Página 1 dos resultados de 9311 itens digitais encontrados em 0.055 segundos

‣ Temporary rivers: linking ecohydrology, ecological quality and reconciliation ecology

Arthington, Angela, H; Bernardo, João Manuel; Ilhéu, Maria
Fonte: River Research and Applications/John Wiley & Sons, Ltd . Publicador: River Research and Applications/John Wiley & Sons, Ltd .
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Temporary streams and rivers, also referred to as intermittent, are defined as waterways that cease to flow at some points in space and time along their course. They are shaped by alternating wet and dry periods over annual and inter-annual cycles, making them one of the most dynamic freshwater ecosystems. These distinctive systems represent a substantial proportion of the total number, length and discharge of the global river network and are expected to become more widespread and face increasing pressures in many regions as a result of human activities and climate change. This collection of papers arose from the Conference on ‘Ecohydrology and Ecological Quality in Temporary Rivers’ held at the University of Evora, Portugal, 12–14 September 2012. The primary objectives of the meeting were to bring together researchers and expertise from a range of temporary ecosystems, from small temporary Mediterranean and Californian streams to intermittent rivers from semi-arid and arid zones. A common thread through the discussions was the assessment of ecological conditions within these dynamic ecosystems. To undertake a ’condition assessment’ is challenging because of the need to differentiate between biotic responses to anthropogenic pressures and natural variability associated with the hydro-climatology and disturbance regime typical of these systems...

‣ The ecological research needs of business

Armsworth, Paul R; Armsworth, Anastasia N; Compton, Natalie; Cottle, Phil; Davies, Ian; Emmett, Bridget A; Fandrich, Vanessa; Foote, Matthew; Gaston, Kevin J; Gardiner, Phil; Hess, Tim; Hopkins, John; Horsley, Nick; Leaver, Natasha; Maynard, Trevor; Shann
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services.We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector.Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement...

‣ Trends in Ecological Research during the Last Three Decades – A Systematic Review

Carmel, Yohay; Kent, Rafi; Bar-Massada, Avi; Blank, Lior; Liberzon, Jonathan; Nezer, Oded; Sapir, Gill; Federman, Roy
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2013 Português
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It is thought that the science of ecology has experienced conceptual shifts in recent decades, chiefly from viewing nature as static and balanced to a conception of constantly changing, unpredictable, complex ecosystems. Here, we ask if these changes are reflected in actual ecological research over the last 30 years. We surveyed 750 articles from the entire pool of ecological literature and 750 articles from eight leading journals. Each article was characterized according to its type, ecological domain, and applicability, and major topics. We found that, in contrast to its common image, ecology is still mostly a study of single species (70% of the studies); while ecosystem and community studies together comprise only a quarter of ecological research. Ecological science is somewhat conservative in its topics of research (about a third of all topics changed significantly through time), as well as in its basic methodologies and approaches. However, the growing proportion of problem-solving studies (from 9% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000 s) may represent a major transition in ecological science in the long run.

‣ The EcoData Retriever: Improving Access to Existing Ecological Data

Morris, Benjamin D.; White, Ethan P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2013 Português
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Ecological research relies increasingly on the use of previously collected data. Use of existing datasets allows questions to be addressed more quickly, more generally, and at larger scales than would otherwise be possible. As a result of large-scale data collection efforts, and an increasing emphasis on data publication by journals and funding agencies, a large and ever-increasing amount of ecological data is now publicly available via the internet. Most ecological datasets do not adhere to any agreed-upon standards in format, data structure or method of access. Some may be broken up across multiple files, stored in compressed archives, and violate basic principles of data structure. As a result acquiring and utilizing available datasets can be a time consuming and error prone process. The EcoData Retriever is an extensible software framework which automates the tasks of discovering, downloading, and reformatting ecological data files for storage in a local data file or relational database. The automation of these tasks saves significant time for researchers and substantially reduces the likelihood of errors resulting from manual data manipulation and unfamiliarity with the complexities of individual datasets.

‣ Towards Improving the Ethics of Ecological Research

Crozier, G. K. D.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We argue that the ecological research community should develop a plan for improving the ethical consistency and moral robustness of the field. We propose a particular ethics strategy—specifically, an ongoing process of collective ethical reflection that the community of ecological researchers, with the cooperation of applied ethicists and philosophers of biology, can use to address the needs we identify. We suggest a particular set of conceptual (in the form of six core values—freedom, fairness, well being, replacement, reduction, and refinement) and analytic (in the forms of decision theoretic software, 1000Minds) tools that, we argue, collectively have the resources to provide an empirically grounded and conceptually complete foundation for an ethics strategy for ecological research. We illustrate our argument with information gathered from a survey of ecologists conducted at the 2013 meeting of the Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution.

