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‣ Students Energy Saving Behavior - Case study of University of Coimbra

János, Lõrincz Máté
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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According to Portuguese Directorate-General for Geology and Energy, renewable energy in Portugal was the source for 52% of country’s electricity generation in 2010 [DGGE 2010, page 6]. The current Portuguese policy makers in the energy area argue that the story behind Portugal’s success lies in government led initiatives in forms of efficient energy policies, which not only influenced the adoption of renewable technologies but also encouraged people to adopt a more energy efficient behavior. In the context of a new consciousness around a difficult but desirable environmental, economic and economic equilibrium, consumer behavior plays a very important role. The overall purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of Energy or Environmental lectures (or both) on university students’ intention to pursue energy saving measures, because they will, in the short run, represent a relevant part of the future end-user consumers and bill-payers and will drive changes in the patterns of energy consumption. An online survey (N=1582) on students’ energy saving behavior was conducted to predict students’ intention to perform energy saving measures. Based on the received responses, two groups of students were formed: one, with students who had access to one or more Energy or Environmental (or both) lectures and...

‣ Energy saving measures in Agriculture – Overview on the basis of national reports.

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Stolarski, M; Brodzinski, Z; Olba-Ziety, E; Myhan, R; Mikkola, H; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Rajaniemi, M; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Briassoulis, D; Balafoutis, A; Mistriotis, A; Panagakis, P; Papdakis, G; Buisonjé, F; Elle
Fonte: AGREE Project Publicador: AGREE Project
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal for 13 subsectors of agriculture, 481 ES measures in total were identified and classified into seven categories: 1) type of energy input: indirect, direct; 2) type of ES measure: operational level, systems level, process monitoring, farm management, market orientation, capital goods; 3) importance: from 1-low to 5-high; 4) R&D: yes, no; 5) potential of the measure: achievable at present or not immediately ready for implementation; 6) indication of an investment cost: from €1000 to over €1000000; 7) estimated payback time: from 1 to over 5 years.  The general conclusions from the analysis are as follows.ES measures refer to the reduction of main energy inputs in agricultural production, including fertilizers and pesticides; fuels for powering tractors and other machinery; fuel use for heating, cooling, and ventilation in farm buildings and facilities; electricity use for pumping, lighting; and energy embodied in buildings and equipment.  In general...

‣ Implementing Energy Subsidy Reforms : An Overview of the Key Issues

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Poorly implemented energy subsidies are economically costly to taxpayers and damage the environment. This report describes the emerging lessons that could help policy makers to address implementation challenges, including overcoming political economy and affordability constraints. The analysis provides strong evidence of the success of reforms in reducing the associated fiscal burden. For the selected sample of 20 developing countries, the average energy subsidy recorded in the budget was reduced from 1.8 percent in 2004 to 1.3 percent of gross domestic product in 2010. The reduction of subsidies is particularly remarkable for net energy importers. In spite of the relatively price inelastic demand for gasoline and diesel, fossil fuel consumption in the road sector (per unit of gross domestic product) declined in the 20 countries examined from 53 (44) in 2002 to about 23 kilotonnes oil equivalent per million of gross domestic product in 2008 in the case of gasoline (diesel). The most notable decline in consumption was recorded in the low-income and lower-middle-income countries. This reflects the much higher rate of growth in gross domestic product in this group of countries. And it underlines the opportunities to influence future consumption behavior rather than modifying the existing consumption patterns...

‣ A Strategy for Coal Bed Methane and Coal Mine Methane Development and Utilization in China

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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China is short of clean energy, particularly conventional natural gas. The proven per capital natural gas reserve is only 1/12th of the world average. However, China has large coal bed methane (CBM) resources with development potential which can be recovered from surface boreholes independent of mining and in advance of mining, and also captured as a part of underground coal mining operations. However, in order to meet its targets, the government must improve the administrative framework for CBM resource management, introduce more effective CBM or coal mine methane (CMM) development incentives, raise the technical capacity of the mining sector, expand gas pipeline infrastructure and promote gas markets in coal mining areas. In order to significantly reduce methane emission from coal mines and better exploit the gas recoverable from coal seams, the government should introduce measures to: strengthen the CBM/CMM policy, legal and regulatory framework to improve resource management; improve CMM availability and quality so more can be utilized; enhance incentives to promote expansion of CBM/CMM exploitation and destruction of surplus drained CMM; and Promote development of regional development strategies to take advantage of specific local advantages.

