Página 11 dos resultados de 476117 itens digitais encontrados em 0.059 segundos

‣ The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

‣ The Impact of Energy Price Changes in Moldova

Baclajanschi, Iaroslav; Bouton, Lawrence; Mori, Hideki; Ostojic, Dejan; Pushak, Taras; Tiongson, Erwin R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In January 2006 the price of natural gas supplied to Moldova increased from $80 to $110 per thousand cubic meters (mcm). Prices may increase further in the near future, putting additional pressure on the economy and leading to adverse effects on the poorest households. This study examines the potential impact of higher energy prices on the economy of Moldova by simulating the likely macroeconomic consequences of recent and future price increases. Moreover, it estimates the direct impact on individual households using data drawn from the 2004 Household Budget Survey. It assesses the distributional implications of the price shock, noting how the social impact may vary depending on the intensity of energy use, geographic location, and the relative share of energy in household expenditure. The results suggest that energy price changes could dampen economic growth while putting additional strains on the current account deficit. The impact on the poorest households could be significant and protecting them may require resources in the amount of 0.7 to 1.7 percent of GDP. This study identifies possible policy responses to dampen the shock of the energy price increase and to promote the longer-term objective of reducing energy vulnerability.

‣ OECS Energy Issues and Options

Hertzmark, Donald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This study evaluates the current energy situation in the member states of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and identifies selected investment options and policy issues for new energy projects. The emphasis of the study is on large energy systems and ways to link one of more of the OECS countries. Complementary smaller-scale systems, in the form of wind, are also considered. This study is not an exhaustive survey either of each OECS member country or of all possible energy technologies for the OECS countries. Rather, it is intended to address the key energy-economy interaction in the electricity sector and to assess potential new supply investments. A key issue is how to bring some of the benefits of larger scale, more efficient power generation technology to these small island systems. The report begins with a summary of recommendations and findings for OECS policies and actions. Part 1 contains an assessment of the energy sector with two main components, a review of recent studies on energy in the OECS...

‣ Scaling Up Demand-Side Energy Efficiency Improvements through Programmatic CDM

Figueres, Christiana; Philips, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Improving energy efficiency (EE) is one of the most promising approaches for achieving cost-effective global greenhouse gases (GHG) reductions. However, it is severely underrepresented in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) portfolio. Just 10 percent of the emission reduction credits traded in the carbon market is from EE projects. In particular, small, dispersed, end-use EE measures-which entail significant GHG mitigation potential, along with other clear, local, and direct sustainable development benefits-have been largely bypassed by the carbon market. The modalities of traditional CDM have been set for individual, stand-alone, emission reduction projects that are implemented at a single point in time. While CDM rules allow "bundling" of several of these projects together for registration purposes, the specific sites where they will occur must be known ex-ante and they must all occur at the same point in time. These conditions generally cannot be met by most dispersed demand-side EE programs, whose emission reductions occur over a period of time and in numerous locations (households/industries/cities). In addition...

‣ Assessing Energy Price Induced Improvements in Efficiency of Capital in OECD Manufacturing Industries

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Neuhoff, Karsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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To assess how capital stocks adapt to energy price changes, it is necessary to account for the impacts on different vintages of capital and to account separately for price-induced and autonomous improvements in the energy efficiency of capital stock. The results of econometric analysis for five manufacturing industries in 19 OECD countries between 1990 and 2005 indicate that higher energy prices resulted in smaller energy use due to both improved energy efficiency of capital stock and reduced demand for the energy input. The investment response to energy prices varied considerably across manufacturing industries, being more significant in energy-intensive sectors. The results of policy simulations indicate that a carbon tax can deliver significant reductions in energy consumption in the medium run with modest declines in energy-using capital stock.

‣ Driving Energy Efficiency Markets through Municipal Procurement

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Many of the most successful municipal energy efficient procurement programs around the world London, Mexico City, New York City, and Vienna have been undertaken without any action at the national level. Forward-looking cities can be champions for energy efficiency initiatives today, showing other cities and their national governments how such measures can save money and drive markets. As other cities follow their example, opportunities grow for joint purchasing, strengthening negotiating power to demand lower cost and better quality products. Two strategies have been particularly effective in this area energy efficient purchasing initiatives and energy savings performance contracts. This guidance note outlines the opportunities and barriers to adopting these procurement strategies, provides global lessons and examples, and offers step-by-step guidance on how cities can get started with energy efficient purchasing policies.

‣ Implementing Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management : South Africa’s Standard Offer Model

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
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This report evaluates opportunities for South Africa to adopt a low carbon development pathway through a standard offer model. The standard offer aims to: provide customers and energy service companies a predetermined amount for delivered energy or demand savings, allow them to efficiently and rapidly structure and propose energy efficiency and demand side management projects, streamline the project approval process and scale-up project development and implementation, simplify the contracts between the utility and the energy service companies or customers, reduce the burden on the utility staff for project evaluation and processing, provide transparency to project proponents on the payments for delivered savings, facilitate the leveraging of commercial financing for energy efficiency projects, and reduce the utility's risk by making the payments. The report concludes that while South Africa has taken important steps towards implementing key elements of a national mitigation strategy; some practical problems...

