Página 20 dos resultados de 476117 itens digitais encontrados em 0.058 segundos

‣ Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

SOUZA, Simone Pereira de; PACCA, Sergio; AVILA, Marcio Turra de; BORGES, Jose Luiz B.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S. Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S. Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee la. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96]...

‣ A Energia Térmica e o Paradoxo da Eficiência Energética: Desafios para um Novo Modelo de Planejamento Energético; The Thermal Energy and the Energy Efficiency Paradox: Challenges for a New Paradigm of Energy Planning

Strapasson, Alexandre Betinardi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2004 Português
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O modelo brasileiro de geração de energia elétrica possui características muito peculiares em relação aos demais países do mundo. Seu vasto parque hidrelétrico possibilitou ao país utilizar indiscriminadamente a eletricidade em diversas formas de uso final. Porém, com a transição do modelo hídrico para um modelo misto de geração, surge um novo paradigma de eficiência energética. A eletricidade consumida em usos finais térmicos pode agora ser substituída por diferentes fontes energéticas de origem química, como o gás natural e a biomassa. Nesse novo cenário, a energia primária pode ser convertida tanto em energia elétrica, quanto em energia útil, na forma de calor. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a distorção presente no atual modelo energético nacional e avaliar o potencial de economia de energia primária possível de ser obtido pela substituição de eletricidade por fontes de origem química, em usos finais térmicos. A hipótese formulada é de que o uso racional da energia, segundo sua qualidade exergética e finalidade de uso, pode reduzir significativamente o consumo de energia primária. Para comprovar essa hipótese, foram realizadas estimativas de substituição de eletricidade por gás natural...

‣ A gestão de energia elétrica na indústria - seu suprimento e uso eficiente.; The electrical energy management in the industry - its supply and effective utilization.

Tonim, Gilberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2009 Português
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O crescente valor pago pela fatura de energia elétrica sucedendo um período de indisponibilidade quando do racionamento em 2001, concomitantemente com as novas regulamentações do setor elétrico, fizeram com que algumas indústrias buscassem melhor entender o negócio energia elétrica de forma a se precaver de um possível novo racionamento. As indústrias foram em busca de preços mais atrativos, objetivando garantir seu processo produtivo com competitividade. O setor elétrico buscou estimular o investimento privado e o crescimento sustentável do mercado de energia elétrica no Brasil, e também incentivar o usuário final a melhor fazer a gestão dos gastos e consumos de energia elétrica através de novas regulamentações, incentivos à eficiência energética, acelerando a competitividade nos preços de energia elétrica, entre outras ações. Este trabalho apresenta um resumo dos fatos relevantes que ocorreram no setor elétrico brasileiro e cita os principais impactos ocorridos na indústria, a transformação do consumidor em cliente, ou seja, de mero pagador de fatura ao responsável pela escolha do fornecedor e o atual gestor do gasto e do consumo de energia em sua indústria. Esta dissertação propõe um modelo de gestão de energia elétrica baseado em um caso de sucesso ocorrido numa grande indústria de alimentos do Brasil...

‣ Em busca de uma arquitetura sustentável: o uso de fontes alternativas de energia; In search of a sustainable architecture: the use of alternative sources of energy

Pinto, Carolina Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2009 Português
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A atual situação de degradação ambiental tem sido muito discutida nos últimos anos. Um dos principais fatores agravantes dessa situação é a crescente demanda energética e suas atuais formas de produção. O petróleo, matriz energética mundial, é altamente poluente, e um combustível finito com o preço sempre crescente. A energia elétrica brasileira está baseada nas hidrelétricas, considerada fonte de energia limpa e renovável, porém o custo ambiental para sua construção é bem alto. Atualmente já existem tecnologias alternativas que podem servir essa crescente demanda energética sem prejudicar o meio ambiente. Na arquitetura, como em todas as áreas, houve um aumento com preocupação, e o estudo sobre o desempenho energético das edificações para reduzir a demanda de energia se tornou um assunto em pauta. Medidas e soluções estão sendo tomadas na decisão dos projetos mais sustentáveis. Mas para isso, o profissional deve estar atento às novas tecnologias alternativas de produção e distribuição de energia. Quando em um projeto é considerado o uso de fontes alternativas e o uso de técnicas de iluminação e ventilação natural, pode-se economizar não só nas despesas direcionadas para as fornecedoras de energia...

‣ Modelos de transição energética residencial e o acesso a serviços energéticos limpos: uma análise a partir de dois estudos de caso; Residential energy transition models and the access to clean energy services: an analysis based on two case studies

Sgarbi, Felipe de Albuquerque
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2013 Português
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A transição energética residencial começou a receber especial atenção da comunidade científica nos anos 1970 e 1980, quando se acreditava na ocorrência iminente da Crise da Lenha. Na época, temia-se que o corrente ritmo de consumo de biomassas sólidas em países em desenvolvimento ultrapassaria a capacidade de produção primária dos ambientes naturais, com sérias consequências para as camadas menos abastadas da população destes locais, que se veriam em uma situação de escassez de fontes de energia. Apesar de esta crise nunca haver, de fato, se concretizado, a preocupação com a sua potencial ocorrência estimulou o desenvolvimento de modelos que visavam à interpretação do fenômeno da transição energética residencial decorrente do processo de urbanização e aumento de renda dos usuários finais. Tal interesse culminou na elaboração do modelo da Escada Energética que, de uma maneira geral, previa que o abandono de fontes de energia tradicionais e a adoção de fontes de energia modernas era o resultado do aumento do status social da população. Inicialmente, a Escada Energética se estabeleceu como principal modelo de transição energética residencial. À medida que novos estudos foram desenvolvidos, entretanto...