‣ Decentralized Energy Services to Fight Poverty : Outcome Driven Engagement of Small and Medium-size Enterprises in the Provision of Energy Services in IDA Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The Department for International Development (DFID)-Funded Energy Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Program was created to support SMEs by helping countries unblock the factors that prevent their potential in the delivery of energy services. With thirteen energy projects in twelve countries and one regional program in Africa, the implementation of the program started considerably slower than expected but has demonstrated potential to make an impact in a relatively neglected area of delivering energy services to the poor. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy affects as much as 90 percent of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuel-wood and agricultural residues, pose economic, environmental, and health threats. Uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Energy SME program focused on off-grid electrification and biomass use as many communities and households that have yet to be electrified are relatively isolated...

‣ Energy and Development Report 2001 - Energy and the Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This 2001 Energy and Development Report reflects on the progress made since July 1999, when the need to include environmental concerns in energy sector development was acknowledged. The review looks at the context in which the energy, and environment debate is now set, and examines the primary outcomes of the strategy in relative depth. The second part reviews ways to create the framework for energy and environment, by enhancing capacity building, the knowledge base, and dissemination practices, through case studies and perspectives on sustainable energy systems. Reducing air pollution is further explored in the context of facilitating the transition from traditional, to modern fuels, by improving access to modern energy, while protecting the health of - mainly - urban residents from air pollution. In addition, through case studies on district heating, power distribution, and, initiatives regarding gas flaring reduction, the report focuses on the promotion of environmentally, sustainable development of energy resources...

‣ A Review of ESMAP Energy Efficiency Portfolio

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The summary reviews the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) activities in energy efficiency (EE), from 1997 to 2002, and evaluates thematic impacts, and lessons of the ESMAP Energy Efficiency Portfolio, though outputs such as capacity and knowledge, and other downstream activities, capturing best practices from lessons learned. It describes the overall impacts ESMAP played in mainstreaming EE within the Bank, and client countries, the catalytic role in supporting EE work, and its shift from its conventional demand-side management approach, to innovative energy service-driven, institutional and financing delivery mechanisms. Lessons suggest a careful topical selection for effective cross-country exchange, followed by systematic planning; establishing an institutional infrastructure for making energy conservation a profitable commercial business; establishing financing intermediaries between project developers and financiers, to bridge knowledge, and perception gaps, reducing transaction costs; and...

‣ Pakistan : Household Use of Commercial Energy

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice...

‣ Income and Energy Consumption in Mexican Households

Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo; Yepez-Garcia, Rigoberto Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The analysis of household energy consumption patterns is critical for evaluating public mechanisms, such as subsidies and social tariffs that aim to provide lower income earners with better access to energy sources. This paper focuses on Mexican households to analyze the relations between their levels of income, consumption of different forms of energy, and the role played by different household characteristics. Using microdata from the Mexican Income Expenditure Surveys, the paper first relate income and energy expenditure to determine the shape of this relation. It then applies OLS and Tobit models to determine how income levels affect energy consumption in relation to other covariates. The results show a positive relation for income deciles and energy consumption and some household characteristics -- pointing to differentiated mechanisms for improving energy use.

‣ The Design and Sustainability of Renewable Energy Incentives : An Economic Analysis

Meier, Peter; Vagliasindi, Maria; Imran, Mudassar; Eberhard, Anton; Siyambalapitiya, Tilak
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Rapid urbanization and economic growth, new demographic trends, and climate change are key challenges that developing countries must face as they strive to meet growing energy demand. The main objectives of this study are to offer: (a) a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable support schemes and (b) an economic modeling of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes. In an attempt to contribute to the lively debate, this study provides a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable energy (RE) support schemes. It summarizes economic models of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes, alongside operational advice on how the regulatory design may need to be modified to minimize the impact on the budget and be affordable to the poor, as well as how to identify and fill the financing gap. This analytical framework: (a) differentiates and illustrates tradeoffs among local, regional, and national impacts...

‣ Toward Gender-Informed Energy Subsidy Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Since the 1990s, most states in Europe and Central Asia (ECA) have embarked on energy sector reforms. These have included removing subsidies, which has resulted in increased end-user costs for energy. The research presented here comprises an integral part of a set of qualitative studies on poverty and social impacts of energy subsidy reforms. In particular, it examines what it means for energy subsidy reforms to be more gender sensitive. The purpose of this research is to illustrate the extent to which energy subsidy reforms in the ECA region differently impact men and women. Prior global studies on gender and energy suggest that men and women have different priorities when it comes to energy use; that the reforms may have unequal effects on their well-being; that they face different challenges in interacting with energy providers or social assistance institutions; and may have different views on and knowledge of policy reforms. The target audience for this study is development practitioners, public officials, and civil society actors involved in social sustainability and the communications aspects of energy reform policies.

