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‣ Fluxos de energia de um sistema de produção de soja no Tocantins; Energy flow of a system of soybean production in Tocantins state Brazil

Zambrzycki, Geraldo Cesar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/11/2012 Português
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A soja é o principal produto do agronegócio do país tanto em volume como em geração de renda, sendo que vários fatores têm contribuído para seu bom desempenho, entre os quais podemos citar a adaptabilidade de cultivares às diferentes regiões produtoras. Existe uma questão mundial relacionada aos recursos naturais não renováveis, onde se buscam alternativas para prolongar o acesso a tais recursos. Grande parte dos insumos envolvidos na cultura da soja é proveniente de energia fóssil, configurando dependência e vulnerabilidade do seu sistema produtivo. Num sistema de produção agrícola, a demanda de energia é um dos aspectos mais preocupantes. Nesse sentido, a análise dos fluxos de energia, desenvolvida nos anos 1970 e posteriormente difundida em análises do ciclo de vida (ACV), tem sido uma ferramenta utilizada em estudos de viabilidade energética e a sustentabilidade de sistemas agrícolas, a partir da mensuração das entradas e saídas de energia direta e energia embutida nos insumos e produtos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi mensurar o fluxo de energia do cultivo de soja em sistema reduzido de preparo do solo de uma propriedade agrícola, no município de Lagoa da Confusão, TO. Consideraram-se dois tipos de energia que entram no sistema: a direta e indireta. Como energia direta foi considerada: a biológica...

‣ Greening China’s Rural Energy : New Insights on the Potential of Smallholder Biogas

Christiaensen, Luc; Heltberg, Rasmus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Clean, safe energy for rural areas is an important component of green growth and sustainable development. Biogas could be an important contributor, if its record in reality lives up to its expected potential. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of biogas use by smallholder farmers in rural China, using data collected from 2,700 households in five provinces. The authors find that user satisfaction is high, and environmental and economic benefits appear tangible. There are strong indications of reduced use of wood and crop residues for fuel. Less time is spent on collecting fuel wood and cooking, which is especially beneficial to women. Adopters also save on fertilizers, because of the use of biogas residues. Moreover, problems with suspension of biogas use, whether due to technical or human factors, remained limited. However, few tangible benefits to respiratory health were detected. Overall, these findings are grounds for optimism about the potential for of smallholder biogas to contribute to more sustainable development...

‣ Promoting Energy Access Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism : Standardized Baselines and Suppressed Demand

Gadde, Harikumar; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Affouda, Leon Biaou; Godin, Julie; Oppermann, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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New concepts under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), namely standardized baselines and suppressed demand, should facilitate the implementation of CDM energy access projects, particularly in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), by reducing transaction costs and reflecting the real emission reductions achieved. Governments and authorities in LDCs can play a prominent role in making these new CDM opportunities available. The improvement of the regulatory framework can facilitate the development of innovative carbon-based financing schemes required for successful scaling-up of CDM energy access projects in LDCs. The main purpose of this paper is to outline how the new CDM concepts of standardized baselines and suppressed demand may be used to promote energy access projects under the CDM, in the context of new and expanded role of host country Designated National Authorities (DNAs). In the process, the paper also identifies challenges in the use of these concepts and opportunities for further simplification. By way of illustration...

‣ Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many countries are scaling up their investments in renewable energy. In 2010, electricity production from renewable sources - wind, solar, biomass, biofuels, geothermal, hydropower, and ocean energy accounted for 18 percent of global electricity supply. By early 2011, renewables made up a quarter of all installed power capacity. One of the main obstacles to the scale-up of renewable energy is connecting generating sites to the grid in an efficient manner. Renewable energy places greater demands on the transmission network than do conventional energy sources. First, the richest sites for solar and wind energy is often spread across multiple locations far from consumption centers or existing transmission networks. Second, generation is subject to variability in climate conditions (such as wind speed and solar radiation). This note focuses on the transmission implications of the dispersion of renewable energy sources, rather than on the implications of variability. In some sub regions of the United States and countries in Europe that are pursuing renewable energy options, the requirements for investment in transmission already approved by regulators (or forecasted by transmission companies) are double or quadruple recent investment trends. In Brazil the investment needs for renewable energy in some regions surpass the asset value of the distribution utilities closest to the renewable sites.

