Página 1 dos resultados de 5502 itens digitais encontrados em 0.035 segundos

‣ Antimicrobial use and incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a teaching hospital: an ecological approach

das Neves, Mariana Tresoldi; Pinto de Lorenzo, Mariana Eliza; Monteiro Barros Almeida, Ricardo Augusto; Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Carlos Magno
Fonte: Soc Brasileira Medicina Tropical Publicador: Soc Brasileira Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 629-632
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.92363%
Introduction: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat in healthcare settings. The use of antimicrobials can influence the incidence of resistant strains by direct and indirect mechanisms. The latter can be addressed by ecological studies. Methods: Our group attempted to analyze the relation between the use of antipseudomonal drugs and the incidence of MDR-PA among 18 units from a 400-bed teaching hospital. The study had a retrospective, ecological design, comprising data from 2004 and 2005. Data on the use of four antimicrobials (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and imipenem) were tested for correlation with the incidence of MDR-PA (defined as isolates resistant to the four antimicrobials of interest) in clinical cultures. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. Results: Significant correlations were determined between use and resistance for all antimicrobials in the univariate analysis: amikacin (standardized correlation coefficient = 0.73, p = 0.001); ciprofloxacin (0.71, p = 0.001); ceftazidime (0.61, p = 0.007) and imipenem (0.87, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only imipenem (0.67, p = 0.01) was independently related to the incidence of multidrug-resistant strains. Conclusions: These findings share similarities with those reported in individual-based observational studies...

‣ Estudos morfologicos e ecologicos de especies de Lonchaeidae (Diptera) em frutos de Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Roseae e Fabaceae; Morphological and ecological studies of Lonchaeidae (Dipter: Tephritoidea) in fuits of Rubiaceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae

Kelsen Ferreira Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.067437%
O Brasil apresenta ótimas condições climáticas para se tornar um dos maiores produtores de frutas tropicais do mundo. Apesar da importância brasileira na produção mundial de frutas, sua participação no mercado internacional ainda é baixa, especialmente, em razão da existência de barreiras comerciais, criação e certificação de zonas livres de pragas. As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae) são pragas de culturas de nêspera, goiaba e café ocasionando grandes prejuízos com o apodrecimento e a queda prematura dos frutos. A ingá é muito utilizada em zonas rurais e urbanas, servindo de reservatório natural dos lonqueídeos, os quais podem atacar frutos comerciais. Assim, os lonqueídeos e seus parasitóides (Hymenoptera) foram coletados para observar o desenvolvimento das larvas e dos adultos e suas relações ecológicas em cada espécie de fruto. Também foram realizados estudos morfológicos das espécies de lonqueídeos envolvidas, com ênfase na caracterização das fases imaturas correlacionadas com as características morfológicas dos adultos, mediante a coleta dos frutos em Campinas e Monte Alegre do Sul (estado de São Paulo), de acordo com a época de frutificação. Segundo os resultados dos estudos ecológicos...

‣ Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil

Nadanovsky,Paulo; Celeste,Roger Keller; Wilson,Margo; Daly,Martin
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82458%
OBJECTIVE: To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An "impunity index", calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However...

‣ Antimicrobial use and incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a teaching hospital: an ecological approach

Neves,Mariana Tresoldi das; Lorenzo,Mariana Eliza Pinto de; Almeida,Ricardo Augusto Monteiro Barros; Fortaleza,Carlos Magno Castelo Branco
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.92363%
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat in healthcare settings. The use of antimicrobials can influence the incidence of resistant strains by direct and indirect mechanisms. The latter can be addressed by ecological studies. METHODS: Our group attempted to analyze the relation between the use of antipseudomonal drugs and the incidence of MDR-PA among 18 units from a 400-bed teaching hospital. The study had a retrospective, ecological design, comprising data from 2004 and 2005. Data on the use of four antimicrobials (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and imipenem) were tested for correlation with the incidence of MDR-PA (defined as isolates resistant to the four antimicrobials of interest) in clinical cultures. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Significant correlations were determined between use and resistance for all antimicrobials in the univariate analysis: amikacin (standardized correlation coefficient = 0.73, p = 0.001); ciprofloxacin (0.71, p = 0.001); ceftazidime (0.61, p = 0.007) and imipenem (0.87, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only imipenem (0.67, p = 0.01) was independently related to the incidence of multidrug-resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS: These findings share similarities with those reported in individual-based observational studies...

