the general public in the most popular way...

‣ Natural evidence for garnet-spinel transition (GST) in the Earth's mantle

BenXun Su
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.851367%
This study based on compiled world-wide garnet peridotite data confirms the GST in high P and T conditions, which was obtained from Al-free experimental system (MgO-Cr~2~O~3~-SiO~2~) by Klemme (2004). A new spinel-phase peridotite zone, garnet peridotite discontinuous zone, is defined, and another GST, although no experimental data, is principally and presumably proposed to exist. The garnet inclusion-bearing spinel harzburgite from Lashaine (Tanzania) provides the first evidence for the existence of ultra-high spinel zone and is explained as recrystallized minerals hosting the interacted residue of ancient oceanic lithosphere subducted into the great depth of more than 220km. These previously unexpected findings are generating great challenges to phase transition in extreme conditions and to our understanding of layered-structure of the Earth. In addition, coexistent five-phase peridotite is suggested to be naturally useful tool to constrain the GST.

‣ Natural evidence for garnet-spinel transition (GST) in the Earth's mantle

BenXun Su
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.851367%
This study based on compiled world-wide garnet peridotite data confirms the GST in high P and T conditions, which was obtained from Al-free experimental system (MgO-Cr~2~O~3~-SiO~2~) by Klemme (2004). A new spinel-phase peridotite zone, garnet peridotite discontinuous zone, is defined, and another GST, although no experimental data, is principally and presumably proposed to exist. The garnet inclusion-bearing spinel harzburgite from Lashaine (Tanzania) provides the first evidence for the existence of ultra-high spinel zone and is explained as recrystallized minerals hosting the interacted residue of ancient oceanic lithosphere subducted into the great depth of more than 220km. These previously unexpected findings are generating great challenges to phase transition in extreme conditions and to our understanding of layered-structure of the Earth. In addition, coexistent five-phase peridotite is suggested to be naturally useful tool to constrain the GST.

‣ Carbon-driven Chemical Interactions between Alumina and Iron: A possible reaction pathway in Earth's interior

Rita Khanna; Mohammad Ikram-ul Haq; Veena Sahajwalla
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.128086%
Seismological and geochemical observations have revealed a complex structure for the earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB) region, with lateral and chemical heterogeneities. The presence of higher than expected concentrations of siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Pt etc) in the earth's mantle, iron enrichment of the lower mantle relative to the upper mantle, and a possible carbon flux from the core suggest the possibility of continual long-term exchange of materials between the core and the mantle. The chemical interactions of molten iron with complex mantle oxides and diffusion have been postulated as key mechanisms. A number of studies have been carried out on the reduction reactions taking into account the extreme conditions of high-temperature and high-pressure in earth's interior. These studies have, however, neglected to consider the influence of carbon on these reactions. The earth's metallic core is rich in carbon (~ 5 wt% C), and there is a growing evidence for the presence of carbon in the earth's mantle as well. Carbon can affect redox conditions through chemical interactions with oxygen, and is a critical element in determining the oxidation state of siderophile elements. Here we present a study of the interactions between liquid iron and alumina-carbon substrates at 1...

‣ Origin of nanosized diamonds in interstellar space and low-pressure-temperature Earth rocks

Sergei Simakov
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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46.851367%
Nanosized diamond particles in the interstellar space and in the Earth rocks related with water presence. In the paper proposed the model of the nanosized diamond particle formation from oxidized water-carbon dioxide gaseous mixtures.

‣ Local environment and valence state of iron in microinclusions in fibrous diamonds: X-ray Absorption and Mössbauer data

Andrei Shiryaev
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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46.71903%
Iron valence state and local environment in a set of fibrous diamonds from Brazilian and Zairean placers were investigated using X-ray Absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopies. It is shown that the diamonds could be divided into two main groups, differing in the type of dominant Fe-bearing inclusions. In the first group Fe is mostly trivalent and is present in octahedral coordination; diamonds from the second group contain a mixture of Fe^2+^ and Fe^3+^, most likely with Fe^2+^ in dodecahedral coordination. A few other diamonds contain iron in a more reduced state: the presence of metallic Fe and Fe~3~O~4~ is inferred from XAS measurements. Spatially resolved XANES and Mössbauer measurements on polished diamond plates show that in some cases the Fe valence state may change considerably between the core and rim, whereas in other cases Fe speciation and valence remain constant. It is shown that Fe valence does not correlate with water and/or carbonate content or ratio, suggesting that iron is a minor element in the growth medium of fibrous diamonds and plays a passive role. This study suggests that, when present, evolution of the C isotopic composition with diamond growth is largely due to changes in chemistry of the growth medium and not due to variations of fO~2~.