‣ Designing Credit Lines for Energy Efficiency

Sarkar, Ashok; Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many economically attractive opportunities to invest in energy efficiency are forgone because of various market barriers, notably the limited availability of commercial financing for energy efficiency projects. Once a government decides, as a matter of policy, to scale up energy efficiency, it typically must engage commercial banks to provide financing to the private end users who will carry out the energy efficiency projects needed to make the national policy a reality. Credit lines help banks establish an energy efficiency business line by mitigating the perceived high financial risk of energy efficiency projects and of the energy service companies that carry them out, and sometimes by building into the credit line a technical assistance component to improve understanding of the fundamentals of energy efficiency projects. Energy efficiency credit lines make funds available to participating financial institutions (including local banks). The success of a credit line depends to a great extent on the selection of competent and committed financial institutions. A technical assistance component built into the credit line helps lower the technical and financial risk of projects.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in the Middle East and North Africa

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The SE4ALL objectives are global, with individual countries setting their own national targets in a way that is consistent with the overall spirit of the initiative. Because countries differ greatly in their ability to pursue the three objectives, some will make more rapid progress in one area while others will excel elsewhere, depending on their respective starting points and comparative advantages as well as on the resources and support that they are able to marshal. To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consortium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous, yet practical, given available databases, technical measures. This note is based on that framework (World Bank 2014). SE4ALL will publish an updated version of the GTF in 2015.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Providing Sustainable Energy for All in East Asia and the Pacific

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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To sustain momentum for the achievement of the sustainable energy for all (SE4ALL) objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consortium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL global tracking framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous yet practical, given available databases - technical measures. This note is based on that framework. This note uses GTF data to provide a regional and country perspective on the three SE4ALL goals in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The first section considers energy access. The report looks at the renewable energy and energy efficiency goals.

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

‣ Institutional Review of Energy Efficiency in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
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Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a robust institutional set-up and developing programs to support EE implementation. Institutionally, the General Directorate of Electric Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) had been mandated with EE policy making, implementation and promotion since 1981, and an Energy Efficiency Coordination Board (EECB) was established under the 2007 EE Law to coordinate various EE policies, programs and other efforts. In November 2011, EIE was converted into the General Directorate for Renewable Energy (GDRE) and absorbed within the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). The World Bank conducted an EE institutional review in consultation with the Turkish Government with the objective to enhance their ability to more effectively manage EE policies and programs and thus contribute to helping meet its stated national EE targets. The review consisted of a detailed assessment of the current institutional set-up...

‣ Guidelines for Economic Analysis of Power Sector Projects; Renewable Energy Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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These guidelines are directed to the economic analysis of power sector policy analysis and the appraisal of power sector investment projects. The general guidance is complemented by an Annex Volume that contains relevant technical notes, a glossary, and an extended Bibliography. In this first edition, the focus of the technical notes is on grid-connected renewable energy projects. In FY16 the scope of the technical notes will be extended to cover transmission & distribution, rural electrification, off-grid, energy efficiency, and thermal projects.

‣ Affordable, reliable, secure, sustaninable: an integrated energy security framework for Australia

Trudgen, Kelly
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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In 2004, the Australian Government released its energy white paper: Securing Australia's Energy Future. This paper was designed to lay out a policy framework that ensured Australia's ability to retain a cost-effective, reliable and sustainable energy supply in the face of rising demand for energy. Australia's economy relies on low-cost energy resources to remain healthy. Australia has been endowed with unusually high levels of easily accessible coal and gas, giving it a competitive advantage when competing to attract international investment and sell its exports on the world stage. Because of this endowment, Australia's economy is built on the development of energy­ intensive industries and the export of energy and energy-intensive production. To secure these industries, the Australian Government laid out a policy framework designed to develop the infrastructure necessary to ensure the security of supply could be maintained into the future at an affordable cost. However, in 2006 the Stern Review appeared, outlining the economic costs of climate change and forewarning the impending transition to a carbon constrained world. The Australian Government, therefore, now has to secure its economy against both a rising demand for energy and the possibility of future ramifications for emissions-intensive production. Australia's low-cost energy is predominantly supplied by coal...