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of China

Wang, Xiaodong; Barroso, Luiz; Elizondo, Gabriela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in China. Although feed-in tariffs are now the cornerstone of China's renewable energy policy, auctions have played and continue to play a role in identifying market prices for renewable energy in the country. Experience with the auctioning of wind and solar concessions enabled the Chinese authorities to modify auctions over time to yield accurate information about the costs of generation from renewable sources, allowing them to set feed-in tariffs at efficient levels. This case study is interesting, because China has set aggressive renewable energy targets and introduced policy incentives for rapid market development. Initial renewable energy prices showed significant variation, and the government s targets were not achieved prior to 2005. The most important milestone in the development of renewable energy in China was the 2005 Renewable Energy Law. China has applied successive adjustments to concessions auctions to improve their usefulness in setting appropriate feed-in tariffs. The key lesson from China's experience with auctioning of concessions is that winning bid prices that are lower than actual costs wind up deterring the development of renewable energy.

‣ Exploiting Market-Based Mechanisms to Meet Utilities' Energy Efficiency Obligations

Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Electric utilities are key actors in the quest to induce large-scale energy savings among end users. But often it is not enough simply to mandate utilities to achieve a specific target. Three new market-based mechanisms are available for utilities to use in promoting energy efficiency. Historically, mechanisms of demand-side management may be classified as regulatory, policy-based, market-based, and load-targeting. This knowledge note is important, because electric utilities are well-positioned to help raise energy efficiency. The three new market-based mechanisms to help achieve this goal include Establish a white certificates scheme establishing a white certificates scheme, establishing energy efficiency auctions, and establishing energy efficiency feed-in tariffs. These new market-based models are available for utilities to use in promoting energy efficiency, in concert with other means of procurement. Whatever the design, program effectiveness will depend on technically competent and trusted verification of energy savings and their costs...

‣ Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The electricity shortages have not been addressed because investments have not been made in new electricity supply capacity and maintenance of existing assets has not improved. The financial incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their consumption is inadequate as electricity prices are among the lowest in the world. Without prompt action to remedy the causes of Tajikistan's electricity crisis and with growing demand, the shortages could increase to about 4,500 GWh by 2016 (over a third of winter electricity demand) or worse. The World Bank undertook this study to assist the Government of Tajikistan (GoT) in finding ways to overcome the current electricity shortages and establish a sound basis for meeting the growing electricity demand in Tajikistan. The study focuses on the investments and policy reforms needed between now and 2020 to strengthen the financial...

‣ Renewable Energy Desalination : An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is one of the most water-stressed parts of the world. In just over 25 years, between 1975 and 2001. Looking to the future, MENA's freshwater outlook is expected to worsen because of continued population growth and projected climate change impacts. The region's population is on the way to doubling to 700 million by 2050. Projections of climate change and variability impacts on the region's water availability are highly uncertain, but they are expected to be largely negative. To offer just one more example, rainfall and freshwater availability could decrease by up to 40 percent for some MENA countries by the end of this century. The urgent challenge is how to adapt to the future as illustrated by these numbers and how to turn the region's economy onto a sustainable path. This volume suggests new ways of thinking about the complex changes and planning needed to achieve this. New thinking will mean making better use of desert land, sun, and salt water the abundant riches of the region which can be harnessed to underpin sustainable growth. More mundane...

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in Sub-Saharan Africa

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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In declaring 2012 the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All,' the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services, to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990-2010 (SE4ALL 2012). The SE4ALL objectives are global, with individual countries setting their own national targets in a way that is consistent with the overall spirit of the initiative. Because countries differ greatly in their ability to pursue the three objectives, some will make more rapid progress in one area while others will excel elsewhere, depending on their respective starting points and comparative advantages as well as on the resources and support that they are able to marshal. To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International energy agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF)...

‣ Mexico : Technical Assistance for Long-term Program of Renewable Energy Development

Antonius, Andrés; Awerburch, Shimon; Berger, Martin; Hertzmark, Donald; Huacuz V., Jorge M.; Merino, Gustavo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The four studies in this technical paper series deal with complementary themes and propose solutions to the same problems that all of them perceive in the Mexican electricity sector - yet each paper looks at the problem from a different angle, and proposes different actions that must be taken in order to bring about a significant increase in Mexico's adoption of on-grid renewable energy. These papers take us from the general overview of the policy and institutional context, down to the specific case of a hypothetical wind farm. They review the current situation, identify concrete policy and institutional changes that are badly needed to stimulate the sector, look at how new paradigms for valuation can help us to better account for the value of renewable energy capacity, and finally perform a thorough economic impact analysis of the hypothetical addition of a large wind farm to Mexico's grid.

‣ Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy : Path to Low Carbon Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy: Path to Low Carbon Development is the product of a collaborative effort between the World Bank and the Government of India, under the overall leadership of the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Power, and with the financial assistance of the Department for International Development (DFID) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study was requested by the Government of India to develop the analytical capacity for identifying low carbon growth opportunities up to the end of the 15th Five Year Plan (March 2032) in major sectors of the economy; and to facilitate informed decision making by improving the knowledge base and raising national and international awareness of India efforts to address global climate change. The study uses an innovative engineering based, bottom up model to examine CO2 emissions from energy use during 2007 to 2031. It focuses on sectors and areas that are expected to contribute significantly to India's future growth in CO2 emissions. The report received significant support from ministries and agencies of the Government of India...

‣ Innovative Financial Mechanism to Implement Energy Efficiency Projects in Mexico

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This report provides a summary of Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) supported activities in Mexico focused on the creation of a pooled financing program for multiple energy efficiency projects through a single debt instrument. The report is organized as eight chapters. Chapter one provides additional details regarding the ownership, structure and operation of an special purpose entity (SPE); it discusses the flexibility of this structure and how it can serve a pool of private or public sector projects. Chapter two provides an overview of the Mexican energy sector with a focus on the electricity supply, demand and pricing. Chapter three reviews the market potential for energy efficiency investments and provides comparative data on Mexico's energy prices and costs of capital in other countries where the energy efficiency and energy services company (ESCO) market is active. Chapter four reviews the current financial market conditions in Mexico, and the restrictive nature of commercial lending. Chapter five identifies the market...

‣ Energy Strategy for Rural India : Evidence from Six States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The fieldwork for this report consisted of a household energy survey of households living in 180 villages in six states (Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal). The report was initiated in response to concerns that energy strategies for rural India were not progressing toward modern energy use.It examines energy use, including renewable energy, to determine if households in rural areas have access to modern forms of energy use. In addition, analysis and recommendations are targeted toward poor households, who spend a significant proportion of their time and income on energy. Despite urbanization, 74 percent of India (some 120 million households) reside in rural areas, villagers still depend on traditional fuels to meet their energy needs. Fuelwood, crop residues, dung and other traditional fuels, as presently used, have inherent disadvantages: collection is arduous and time-consuming; combustion is difficult to control; and cooking captures a fraction of these fuels' available energy. Today...

‣ Household Energy Supply and Use in Yemen : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Yemen's Second Five Year Plan for Social and Economic Development (2001-2005) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, 2003-05) provide a framework to reduce poverty through national actions and development assistance. The PRSP recommends a gradual lifting of subsidies for petroleum products, phased to ensure that energy price reform does not aggravate poverty in a country with an already high percentage of poor people. The PRSP also promotes policies that will lead to better access to energy. This report deals with the relationship between energy policy and household welfare. By establishing the facts about household energy supply and use, the impact of new energy policies on the poor can be anticipated with greater confidence. A household energy strategy forms an essential element of overall energy sector planning. At the request of the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC), the joint World Bank/United Nations Development Program Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) carried out a study to examine the energy policies which would...

‣ One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

‣ Uzbekistan : Energy/Power Sector Issues Note

Kochnakyan, Artur; Khosla, Sunil Kumar; Buranov, Iskander; Hofer, Kathrin; Hankinson, Denzel; Finn, Joshua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
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This note focuses on the energy and power sector in Uzbekistan with the purpose of identifying some of the key issues faced by the sector and outlining potential solutions. In particular, the note aims to inform the Government thinking by providing input on priorities in the sector. The note also outlines potential solutions the Government may want to consider to address the identified challenges in the short and longer time and highlights the areas where the Government can start acting immediately. The analysis is based on the information and data provided by the Government during preparation of the Bank's investment lending operations, other analytical work as well as data/information collected from public sources. The note is structured as follows: section one discusses the importance of the energy sector to the economy and provides an overview of the sector. Section two provides a more detailed overview of the power sector. Section three identifies the principal challenges in the power sector. Section four proposes potential solutions to address these challenges. Finally...

‣ Energy efficiency potential in Jamaica: challenges, opportunities and strategies for implementation

Binger, Al
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
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Incluye Bibliografía; The Barbados Programme of Action (BPoA) for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) identifies energy management as a critical issue in achieving sustainability. Like many of the small islands states, Jamaica is economically vulnerable to external factors such as fluctuations in energy prices, a consequence of an over dependence on imported oil. Securing supplies of affordable and reliable energy is an essential element of economic and social development. In Jamaica however, energy systems and energy use are inefficient and expensive and add to national economic vulnerability.Jamaica is endowed with significant renewable energy resources that provide a base for reducing their dependence on high-cost, environmentally damaging fossil fuels. The benefits of using renewable energy are at least fivefold: a clean, green, dynamic image and marketing tool for the country; the preservation of natural and tourism resources; economic benefits via the reduction of imports (of which oil is a major component), thus saving scarce foreign exchange; creating employment and generating new income; and providing cheaper and more reliable energy for businesses and individuals.The problems associated with such heavy reliance on fossil fuels have promulgated an energy policy that promote energy conservation and efficiency in the energy conversion (electricity generation and petroleum refining) and end use (industrial...