‣ A Conceptual Framework to Develop Long-Term Ecological Research and Management Objectives in the Wider Caribbean Region

Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Twilley, Robert R.; Bone, David; Childers, Dan; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Feller, Ilka C.; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Jaffe, Rudolf; Mancera, Ernesto; Rejmankova, Eliska; Salisbury, Joseph E.; Weil, Ernesto
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Caribbean Sea and its watersheds show signs of environmental degradation. These fragile coastal ecosystems are susceptible to environmental impacts, in part because of their oligotrophic conditions and their critical support of economic development. Tourism is one of the major sources of income in the Caribbean, making the region one of the most ecotourism dependent in the world. Yet there are few explicit, long-term, comprehensive studies describing the structure and function of Caribbean ecosystems. We propose a conceptual framework using the environmental signature hypothesis of tropical coastal settings to develop a series of research questions for the reef–sea-grass–wetland seascape. We applied this approach across 13 sites throughout the region, including ecosystems in a variety of coastal settings with different vulnerabilities to environmental impacts. This approach follows the strategy developed by the Long Term Ecological Research program of the National Science Foundation to establish ecological research questions best studied over decades and large spatial areas.

‣ The Roles of Large Top Predators in Coastal Ecosystems: New Insights from Long Term Ecological Research

Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mather, Martha E.; Matich, Philip; Nifong, James C.; Ripple, William J.; Silliman, Brian R.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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During recent human history, human activities such as overhunting and habitat destruction have severely impacted many large top predator populations around the world. Studies from a variety of ecosystems show that loss or diminishment of top predator populations can have serious consequences for population and community dynamics and ecosystem stability. However, there are relatively few studies of the roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems, so that we do not yet completely understand what could happen to coastal areas if large top predators are extirpated or significantly reduced in number. This lack of knowledge is surprising given that coastal areas around the globe are highly valued and densely populated by humans, and thus coastal large top predator populations frequently come into conflict with coastal human populations. This paper reviews what is known about the ecological roles of large top predators in coastal systems and presents a synthesis of recent work from three coastal eastern US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites where long-term studies reveal what appear to be common themes relating to the roles of large top predators in coastal systems. We discuss three specific themes: (1) large top predators acting as mobile links between disparate habitats...

‣ Ecological Research in the Virgin Islands: Historical and Administrative Background

O. Marcus Buchanan
Fonte: Caribbean Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands ) Publicador: Caribbean Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Submitted for the College of the Virgin Islands, Caribbean Research Institute, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 24 April 1973.

‣ Virgin Islands Research Needs Conference

Caribbean Research Institute
Fonte: Caribbean Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands ) Publicador: Caribbean Research Institute ( US Virgin Islands )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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‣ Institutions for sustainability

Dovers, Stephen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1402509 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper discusses the nature of sustainability and the institutional arrangements that can help or hinder the pursuit of a future society that is both ecologically sustainable and humanly desirable. All collective efforts are mediated through institutions, and without institutional change we will not move purposefully toward sustainability. Although there has been much policy development under the banner of ‘ecologically sustainable development’ (ESD) in recent years in Australia, institutional change remains at the margins of public policy and administration. The paper considers how this situation can be rectified. The characteristics of ESD problems are discussed, such as spatial and temporal scale, complexity and uncertainty, and the need for community participation. The paper then uses an ‘adaptive’ approach to frame the requirements of institutions for sustainability, suggesting the core principles of persistence, purposefulness, information-richness, inclusiveness and flexibility. The strengths and limits of some current arrangements are assessed, and then particular attention is given to a selection of current institutional arrangements that fulfil at least some of the requirements for an adaptive approach. Finally...

‣ Building resilience into marginal agroecosystems? a global priority for socio-ecological sustainability

Bardsley, D.
Fonte: Social- Ecological Research Programme; Online Publicador: Social- Ecological Research Programme; Online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2008 Português
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A number of important risks are emerging for global agricultural ecosystems and in direct association, global socio-ecological systems. Some of these risks are associated with environmental change including climate change and ongoing resource degradation; others are associated with impacts of underdevelopment including social inequality and rural poverty; yet others are being compounded by the process of globalisation, including enhanced market and labour risks, rising input prices, agricultural homogenisation and the spread of invasive species. Of particular concern in the immediate future is that as nations’ food supplies have become increasingly interdependent, the inequalities of access to food, both between rich and poor nations and within developing societies, have also increased rapidly. The author draws from transdisciplinary agro-ecological research undertaken in Europe, Asia and Australia to argue that it is the margins that contain many of the most vulnerable communities on Earth and it is marginal socio-ecological systems that must become an immediate focus for building resilience. Where a singular modernisation paradigm could be seen to be failing to overcome malnutrition and poverty for many within those margins, an alternative...