‣ Ecological studies on the intermediate host snails and the relevance to schistosomiasis control

Madsen,Henry
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.047544%
A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basis of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.

‣ The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control

Ellis,Brett R.; Wilcox,Bruce A.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.981104%
Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).

‣ Marking the rhizopseudomonas strain 7NSK2 with a Mu d(lac) element for ecological studies.

Höfte, M; Mergeay, M; Verstraete, W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.90129%
The mini Mu element Mu dII1681, which contains the lac operon genes and a kanamycin resistance gene, was inserted in the chromosome of plant growth-beneficial Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 to construct a marked strain (MPB1). In MPB1, beta-galactosidase is permanently expressed under the culture conditions used. The MPB1 strain could be recovered with an efficiency of about 100% from a sandy loam soil on 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside medium containing sebacic acid and kanamycin. The limit of detection is about 10 CFU/g of soil. A detailed comparison was made between the wild-type strain 7NSK2 and the Mu dII1681-containing MPB1 strain. The results showed that no genes essential for growth, siderophore production, survival in sterile and nonsterile conditions, plant growth stimulation, or root colonization had been damaged in the MPB1 strain, which means that MPB1 can reliably be used for ecological studies in soil. MPB1 survived well at 4 or 28 degrees C but died off relatively rapidly in air-dried soil or at subzero temperatures. In these conditions, however, the MPB1 strain did not completely disappear from the soil but survived at a very low level of about 100 CFU/g of soil for more than 3 months. This observation stresses the need for very sensitive counting methods for ecological studies and for the evaluation of released microorganisms. Maize was inoculated with MPB1 via seed inoculation or soil inoculation. Upon seed inoculation...

‣ The individualistic fallacy, ecological studies and instrumental variables: a causal interpretation

Loney, Tom; Nagelkerke, Nico J
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.23903%
The validity of ecological studies in epidemiology for inferring causal relationships has been widely challenged as observed associations could be biased by the Ecological Fallacy. We reconsider the important design components of ecological studies, and discuss the conditions that may lead to spurious associations. Ecological associations are useful and valid when the ecological exposures can be interpreted as Instrumental Variables. A suitable example may be a time series analysis of environmental pollution (e.g. particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 micrometres; PM10) and health outcomes (e.g. hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction) as environmental pollution levels are a cause of individual exposure levels and not just an aggregate measurement. Ecological exposures may also be employed in situations (perhaps rare) where individual exposures are known but their associations with health outcomes are confounded by unknown or unquantifiable factors. Ecological associations have a notorious reputation in epidemiology and individualistic associations are considered superior to ecological associations because of the “ecological fallacy”. We have argued that this is incorrect in situations in which ecological or aggregate exposures can serve as an instrumental variable and associations between individual exposure and outcome are likely to be confounded by unmeasured variables.

‣ Managing the Miombo Woodlands of Southern Africa : Policies, Incentives, and Options for the Rural Poor

Dewees, Peter A.; Campbell, Bruce M.; Katerere, Yemi; Sitoe, Almeida; Cunningham, Anthony B.; Angelsen, Arild; Wunder, Sven
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86008%
This report is based on seven background papers comprising household studies, national level analyses, and technical assessments. Household studies were undertaken in Mozambique and Zambia to develop a clearer picture of the role of Miombo woodlands in household consumption. These studies were an outcome of intensive, seasonal structured household surveys, which have formed the core of the original work supported by this project (technical annexes one, two, and three). Two national level assessments were carried out, the first in Zambia on the contribution of dry forests to economic development. This assessment was derived from a synthesis of empirical household studies, policy research, silvicultural and ecological studies, and other primary sources (technical annex four). The second country case study reviewed community-based woodland management opportunities in Mozambique and synthesized the results of other primary studies (technical annex five). The author also reviewed what is known about miombo silviculture and how management systems could be improved or otherwise put in place to increase productivity (technical annex six). Technical annex seven focuses on policy options for improving management. There are obvious geographic gaps in coverage in this paper. Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were not covered to any significant extent. This is partly because the available body of miombo research largely excludes these miombo-rich countries. It was also not our intention to provide a comprehensive country-by country overview of the status of miombo woodlands and the policies...