‣ Impacts – The Key to Understand Earth

Hua Huang
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.851367%
A significant factor, where are the major elements e.g. Mg, Fe, Si, Al, Ca, P, Ni that make up the asteroid or comet after the impact, has been ignored since the proposal of the impact events. In a striking contrast, there are many remaining unanswered or poorly answered questions regarding the formation and nature of banded iron formation (BIF), iron stone, phosphorite, bedded manganese ore, dolomite and carbonaceous black shales. The appearance of Lake Superior type banded ion formation associated with dolomite, quartzite, and black shale, the deposition of manganese ore and the occurrence of large phosphate repository during the Plaeoproterozoic; the onset of BIF with phosphate deposition and sedimentary manganese deposits and cap dolomite during the Neoproterozoic; the penecontemporary formation of oolitic iron stone taking place of the BIF, bedded manganese deposit, phosphorite, dolomite, and black shale during the Phanerozoic, which suggest a genetic link among them from the perspective of chemical elements. Actually, during hypervelocity impact cratering events, the main part of the asteroid or comet and target material are vaporizing, which forms a mushroom cloud of vapor in the atmosphere. The previous study shows that the calcite...

‣ The Traveling Salesman Problem in the Natural Environment

Flip Phillips; Thomas O'Connell; Oliver W. Layton
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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46.78895%
Is it possible for humans to navigate in the natural environment wherein the path taken between various destinations is 'optimal' in some way? In the domain of optimization this challenge is traditionally framed as the "Traveling Salesman Problem" (TSP). What strategies and ecological considerations are plausible for human navigation? When given a two-dimensional map-like presentation of the destinations, participants solve this optimization exceptionally well (only 2-3% longer than optimum)^1, 2^. In the following experiments we investigate the effect of effort and its environmental affordance on navigation decisions when humans solve the TSP in the natural environment. Fifteen locations were marked on two outdoor landscapes with flat and varied terrains respectively. Performance in the flat-field condition was excellent (∼6% error) and was worse but still quite good in the variable-terrain condition (∼20% error), suggesting participants do not globally pre-plan routes but rather develop them on the fly. We suggest that perceived effort guides participant solutions due to the dynamic constraints of effortful locomotion and obstacle avoidance.

‣ Nanomaterials: Look at the Earth

Siddhartha S. Mukhopadhyay
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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47.1662%
Nanotechnology promises to be the greatest technological breakthrough in history, doing for our control of matter what computers did for our control of information. The origins of nanoscience can be traced to clay mineralogy and crystallography when it was discovered that clay minerals were crystalline and of micrometer size. The unit cell dimensions of clay minerals are in nanometer scale in all three axes (x, y, and z). The advantages of clays are: (i) their ordered arrangements, (ii) their large adsorption capacity, (iii) their shielding against sunlight (ultraviolet radiation), (iv) their ability to concentrate organic chemicals, and (v) their ability to serve as polymerization templates. Clay minerals in nanoforms played a catalytic role in the synthesis of the ribosome in RNA that led to genesis of life on Earth. The history of Earth suggests that the late Precambrian oxygenation led to the inception of a ‘clay mineral factory’ that triggered the radical evolutionary diversification of Neoproterozoic life due to enhanced burial of organic carbon. High activity clays protected organic matter from reoxygenation, allowing a corresponding quantity of O2 to accumulate in the environment. The inseparable association of clays with lifeforms makes them most desirable in manufacturing nanoparticles. Clays have been extensively used in industry...

‣ Natural Environment Research Council - Data Policy

Mark Thorley
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) has a policy on data in order to: (a) Ensure the continuing availability of environmental data of long-term value for research, teaching, and for wider exploitation for the public good, by individuals, government, business and other organisations; (b) Support the integrity, transparency and openness of the research it supports; (c) Help in the formal publication of data sets, as well as enabling the tracking of their usage through citation and data licences; (d) Meet relevant legislation and Government guidance on the management and distribution of environmental information.