‣ Value of long-term ecological studies

Lindenmayer, D.; Likens, G.; Andersen, A.; Bowman, D.; Bull, C.; Burns, E.; Dickman, C.; Hoffmann, A.; Keith, D.; Liddell, M.; Lowe, A.; Metcalfe, D.; Phinn, S.; Russell-Smith, J.; Thurgate, N.; Wardle, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we briefly discuss five key values of such studies. These are: (1) quantifying ecological responses to drivers of ecosystem change; (2) understanding complex ecosystem processes that occur over prolonged periods; (3) providing core ecological data that may be used to develop theoretical ecological models and to parameterize and validate simulation models; (4) acting as platforms for collaborative studies, thus promoting multidisciplinary research; and (5) providing data and understanding at scales relevant to management, and hence critically supporting evidence-based policy, decision making and the management of ecosystems. We suggest that the ecological research community needs to put higher priority on communicating the benefits of long-term ecological studies to resource managers, policy makers and the general public. Long-term research will be especially important for tackling large-scale emerging problems confronting humanity such as resource management for a rapidly increasing human population, mass species extinction, and climate change detection, mitigation and adaptation. While some ecologically relevant...

‣ Ocean acidification through the lens of ecological theory

Gaylord, B.; Kroeker, K.J.; Sunday, J.M.; Anderson, K.M.; Barry, J.P.; Brown, N.E.; Connell, S.D.; Dupont, S.; Fabricius, K.E.; Hall-Spencer, J.M.; Klinger, T.; Milazzo, M.; Munday, P.L.; Russell, B.D.; Sanford, E.; Schreiber, S.J.; Thiyagarajan, V.; Vaug
Fonte: Ecological Society of America Publicador: Ecological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Ocean acidification, chemical changes to the carbonate system of seawater, is emerging as a key environmental challenge accompanying global warming and other human-induced perturbations. Considerable research seeks to define the scope and character of potential outcomes from this phenomenon, but a crucial impediment persists. Ecological theory, despite its power and utility, has been only peripherally applied to the problem. Here we sketch in broad strokes several areas where fundamental principles of ecology have the capacity to generate insight into ocean acidification’s consequences. We focus on conceptual models that, when considered in the context of acidification, yield explicit predictions regarding a spectrum of population- and community-level effects, from narrowing of species ranges and shifts in patterns of demographic connectivity, to modified consumer–resource relationships, to ascendance of weedy taxa and loss of species diversity. Although our coverage represents only a small fraction of the breadth of possible insights achievable from the application of theory, our hope is that this initial foray will spur expanded efforts to blend experiments with theoretical approaches. The result promises to be a deeper and more nuanced understanding of ocean acidification and the ecological changes it portends.; Brian Gaylord...

‣ Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, beginning with the background and rationale. Key challenges are described, and lessons are drawn from cities that have managed to turn these challenges into opportunities. A set of four key principles is introduced. These principles are the foundation upon which the initiative is built. They are: (1) a city-based approach enabling local governments to lead a development process that takes into account their specific circumstances, including their local ecology; (2) an expanded platform for collaborative design and decision making that accomplishes sustained synergy by coordinating and aligning the actions of key stakeholders; (3) a one-system approach that enables cities to realize the benefits of integration by planning...

‣ Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective.

Finlay, Bland J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/2004 Português
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This is an exploration of contemporary protist taxonomy within an ecological perspective. As it currently stands, the 'morphospecies' does not accommodate the information that might support a truly ecological species concept for the protists. But the 'morphospecies' is merely a first step in erecting a taxonomy of the protists, and it is expected to become more meaningful in the light of genetic, physiological and ecological research in the near future. One possible way forward lies in the recognition that sexual and asexual protists may all be subject to forces of cohesion that result in (DNA) sequence-similarity clusters. A starting point would then be the detection of 'ecotypes'--where genotypic and phenotypic clusters correspond; but for that we need better information regarding the extent of clonality in protists, and better characterization of ecological niches and their boundaries. There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of protists to partition their local environment into ecological niches. Around 40 morphospecies can coexist in the superimposed water layers...

‣ Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data

Drake, John M.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2015 Português
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The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples...