‣ Permitting and Licensing Regimes for Renewable Energy Projects

Merle-Beral, Elena; Gassner, Katharina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Journal Article
Português
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Permitting, licensing, and other authorization procedures are an integral part of investing in renewable energy. For private companies, the quality of these procedures can drastically affect transaction costs and project risk. Optimal regimes are tailored to country specifics and depend on the way in which private investors access the market in the first place—from auctions to site-specific tenders to standardized contracts on a first-come, first-served basis. Although there is no single best practice when it comes to authorizing renewable energy projects, common principles exist that signal an investor-friendly and socially and environmentally responsible regime.

‣ Der Einfluss der Systemtransformation auf den Energiesektor der postsozialistischen Staaten; The Influence of the System Transition on the Energy Sector of the Post-socialist Countries

Klein, Viktor
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Jede Gesellschaft hat einen spezifischen Umgang mit Energie, dessen Charakteristika sich am Energieverbrauch ablesen lassen. Gesellschaftliche Veränderungen führen zum Wandel im Umgang mit Energie und sind deshalb durch Energieverbrauchsindikatoren darstellbar. Dieser Grundidee folgend, behandelt die vorliegende Untersuchung die Auswirkungen der Systemtransformation in den postsozialistischen Staaten auf zentrale Indikatoren des Energieverbrauchs. Unter der Prämisse, dass der Transformationsprozess mittelfristig zu einem Wachstum der Wirtschaft führen wird, werden folgende zentrale Thesen formuliert: Durch nachholenden Konsum wächst der Pro-Kopf-Energieverbrauch. Aufgrund von Veränderung der Wirtschaftsstruktur sowie Effizienzverbesserungen sinkt die Energieintensität. Zur Überprüfung dieser Thesen, werden für den Zeitraum 1992-2007 für alle postsozialistischen Transformationsländer Regressionsanalysen durchgeführt. Dabei wird das Verhältnis zwischen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen als Variable für Wirtschaftsentwicklung und den beiden Energieverbrauchindikatoren Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch und Energieintensität analysiert. Danach erfolgt mithilfe von Regressionsanalysen im Länderquerschnitt ein Vergleich der postsozialistischen Staaten im Jahr 2007 untereinander. Hier liegt der Fokus der Untersuchungen auf dem Zusammenhang zwischen ausgewählter Indizes für Entwicklung und Transformation...

‣ China's energy use : the changing relationship between economic growth and energy

Meagher, Dominic
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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The transformation of China's economy since 1978 is one of the most profound economic transformations in history. Among the most important dimensions of China's transformation is the way rapid economic growth drove energy consumption. All economic activity depends in one way or another upon energy but there is now overwhelming evidence that much of the way we use energy has undesirable externalities, including potentially destabilising effects on the earth's climate system. China is already the world's largest energy user and prospects for future economic growth and therefore energy consumption remain strong. China's energy use is therefore a critical area of analysis. The thesis addresses three core questions. Why has China's energy consumption grown so rapidly since 2002? Is China's economy peculiar in its huge and rapidly growing energy consumption or does it conform to the experience of other countries when they were at similar stages of development? What are the implications for China's energy future? Input-Output Analysis (lOA) and Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) are employed to isolate energy relationships with rural and urban household consumption, government expenditure, investment, trade and production. Data from the 2002 IO table (122 sectors) and the 2007 IO table (135 sectors)...

‣ Household Energy Supply and Use in Yemen : Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Yemen's Second Five Year Plan for Social and Economic Development (2001-2005) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, 2003-05) provide a framework to reduce poverty through national actions and development assistance. The PRSP recommends a gradual lifting of subsidies for petroleum products, phased to ensure that energy price reform does not aggravate poverty in a country with an already high percentage of poor people. The PRSP also promotes policies that will lead to better access to energy. This report deals with the relationship between energy policy and household welfare. By establishing the facts about household energy supply and use, the impact of new energy policies on the poor can be anticipated with greater confidence. A household energy strategy forms an essential element of overall energy sector planning. At the request of the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC), the joint World Bank/United Nations Development Program Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) carried out a study to examine the energy policies which would...

‣ The Bank's Assistance to China's Energy Sector

Churchill, Anthony; Thum, Cordula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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China is the second largest energy consumer in the world and the largest producer and consumer of coal. Owing to its large coal resources, it is and will remain in the foreseeable future largely energy self-sufficient, although crude oil imports have steadily increased since 1993. In just 17 years, China has become the Bank's largest borrower in the energy sector having received about 7 billion dollars in loans to date. The Bank has also carried out a substantial amount of analytical and advisory services. Despite the amount of lending to the energy sector, the sheer size of the sector in China has made the World Bank, at least in financial terms, a relatively marginal player. The Bank s assistance aimed at helping China's integration into the global economy. It focused on removing bottlenecks to the country's accelerating economic growth and on institutional development (emphasizing technology transfer and capacity building). After the major policy breakthroughs of the mid-1990s in the power sector, progress on sector reform has slowed and major policy issues in such critical subsectors as coal...

‣ The Residential Energy Efficiency Program in Lithuania

Sirvydis, Viktoras
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This case study, which describes the residential Lithuanian energy efficiency (EE) program and lessons learned, was prepared in support of the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP)-funded technical assistance activity Scaling Up of Energy Efficiency in Building in the Western Balkans. During the first period (1996-2004), the World Bank- and donor-funded Energy Efficiency Housing Pilot Project was implemented around investments of US$28.6 million. In addition, technical assistance (TA) was included to facilitate energy auditor market development, establish centers to provide legal advice to homeowner associations (HOAs), train bank officials, and develop a housing agency to further promote EE investments in the residential sector. These changes accelerate the modernization process in Lithuania from about 70 apartment buildings a year to 490 buildings a year. Subsidy procedures for low-income persons were also revised: a May 2013 law to provide support to low-income families was amended to require eligible households to implement a renovation project or risk a cut in their state subsidy from 50 percent to 0 percent for heating costs for a period of three years. This has facilitated the renovation decision-making process among low-income apartment owners.

‣ Energy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys : Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Analysis using data on household energy use from Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys can help policymakers to identify which households are affected by energy poverty and then design policies that will accelerate the household energy transition. This paper shows that LSMS can provide accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household wellbeing (including consumption, income, health, and education), to monitor the progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions.

‣ The Energy Challenge: A new agenda for corporate real estate

Maurer, Eric
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 2429438 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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In 2006, Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) collaborated with CoreNet Global to assess the state of energy efficiency in corporate real estate and provide recommendations to encourage greater adoption of energy efficiency. As a member of the RMI project team, I was responsible for designing and analyzing a survey of corporate real estate professionals. The survey, which is detailed in this report, focuses on capturing the drivers of energy efficiency, the status of energy management, the energy efficiency practices taken throughout the real estate life cycle, and the barriers and enablers to incorporating energy efficiency in corporate real estate. Following the survey design, CoreNet Global sent the survey to its members, which include corporate real estate professionals serving a variety of functions throughout the real estate supply chain. The survey results paint a picture of slow adoption of energy efficiency. Nevertheless, the results provide signs of hope that concerns about sustainability and energy costs will spur a new era of investment in energy-efficient buildings. Companies looking to improve the energy efficiency of their building stock can embark on two paths. First, companies can choose to make a significant investment and create a comprehensive energy management system. Such a system typically includes an energy policy...

‣ Energy Auditing Brings Environmental and Financial Benefits to the U.S. Commercial Sector

Young, James
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Syed Ismat Shah; An energy audit (sometimes called ???energy assessment??? or ???energy study???) determines where, when, why and how energy is used in a facility, and to identify opportunities to improve efficiency. Energy auditing services are offered by energy services companies (ESCOs), energy consultants, and engineering firms. The energy auditors lead the audit process but work closely with building owners, staff and other key participants to ensure accuracy of data collection and appropriateness of energy efficiency recommendations. Energy audits are a powerful tool for identifying operating and equipment improvements that will save energy, reduce energy costs, and lead to better efficiency. This paper provides an analysis of the environmental and economic benefits of an energy audit, including an example energy study for a warehouse/distribution center, Liberty Distributors, located in the Brooklyn, New York. The first portion of the paper will define and give a brief history & analysis of the problem at stake, which is the highenergy usage in the United States Commercial Sector and how we, as a nation and society, are helping to curtail this problem through environmental efficiency mechanisms, such as energy auditing. Next...