‣ Value of long-term ecological studies

Lindenmayer, D.; Likens, G.; Andersen, A.; Bowman, D.; Bull, C.; Burns, E.; Dickman, C.; Hoffmann, A.; Keith, D.; Liddell, M.; Lowe, A.; Metcalfe, D.; Phinn, S.; Russell-Smith, J.; Thurgate, N.; Wardle, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.38374%
Long-term ecological studies are critical for providing key insights in ecology, environmental change, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we briefly discuss five key values of such studies. These are: (1) quantifying ecological responses to drivers of ecosystem change; (2) understanding complex ecosystem processes that occur over prolonged periods; (3) providing core ecological data that may be used to develop theoretical ecological models and to parameterize and validate simulation models; (4) acting as platforms for collaborative studies, thus promoting multidisciplinary research; and (5) providing data and understanding at scales relevant to management, and hence critically supporting evidence-based policy, decision making and the management of ecosystems. We suggest that the ecological research community needs to put higher priority on communicating the benefits of long-term ecological studies to resource managers, policy makers and the general public. Long-term research will be especially important for tackling large-scale emerging problems confronting humanity such as resource management for a rapidly increasing human population, mass species extinction, and climate change detection, mitigation and adaptation. While some ecologically relevant...

‣ Uma proposta de integração entre dados de acesso público, o Plano Nacional de Controle de Resíduos e Contaminantes (PNCRC) e a epidemiologia: estudo ecológico dos fatores de risco para contaminação de bovinos por metais pesados selecionados no estado de São Paulo; Integrated approach between public access data, the epidemiology and the Brazilian National Control Plan for Residues and Contaminants (PNCRC): a framework proposal based on an ecological study of risk factors for heavy metal contamination in slaughtered cattle at São Paulo State, Brazil

Moretti, Leandro d'Arc
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.990728%
Os dados do Plano Nacional de Controle de Resíduos e Contaminantes (PNCRC) foram utilizados para identificação de áreas geográficas de ocorrência preferencial de níveis baixos de metais pesados em bovinos abatidos, no período 2002 a 2010. Critérios de inclusão definiram o período 2006 a 2010 como base para identificação de fatores de risco, ao que a distribuição de contaminações registradas pelo PNCRC é apresentada em mapas temáticos individuais para cada ano. Avaliou- se o efeito de risco das concentrações reduzidas (detecções) na ocorrência de extrapolação aos limites legais máximos (violações) no estado de São Paulo. Foram estabelecidos modelos de tendência para detecções de metais pesados nas unidades federativas e no conjunto nacional. As categorias de resultados de cada bovino amostrado (resultado negativo, detecção, violação) foram utilizadas para dividir o banco de dados em áreas de ocorrência e não ocorrência mutuamente exclusiva de arsênio (detecções) e também de chumbo e cádmio (detecções+ violações) no estado de São Paulo. Gerou-se um estudo ecológico considerando cada município como unidade de análise, utilizando-se as categorias de resultados do PNCRC como variável \"doença\" e como fator de exposição as categorias (mediana ou tercis) dos fatores produtivos do Levantamento das Unidades de Produção Agropecuária...

‣ Avaliação da sustentabilidade ecológica de matas ciliares em processo de restauração; Ecological sustainability assessment of riparian restoration in process

Letícia Couto Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84428%
A busca pela restauração de ambientes degradados tem sido um desafio em todas as regiões do planeta e há consenso de que estudos ecológicos podem contribuir para o aprimoramento da prática da restauração. No entanto, pouco se conhece sobre a trajetória dos ecossistemas em processo de restauração, especialmente quanto ao restabelecimento da diversidade de espécies e de suas funções nos processos ecológicos. O objetivo da pesquisa proposta foi verificar se há ou não a previsibilidade da recuperação de atributos ao longo do tempo, no que tange à diversidade de espécies, estrutura da vegetação, grupos funcionais, diversidade e redundância funcional e oferta de recursos para a fauna, em comunidades vegetais de matas ciliares em restauração em comparação com um ecossistema de referência. O objeto de estudo foram matas ciliares em região de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na região central do Estado de São Paulo, cujos plantios utilizaram elevada diversidade inicial. Foram amostrados mensalmente todos os indivíduos em reprodução de todas as formas de crescimento e a sua fenologia durante dois anos (353 espécies). Nestes indivíduos foram levantadas as características estruturais e reprodutivas, como: formas de crescimento...