‣ Escaping the Bonferroni iron claw in ecological studies

García, Luis V.
Fonte: Nordic Ecological Society Oikos Publicador: Nordic Ecological Society Oikos
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 109307 bytes; application/pdf
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7 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables, 44 references.; I analyze some criticisms made about the application of alpha-inflation correction procedures to repeated-test tables in ecological studies. Common pitfalls during application, the statistical properties of many ecological datasets, and the strong control of the tablewise error rate made by the widely used sequential Bonferroni procedures, seem to be responsible for some ‘illogical’ results when such corrections are applied. Sharpened Bonferroni-type procedures may alleviate the decrease in power associated to standard methods as the number of tests increases. More powerful methods, based on controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), deserve a more frequent use in ecological studies, especially in those involving large repeated-test tables in which several or many individual null hypotheses have been rejected, and the most significant p-value is relatively large. I conclude that some reasonable control of alpha inflation is required of authors as a safeguard against striking, but spurious findings, which may strongly affect the credibility of ecological research; Peer reviewed

‣ The assembly and disassembly of ecological networks in a changing world

Lurgi Rivera, Miguel; Claramunt López, Bernat
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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El ensamblaje, estructuración y funcionamiento de las comunidades naturales, compuestas de muchas especies que forman redes complejas de interacciones ecológicas, ha desconcertado a los ecólogos durante muchas generaciones. Investigación ecológica pionera determinó que el tamaño de la comunidad y su complejidad (medida como la conectividad en la red de interacciones ecológicas) limita la estabilidad de la comunidad, y por lo tanto impiden que las comunidades sean indefinidamente complejas o ricas en especies. Investigación sobre el ensamblaje y la estabilidad en comunidades naturales ha descubierto que la arquitectura de la red trófica es la clave para la estabilidad de la comunidad y su persistencia. Así, los científicos comenzaron a centrarse en la comprensión de las complejas redes de interacciones entre especies, y pronto se dieron cuenta de que la dinámica de las poblaciones de las comunidades naturales se rigen por la estructura de estas redes. Por otra parte, ciertas características observadas en la estructura de las redes ecológicas son responsables del mantenimiento de la estabilidad en diferentes tipos de comunidades ecológicas. El siguiente paso en la investigación de las redes ecológicas es incorporar varios tipos de interacción en un escenario ecológico más amplio. Esto incrementará el conocimiento de la estructura y la estabilidad de la comunidad. El cambio global está afectando los ecosistemas de todo el mundo...

‣ Evaluation Guidelines for Ecological Indicators

Jackson, Laura E.; Kurtz, Janis; Fisher, William S.
Fonte: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development Publicador: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 9499491 bytes; application/pdf
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This document presents fifteen technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of an ecological indicator for a particular monitoring program. The guidelines are organized within four evaluation phases: conceptual relevance, feasibility of implementation, response variability, and interpretation and utility. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has adopted these guidelines as an iterative process for internal and (EPA's) affiliated researchers during the course of indicator development, and as a consistent framework for indicator review. Chapter One describes the guidelines; Chapters Two, Three, and Four illustrate application of the guidelines to three indicators in various stages of development. The example indicators include a direct chemical measure, dissolved oxygen concentration, and two multi-metric biological indices, an index of estuarine benthic condition and one based on stream fish assemblages. The purpose of these illustrations is to demonstrate the evaluation process using real data and working with the limitations of research in progress. Furthermore, these chapters demonstrate that an evaluation may emphasize individual guidelines differently, depending on the type of indicator and the program design. The evaluation process identifies weaknesses that may require further indicator research and modification. This document represents a compilation and expansion of previous efforts...

‣ Technological and Natural Disasters and Ecological Problems: Similarities and Differences in Planning for and Managing Them

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 2791285 bytes; application/pdf
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Our papers has five major parts in dealing with the general question: for planning and managing purposes to what extent can destructive and damaging situations as are occasioned by natural disasters, civil strife and riots, technological disasters, and ecological problems be viewed as essentially similar phenomena? In the first part, we make a conceptual distinction between natural and technological disasters as consensus occasions and other crises that are of a conflictive nature. These two types of crises require somewhat different kinds of planning and managing, so conflict occasions are not further examined. Also, natural and technological disasters are distinguished from ecological problems on the basis of their sudden and crisis generating nature. While we look at ecological problems in the last part of the paper, most of our observations are about disasters. We next indicate how popular thinking, much disaster planning and some hazard research has tended to conceive of sudden type disasters in agent specific terms, that is, as hurricanes, chemical explosions, earthquakes, radiation fallouts, etc. We question the value of such an approach with its emphasis on physical features of an event, and also challenge the frequently advanced distinctions drawn between so-called “Acts of God”/natural disasters...