‣ Wind Energy in Colombia : A Framework for Market Entry

Vergara, Walter; Deeb, Alejandro; Toba, Natsuko; Cramton, Peter; Leino, Irene
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The purpose of this report is to provide decision makers in Colombia (and by extension other countries or regions), who are considering the deployment or consolidation of wind power, with a set of options to promote its use. The options presented are the result of an analysis of the Colombian market; this analysis included simulations and modeling of the country's power sector, and extensive consultations with operators, managers, and agents. More information on the analysis and simulations is presented in the appendixes. Wind was chosen to exemplify the range of renewable energy alternatives available to complement traditional power sector technologies on the basis of its technical maturity, its relatively low cost compared to other options, the country's experience, and its wind power potential. This report constitutes the second phase of a barrier analysis to wind energy in Colombia.

‣ Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework : Progress Report on the World Bank Group Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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During the 2007 spring meetings, the development committee endorsed the World Bank Group's action plan on the Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF). This progress report is a response to the committee's request for an update on the implementation of the action plan for the annual meetings in October 2007. It summarizes accomplishments in the three areas of the action plan: 1) energy for growth, with a particular emphasis on access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa; 2) transition to a low-carbon development trajectory; and 3) adaptation to the impacts of climate change. This report also outlines an approach to scaling up actions on climate change and provides a review of options to further reduce the financial barriers to support low-carbon and adaptive growth in developing countries. This Progress Report provides an update on the implementation of the CEIF action plan.

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features case studies of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in Brazil, China, and India. Auctions in various forms are being used to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources. Properly structured auctions can avoid the disadvantages of feed-in tariffs and renewable purchase obligations. Moreover, they offer the best of both of these early mechanisms, providing stable revenue guarantees for investors while also avoiding the risk of overbuilding. They do this by determining both price and quantity in advance. Promoting renewable energy through auctions is important, because experience with the use of auctions can guide future efforts. Among the examples of the benefits to be obtained from generating electricity from renewable sources are (i) increasing countries' energy security by reducing their dependency on fossil fuel imports...

‣ Brazil - Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Systems in the Northeast : A Preinvestment Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This ESMAP study was a response to a request by the World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Regional Office for support in designing an innovative project to deliver energy services to dispersed rural areas of Brazil. The project aims to address the likely adverse consequences of privatizing the state power utilities on incentives for investments to supply essential electricity services to the dispersed, low-income population in rural areas of Brazil. To improve electricity access to these areas in the long term, needed is a commercially sustainable dissemination activity that should be carried out by and with equity from the private sector, through a system of incentives that assures fair returns to private participants while minimizing government subsidies. The coverage should include productive applications, community-oriented or public service applications, and residential applications. An optimal mix of subsidized and unsubsidized market segments and a critical total mass of potential customers are the key ingredients that could attract private investors in the dispersed area market. This type of effort is consistent with the Bank's current Country Assistance Strategy for Brazil...

‣ Factors Influencing Energy Intensity in Four Chinese Industries

Fisher-Vanden, Karen; Hu, Yong; Jefferson, Gary; Rock, Michael; Toman, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Energy intensity has declined significantly in four Chinese industries -- pulp and paper; cement; iron and steel; and aluminum. While previous studies have identified technological change within an industry to be an important influence on energy intensity, few have examined how industry-specific policies and market factors also affect industry-level intensity. This paper employs unique firm-level data from China's most energy-intensive large and medium-size industrial enterprises in each of these four industries over a six-year period from 1999 to 2004. It empirically examines how China's energy-saving programs, liberalization of domestic markets, openness to the world economy, and other policies, contribute to the decline in energy intensity in these industries. The results suggest that rising energy costs are a significant contributor to the decline in energy intensity in all four industries. China's industrial policies targeting scale economies -- for example, "grasping the large, letting go off the small" -- also seem to have contributed to reductions in energy intensity in these four industries. However...

‣ Opportunities for Mitigating the Environmental Impact of Energy Use in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The main motivation for Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) governments to improve energy efficiency is to address pressing domestic concerns, such as urban air pollution, energy security, economic competitiveness, the fiscal cost of energy subsidies and the balance of payments. However, improved energy efficiency is also seen as the most promising route for reducing the region's green house gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, as part of the study on energy efficiency in MENA, this report aims to describe and quantify the links between energy efficiency and GHG emissions as well as urban air pollution in MENA. More specifically, the objectives of the report is: (i) to create scenarios of emissions of GHG and selected urban air pollutants (specifically, particulate matter (PM)) under different assumptions of energy efficiency improvements; (ii) to identify the country/sectors where energy efficiency improvements are likely to have the greatest impact upon GHG and PM emissions; and (iii) to benchmark MENA against other regions in terms of energy intensity and GHG emissions.

‣ Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services : Getting Started

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The world's primary energy needs are expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, with the largest incremental increase coming from developing countries. This will require over US$25 trillion in energy supply infrastructure investment by 2030. Meeting the growth in energy demand through traditional energy development models is unsustainable from both environmental and energy security perspectives. Finding new ways to meet energy needs sustainably while maintaining robust socioeconomic development is imperative. This note offers more operational guidance on how to get started with such programs. It starts with a summary of the report's main findings and then delves into operational modalities of operationalizing these findings for World Bank (WB) operations, including issues of WB procurement and financing. Rather than seek to recommend changes in WB procedures, it presents some ideas and options under current WB processes to formulate operational approaches and strategies to deliver large-scale energy savings to public agencies...

‣ The Greening of Macedonia's Public Buildings : Financing Options for the National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2012-18

Limaye, Dilip; Meyer, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
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The Government of Macedonia (GOM) plans to launch a National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings (NPEEPB, or "the program") to achieve energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the buildings sector and meet the strategic targets outlined in the energy development strategy of the Republic of Macedonia until 2030, the EE strategy until 2020, and the national EE action plan in 2010-18. The NPEEPB, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy (MOE), aims to retrofit existing public buildings and to lead by example in the implementation of EE measures. Its targets are public buildings that are used for administrative and other activities of public interest and that are fully owned by government institutions or municipalities. This report focuses on the financing mechanisms that are considered the best fit with the institutional environment to achieve the goals of the NPEEPB, and describes in detail the implementation of the proposed financing mechanisms: a full-service EE fund, a dedicated EE credit line...

‣ National energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada in the 1970s and 1980s: are economic and/or environmental concerns responsible for change?

Pfleger, Anita Angelika.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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The thesis presents a comparison of the national energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada from 1973 until the late 1980s. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether economic and/or environmental concerns were responsible for changes in the· West-German and Canadian national energy policies. Furthermore, the feasibility of implementing a soft energy path in West-Germany and Canada is examined. For better comprehension of the policy-making process and implemented changes in the national energy policies of the two states, the West-German and Canadian parliamentary systems and the political cultures were compared. For the analysis, several events with international impact were taken as guidelines. Furthermore, based on statistical data, the West-German and Canadian energy production and consumption were analyzed. With reference to these results the degree of the de facto changes in the national energy policies were analyzed. In addition, the thesis discusses the possibilities which a soft energy path offers to both national governments to renounce themselves from the dependencies on a few energy resources. The thesis reveals that changes in the West-German and Canadian national energy policies...