‣ Designing for ecology : the ecological park

Power, Andres M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 144 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.19974%
This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, while reference to the literature on communicative elements of the landscape is used to analyze the pedagogic, or socio-cultural merit of these parks. Two case studies of recently built ecological parks - Xochimilco in Mexico City and Crissy Field in San Francisco, are analyzed and compared to two older picturesque parks - Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and the Back Bay Fens in Boston.The analysis shows that the ecological park is indeed a new phenomenon and model of park design.This new model redefines the relationship between park and city by connecting the cultural and natural ecological aspects of the park's site with a larger context.The ecological park model moves beyond the experientially isolated urban parks of years past, providing society instead with a sustainable, ecologically viable, self-replicating vehicle to improve the links between the built environment and the landscape.; by Andres M. Power.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-144).

‣ Building green infrastructure through urban land conservation : the social and ecological value of dispersed open space in the Boston urban wilds

Kinzer, Kirsten (Kirsten Lee)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.000337%
Through an analysis of the thirty-year history of the Boston Urban Wilds, this thesis investigates the ability of distributed urban open spaces to provide social and ecological value to the surrounding community. The capacity of the Urban Wilds to act as system to provide simultaneously ecosystem services, public space and wildlife habitat is examined. The evolving understanding of green infrastructure is used as a lens through which to understand the elements of the Urban Wilds model applicable to other communities. Through this lens, the ability of the Urban Wilds to provide social and ecological value greater than the sum of its individual parts is considered. Reflecting on the tools that have been used to enact Urban Wilds conservation, the tools best suited to preserving the Urban Wilds' social and ecological value are assessed. Drawing from the evolution of the Boston Urban Wilds over the past three decades, this thesis concludes with designation, preservation and stewardship recommendations for other cities and towns considering a similar system of distributed open spaces.; by Kirsten Kinzer.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 118-123).

‣ Escaping the Bonferroni iron claw in ecological studies

García, Luis V.
Fonte: Nordic Ecological Society Oikos Publicador: Nordic Ecological Society Oikos
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 109307 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.115894%
7 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables, 44 references.; I analyze some criticisms made about the application of alpha-inflation correction procedures to repeated-test tables in ecological studies. Common pitfalls during application, the statistical properties of many ecological datasets, and the strong control of the tablewise error rate made by the widely used sequential Bonferroni procedures, seem to be responsible for some ‘illogical’ results when such corrections are applied. Sharpened Bonferroni-type procedures may alleviate the decrease in power associated to standard methods as the number of tests increases. More powerful methods, based on controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), deserve a more frequent use in ecological studies, especially in those involving large repeated-test tables in which several or many individual null hypotheses have been rejected, and the most significant p-value is relatively large. I conclude that some reasonable control of alpha inflation is required of authors as a safeguard against striking, but spurious findings, which may strongly affect the credibility of ecological research; Peer reviewed

‣ Homicídio e impunidade: análise ecológica em nível de estado no Brasil; Homicidio e impunidad: análisis ecológico a nivel de estado en Brasil; Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil

Nadanovsky, Paulo; Celeste, Roger Keller; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82458%
OBJETIVO: Avaliar um novo índice de impunidade e variáveis que predizem variação em taxas de homicídio em outros níveis geográficos como preditivos das taxas de homicídio no nível de estados no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico transversal. Foram analisados dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade referentes aos 27 estados brasileiros no período de 1996 a 2005. Foram consideradas variáveis de desfecho taxas de vitimização por homicídio em 2005 para a população inteira e para homens de 20-29 anos. Foram analisados como preditores medidas de desenvolvimento econômico e social, desigualdade econômica, estrutura demográfica e expectativa de vida. Foi construído um índice de impunidade calculado pelo número total de homicídios entre 1996-2005 dividido pelo número de pessoas na prisão em 2007. Os dados foram analisados empregando-se regressão linear simples e regressão binomial negativa. RESULTADOS: Em 2005, taxas brutas de homicídio em nível de estado variaram de 11 a 51 por 100.000 e aquelas para homens jovens de 39 a 241. O índice de impunidade variou entre 0,4 e 3,5, sendo o preditor mais importante dessa variabilidade. Na regressão binomial negativa, estimou-se aumento de 50% na taxa de homicídio em homens jovens para cada aumento de um ponto nessa razão. CONCLUSÕES: Preditores clássicos não estavam associados com a variação nas taxas de homicídio nessa análise em nível estadual no Brasil. Entretanto...

‣ Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality: review of ecological studies, 1998-2008; Desigualdades socioeconômicas na incidência e mortalidade por câncer: revisão de estudos ecológicos, 1998-2008

Ribeiro, André de Almeida; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.16971%
INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic inequalities are manifested in the incidence and mortality from malignant neoplasms. Ecological studies represent a key approach in epidemiology and can contribute for research on the social determinants of health events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between socioeconomic status and the incidence and mortality from cancer and its types, through review of ecological studies. To define the real importance played by ecological studies in the investigation of this relationship. METHOD: Main regional and international databases were searched for articles in Portuguese, Spanish and English published between 1998 and 2008. RESULTS: 32 eligible studies were included. There was positive and consistent association of the socio-economic level of the area of residence with: incidence of prostate cancer and with mortality by colon cancers in men; incidence and mortality for breast cancer and incidence of colon cancer in women. Negative and consistent association was found for: incidence and mortality of esophagus and stomach cancers; incidence of lung and colon cancers and mortality of larynx and oral cavity cancers in men; for incidence and mortality of esophagus, stomach and cervix cancers and incidence of colon and lung cancers in women. CONCLUSION: Despite the presence of residual effects of area and bias related to the aggregated measurement of socioeconomic level...

‣ Avaliando o papel da aprendizagem socioecológica em governança participativa: construindo resiliência em seis comitês de bacias hidrográficas brasileiras; Assessing the Role of Socio-Ecological Learning in Participatory Governance: Building Resilience in Six Brazilian River Basin Committees

Browning-Aiken, Anne; Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy.; da Silva, Márcio Claudio Cardoso; Fernandes Neto, José Antonio Silvestre; da Silva, Daniel
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.181206%
O Brasil tem incorporado o processo de aprendizagem socioecológica na gestão participativa dos conselhos de bacias hidrográficas por meio de suas “leis-irmãs” sobre a água e o meio ambiente. GTHIDRO, ou Grupo Transdisciplinar de Pesquisas em Governança da Água e do Território/Tecnologias Sociais para a Gestão da Água (TSGA), um grupo transdisciplinar de pesquisadores da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, abordou essas leis e desenvolveu novas interpretações de aprendizagem socioecológica. Eles incorporaram um componente ético e um programa dinâmico e complexo dos “ciclos de aprendizagem” participativos que trouxeram as comissões e as comunidades a um entendimento comum sobre os processos socioecológicos, as leis e o potencial para a ação coletiva. Usando a teoria da resiliência como uma estrutura para a compreensão de como manter e melhorar a capacidade de adaptação (Folke et al., 2002), este artigo analisa os processos de aprendizagem socioecológica, incluindo grupos focais, a dinâmica física que mistura o conceitual com o físico, a visão de futuro, o mapeamento socioecológico, o planejamento de projetos e celebrações comunitárias por meio de entrevistas, notas de reuniões e documentos escritos dos seis estudos de caso. O potencial de aprendizagem socioecológica como ferramenta para a construção da capacidade dos comitês de bacias (Turvo...

‣ Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil

Nadanovsky,Paulo; Celeste,Roger Keller; Wilson,Margo; Daly,Martin
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82458%
OBJECTIVE: To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An "impunity index", calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However...

‣ The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control

Ellis,Brett R.; Wilcox,Bruce A.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.981104%
Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations), and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases).