Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been seized upon as a principal initiative, and the two most important components of present policy are the investment tax credit and energy taxes. The investment tax credit is aimed toward improving the way energy is used without raising the price. It lowers
the price of capital relative to energy for applications where there is a tradeoff. But this measure is working against the current of wider taxation measures which stimulate
energy growth through lowering the price of capital and raising the price of labor, thus encouraging investment in energy intensive equipment to substitute for labor. The
conservation investment tax credit does not reverse this trend. Nor does it have a significant effect in raising the
rate of return on an investment in conservation, which is dominated by the energy savings and the expected inflation
in energy prices. In summary, it appears that the tax credit will have difficulty achieving the goals set for it.
An encouragement of activities that conserve or substitute for energy by promoting employment rather than extra capital
investment is necessary. In a society...
This paper, one of a series resulting from institutional analysis
of photovoltaic (PV) acceptance, provides preliminary exploration of
the energy industry in relation to energy provision in the residential
sector. It is based on theoretical formulations and utilizes methods
of institutional analysis developed in an earlier paper in this series.
Seven institutional functions -- production, financing, regulation,
political, research, service and socialization -- are reviewed as to
the manner in which they are performed in the energy industry. The
structure of the energy industry is described, as is the regulatory
web within which its financial decisions are made and its operations
conducted. The persistent and increasing activity of all levels of
government in determining the practices of the energy industry is dis-
cussed. The research section identifies recent efforts to develop
alternative energy sources. The services section especially emphasizes
the delivery of energy to residences, while the discussion of the social-
ization function highlights the ways in which attitudes on energy
availability and use are developed.; Prepared under Dept. of Energy Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order no.37.
The case studies documented in this
report aim to inform the energy access community (including
practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end
users) about best practices of successful energy access
initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies
focusing on electrification and household energy were
selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all
countries that have had varying success in providing access
to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had
to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to
developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of
improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder
engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy
service providers; 4) contributed to community development
by promoting local skill development and income generation;
and 5) representative of electricity and different sources
of household energy. The case studies describe the existing
conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...
Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of
municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals,
and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water
supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on
energy bills and a wide range of environmental and
socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE
projects have been developed and implemented successfully.
The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal
buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad
areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii)
insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited
access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be
addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal
EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues
faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE
investments, particularly for projects in the following four
areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting,
and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the
following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by
municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...
About one-third of global energy is
consumed in residential, public, and commercial buildings
(collectively referred to as buildings), where it is used
for space heating, cooling, ventilating, lighting, cooking,
water heating, refrigerating, and operating electric and
mechanical devices. Global energy use in buildings is
expected to grow as cities in developing countries continue
to modernize and per capita income levels continue to
increase. Because of their high energy consumption,
residential, public, and commercial buildings also offer
unparalleled opportunities for energy savings. According to
the International Energy Agency, buildings account for some
41 percent of global energy savings potential by 2035,
compared with the industrial sector (24 percent) and the
transport sector (21 percent). This guidance note outlines
how cities can tap into a wide array of proven technologies,
policies, and financing mechanisms to improve energy
efficiency and capture cost-effective energy savings in
buildings. It offers city leaders advice on how to get
started in introducing energy efficiency measures...
Sustainable Energy for All seeks to improve the lives of billions of people across the world and ensure a more sustainable future by working to achieve its three global objectives: universal access to energy; doubling of the rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and doubling of the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Accountability and transparency are essential for tracking Sustainable Energy for All’s global progress. Doing so will clarify where the initiative stands, how various actions are contributing to the three objectives, how much remains to be accomplished, and where more action is needed to achieve Sustainable Energy For All.
This second edition of the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework provides an update of how the world has been moving towards the three objectives over the period 2010-2012. The report also explores a number of complementary themes. First, it provides further analysis of the financial cost of meeting the SE4ALL objectives as well as the geographical and technological distribution of the investments that need to be made. Second, it explores the extent to which countries around the world have access to the technology needed to make progress towards the three goals. Third, it identifies the improvements in data collection methodologies and capacity building that will be needed to provide a more nuanced and accurate picture of progress over time. Finally...
For cities that want to take concrete
actions on improving energy efficiency, it is essential to
understand what, where, and how big the potential
energy-saving opportunities are, what measures are needed to
capture the savings and at what costs, what the
implementation constraints are, and how priorities should be
set given local capacity and resources. An energy efficiency
assessment can provide the necessary clarity on these
issues. Energy efficiency assessments can be done at
different depths and with varying scopes, depending on the
city's needs, capacity, and resources. The duration and
cost of the assessment depends on the quality of existing
data and the size and complexity of the sector. This
guidance note provides an introduction to the objectives,
scope, and outputs, as well as the basic steps and
approaches of conducting the three types of energy
The aim of the scoping study was to gain
an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers
engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials
and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern
energy services and income generation from productive
activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector
Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development -
Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to
create and sustain a network of energy practitioners to
support development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
(MSME) as users and providers of modern energy services for
slum upgrading programs.'. Using ability to adopt safer
and modern energy forms as a criterion in assessing the
effective deployment of safer and modern energy forms, the
study concluded that the high propensity to save is an
opportunity for their deployment if they can be sensitized
about the benefits of using modern energy forms, which many
of the slum dwellers are not aware of. Most enterprise
owners could also capitalize on the credit policies of the
financial institutions they saved with to adopt the modern
energy forms. Lack of education and limited awareness about
the benefits of using clean...
Cities represent a major contributor of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the United
Nations Population Fund,1 half of the world's
population now lives in cities and is responsible for 75% of
global energy use and GHG emissions. Since the world's
population will continue to grow, and rapid urbanization
will continue particularly in the developing world, tackling
climate change issues in the urban context will be
essential. In response to these challenges, the World
Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
(ESMAP), in cooperation with the Bank?s Finance Economics
and Urban Department (FEU), has launched an Energy Efficient
Cities Initiative, which is designed to help mainstream and
scale-up sustainable energy and climate change mitigation
actions and investments in the urban context. The first
activity proposed under this Initiative is the Energy
Efficient Cities Practitioners Roundtable, a facilitated
discussion cohosted by ESMAP and FEU. The purpose of this
event was to bring together client cities and partner
organizations to investigate ongoing initiatives and
programs to support cities' sustainable energy goals
needs and develop an Energy Efficient Cities Action Plan
that will outline a vision and subsequent actions to be
taken under the Initiative. The event took place at the
Washington DC offices of the World Bank...
This report is a result of a request to investigate the possibility of employing solar energy
at a residential secondary school to reduce energy costs. Our approach was to explore this possibility in the context of a more general survey of opportunities to conserve energy (in particular, fuel)
at the school. Our purpose was more to illustrate how to go about an appraisal of conservation opportunities
plus implementation and evaluation of the most productive conservation measures, than a rigorous examination of the facility with detailed instructions on how to take care of specific problems.
A large number of actions that would result in net energy cost savings considerably greater than
could be realized from solar systems were discovered. For a solar application, a domestic hot water
system,supplementing that heated bytankless coils in oil burning furnaces,has the greatest potential
for significant return on investment.
The school's total utility system (total energy, co-generation) meets all electrical and steam
needs with the exception of the electric power required for one building. A heat recovery system on
the diesel engines for the electric generators furnishes a sizeable portion of the steam.
Areas discussed in detail are: (1) optimization of the efficiency of oil fueled residential
heating furnaces; (2) optimized operation of a total energy system; (3) lighting...
This report is a result of a request to investigate the possibility of employing solar energy at a residential secondary school to reduce energy costs. Our approach was to explore this possibility in the context of a more general survey of opportunities to conserve energy (in particular, fuel)at the school. Our purpose was more to illustrate how to go about an appraisal of conservation opportunities
plus implementation and evaluation of the most productive conservation measures, than a rigorous examination of the facility with detailed instructions on how to take care of specific problems.
A large number of actions that would result in net energy cost savings considerably greater than could be realized from solar systems were discovered. For a solar application, a domestic hot water
system,supplementing that heated bytankless coils in oil burning furnaces,has the greatest potential for significant return on investment.
The school's total utility system (total energy, co-generation) meets all electrical and steam needs with the exception of the electric power required for one building. A heat recovery system on the diesel engines for the electric generators furnishes a sizeable portion of the steam.
Areas discussed in detail are: (1) optimization of the efficiency of oil fueled residential heating furnaces; (2) optimized operation of a total energy system; (3) lighting...
Energy modelling serves as a crucial tool for informing both energy policy and strategy development. But the modelling process is faced with both sectoral energy data and structural challenges. Among all the sectors, the residential sector usually presents a huge challenge to the modelling profession due to the dynamic nature of the sector. The challenge is brought by the fact that each an every household in a region may have different energy consumption characteristics and the computing power of the available models cannot incorporate all the details of individual household characteristics. Even if there was enough computing power within the models, energy consumption is collected through surveys and as a result only a sample of a region is captured. These challenges have forced energy modellers to categorise households that have similar characteristics. Different researchers choose different methods for categorising the households. Some researchers choose to categorise households by location and climate, others choose housing types while others choose quintiles. Currently, there is no consensus on which categorisation method takes precedence over others. In these myriad ways of categorising households, the determining factor employed in each method is what is assumed to be the driver of energy demand in that particular area of study. Many researchers acknowledge that households' income...
Data for investment into renewable energy resources in Nigeria is mainly unavailable due to over reliance on conventional resources for energy generation. However, recent developments in the energy sector have portrayed gradual attention to investments in renewable energy resources. This paper reviews the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) which identifies this improvement and presents a draft on how an increase in investment in renewable energy resources, which will in the long run balance the national energy equation, ensure energy security and promote sustainable development.
South Africa is an arid country, where water supply is often obtained from a distant source. There is increasing pressure on the limited water resources due to economic and population growth, with a concomitant increase in the energy requirement for water production. This problem will be exacerbated by the onset of climate change. Recently, there have been concerns about negative impacts arising from the exploitation of energy resources. In particular, the burning of fossil fuels is significantly contributing to climate change through the emission of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. In addition, fossil fuels are being depleted, and contributing to decreased energy security. As a result of this, the international community has initiated various interventions, including the transformation of policy and regulatory instruments, to promote sustainable energy. With this in mind, South Africa is making policy and regulatory shifts in line with international developments. Renewable energy is being promoted as one way of achieving sustainable energy provision in the country. However, some issues require scrutiny in order to understand the water footprint of renewable energy production. Due to the large gap that exists between water supply and demand...
This paper examines the energy consumption, supply and resources of some of the countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 2005, the base year for this analysis. The region is rich in energy resources and currently enjoys relatively stable and affordable electricity. Except in the case of Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia and South Africa, final energy demand is dominated by the residential sector in the form of biomass. Energy consumption or final energy demand in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe is projected to 2030 using a Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model in a 'business as usual' scenario, the other countries being left out because of poor quality data. The projections are carried out by relating historic sectoral GDP and population growth in each country to energy demand and then using the historical link and the projections of these drivers to project energy demand. The analysis under this 'business as usual' scenario seems to indicate that we can expect to see a large increase in consumption in these countries, especially in the form of biomass and electricity. In both cases, supply is a concern. Having established what the present resources are; what some of the supply elements are currently in place; what the base-year demand is; and some basic relationships between demand and socio-economic drivers...
A rural, self-contained village in Africa relies mainly on draft animals, energy provided by humans and energy from natural resources, especially firewood, for survival. The human metabolic energy cycle in a rural self-sufficient village in Venda in the Limpopo Province of South Africa is investigated, concentrating on selected activities that make up the routine livelihoods in the wet season. The selected village depended on only a slight extent on external 'modern' energy inputs such as electricity, paraffin and diesel in relation to overall energy consumption. Forty-three interviews were conducted in order to identify patterns of labour, sources of food, and foods consumed, while electronic pedometers were employed to quantify energy expended for weeding, firewood and water collection carried out in the wet season in February. A conceptual energy model showing flows of energy from one activity to another within the village was developed. An energy balance model, for an average adult male and female village resident, was developed quantitatively from the conceptual model, taking into account energy intake and energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for males was 1 991 kcal/d; females were 1 965 kcal/d, energy intake for males was 1 953 kcal/d and females was 2 007 kcal/d .This study is significant for future development of rural dwellers. It provides a baseline case for future developments in which modern energy carriers are introduced into remote areas. These may include conventional energy such as electricity...
Inadequate energy supply is one of the major problems confronting Malawi and limiting its social, economic and industrial development. This paper reviews the current status of energy supply and demand in Malawi; examines the major sources of energy, current exploitation status and their potential contribution to the electricity supply of the country; discusses key issues facing the energy sector; and identifies broad strategies to be implemented to tackle the energy supply challenges. Using secondary data for its critical analysis, the paper also presents modelling of long-term energy demand forecast in the economic sectors of Malawi using the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) for a study period from 2008-2030. Three scenarios namely reference (REF), moderate growth (MGS) and accelerated growth (AGS) were formulated to simulate possible future long-term energy demand based on socio-economic and technological development with the base year of 2008. Results from all scenarios suggest an increased energy demand in consuming sectors with biomass being a dominant energy form in household and industry sectors in the study period. Forecast results reveal that energy demand will increase at an annual growth rate of 1.2% and reach 5160 ktoe in 2030 under REF scenario. The growth rates for MGS and AGS are projected at 1.5% each reaching 4639 ktoe and 5974 ktoe in 2030...
The investigation of electrical energy management (EEM) in the industrial and commercial sector determines how energy management affects electricity consumption and what makes its potential for being used to reduce peak demand of utility industries. The aim of this paper is to analyze the contribution of electrical energy management in the industrial and commercial sector and highlight its challenges to the Tanzanian utility industry. Energy efficiency technology analyzed in this paper includes energy efficiency lighting and power factor improvement. The analysis found that, if EEM is properly implemented, a significant amount of energy could be saved and could be converted to monetary benefits which might facilitate the development of other activities. The utility industry can benefit from saving considerable amounts of energy as well as the reduction of peak demand which can minimize the race of stumbling on new energy sources and construction of new power plants. The saved energy can be distributed to other consumers so as to improve accessibility or reliability of the electrical system and consequently minimize the impact of environmental pollution.
Energy poverty affects more than 40% of the world's population. Fuels and appliances used by low-income groups have been of low-quality, expensive, non-durable and have posed serious health and safety risks to users. Energy transition theories, most noteably the energy ladder model, have postulated a gradual but complete move away from traditional, mostly biomass energy sources towards modern energy sources. Evidence however, increasingly indicates that the process did not happen as anticipated. This paper argues that energy transition from biomass fuels to full electricity use will not take place in SADC countries due to economic circumstances, increases in commercial fuel prices and the deficit in power generation capacity in the region. It further argues that wood fuel, traditionally regarded as a lower order fuel, is actually a renewable energy source that can meet the energy needs of rural people sustainably, if managed correctly. The paper suggests a re-evaluation of the value of wood fuel - from a low value fuel associated with poverty and degradation to a high value, renewable energy fuel, supplying much needed energy in a potentially sustainable manner. The paper outlines a convergence of a number of external conditions and opportunities which may alter household energy supply...
Solar thermal energy (STE) technology refers to the conversion of solar energy to readily usable energy forms. The most important component of a STE technology is the collectors; these absorb the shorter wavelength solar energy (400-700nm) and convert it into usable, longer wavelength (about 10 times as long) heat energy. Depending on the quality (temperature and intensity) of the resulting thermal energy, further conversions to other energy forms such as electrical power may follow. Currently some high temperature STE technologies for electricity production have attained technical maturity; technologies such as parabolic dish (commercially available), parabolic trough and power tower are only hindered by unfavourable market factors including high maintenance and operating costs. Low temperature STEs have so far been restricted to water and space heating; however, owing to their lower running costs and almost maintenance free operation, although operating at lower efficiencies, may hold a key to future wider usage of solar energy. Low temperature STE conversion technology typically uses flat plate and low concentrating collectors such as parabolic troughs to harness solar energy for conversion to mechanical and/or electrical energy. These collector systems are relatively cheaper...