‣ Planejamento e Políticas Públicas: uma análise sobre a Gestão Energética Descentralizada em âmbito municipal no Brasil.; Planning and Public Policy: an analysis of the Decentralized Energy Management at the municipal level in Brazil.

Collaço, Flavia Mendes de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2015 Português
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A Gestão Energética Descentralizada é uma forma de gestão dos recursos energéticos cujas primeiras publicações referentes ao tema datam dos anos 1980, no entanto, foi verificado um crescimento do desenvolvimento de estudos e aplicações do conceito na prática de forma substancial somente em tempos recentes (anos 2000). A Gestão Energética Descentralizada é tratada sob uma infinidade de termos e conceitos, e também pode ser aplicada com graus diferentes de descentralização como em vilas, quarteirões, bairros, distritos e estados. Tal conceito está fortemente atrelado ao combate das emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa, busca pela inserção das fontes de energia renováveis nas matrizes, conservação de energia e eficiência energética, e pela associação entre planejamento urbano, ou das cidades, ao dos sistemas energéticos. Ainda, cabe destacar que nesse modelo de gestão descentralizado- a participação popular e o engajamento dos cidadãos nos processos decisórios e na busca por cidades sustentáveis veem sendo colocado, por muitos pesquisadores do tema, como requisitos indispensáveis ao seu adequado funcionamento. Esta dissertação tem como foco de pesquisa a Gestão Energética Descentralizada em âmbito municipal e seu desenvolvimento nas cidades do Brasil. Dessa forma...

‣ Identificação e caracterização de medidas de eficiência energética e de produção - utilização de energia renovável no parque habitacional português; Identification and caracterization of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production - utilization measures in Portuguese residential building stock

Tavares, Diogo Filipe Lima
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Civil (área de especialização em Perfil de Construções); Ao longo do século passado, em virtude de um crescimento populacional exponencial, a indústria da construção sofreu grandes alterações que contribuíram em larga escala para o consumo desmedido de recursos naturais, a degradação de ecossistemas, a produção excessiva de resíduos, a poluição atmosférica e consequente degradação do planeta. A par disto existe atualmente uma grande dependência dos combustíveis fósseis, o que, conciliado com as elevadas necessidades energéticas da indústria da construção, originou uma dependência energética externa na UE. Neste contexto têm vindo a ser feitos esforços para a redução do impacto da indústria da construção na degradação do planeta e na dependência energética externa, sendo a diminuição do consumo e a alteração das fontes de energia, utilizada nos edifícios, parte fundamental da solução. Como tal, a reabilitação energética assume-se como fulcral em nome da redução do consumo energético e na mudança das fontes de energia. É portanto relevante o estudo da reabilitação energética não só numa vertente de obtenção da maior rentabilidade...

‣ Energy Efficient Appliances and Energy Efficient Behaviours: from consumer’s assessment to behaviour intervention.

Antunes, Dalila; Gaspar, Rui; Lino, Joana
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers Publicador: Nova Science Publishers
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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Nowadays, everyone talks about energy and energy use. The fact that almost all our actions require energy is becoming a threat not only to world resources but also to countries that need to assure energy for their population to use, either by producing it or buying it to other countries. Accordingly, studies that allow countries to know more about how people use energy mainly regarding how people choose appliances that consume energy, and how they use such appliances, are increasingly requested. So are the subsequent suggestions on policies, energy managing systems, and programs that shape behavior, which allow improving energy efficiency and reduce energy use. This chapter presents two studies developed in the last three years which aim to provide such knowledge and advices. Promotion 3E regards a European project focused on increasing the knowledge about how different groups choose home appliances and how to use such knowledge to promote selling more energy efficient appliances. It was supported by the Intelligent Energy Europe – IEE program. EcoIPSS refers to a project developed in Portugal aiming to know more on how people use home appliances and how to improve energy-saving behaviors, in private institutions of social solidarity (IPSS). It was supported by the Regulatory Authority of Energy Services in Portugal (ERSE) and promoted by EDP Comercial and developed by Quercus in partnership with Factor Social.. Methodological steps and the most significant results will be provided for each study. Main conclusions will be reported including advices for policy making...

‣ State of the art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture. Country data on energy consumption in different agro-production sectors in the European countries.

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Brodzinski, Z; Myhan, R; Olba-Ziety, E; Stolarski, M; Buisonjé, F; Ellen, H; Stanghellini, C; van der Voort, M; Baptista, F; Silva, LL; Murcho, D; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Mikkola, H; Rajaniemi,
Fonte: AGREE Project Publicador: AGREE Project
Tipo: Relatório
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Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture,reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate change on a broad scale and local weather patterns, and farming management practices. There is not a single measure to describe, ensure, or improve energy efficiency. Instead, in the energy balance for a given production process, a variety of indicators may serve and support energy efficiency analysis. The results of this study are based on the specific input of primary energy per cultivation área (GJ ha-1) and on the specific input of primary energy per ton of agricultural product (GJ t-1). All the measures that are suitable to reduce the specific energy input, will improve energy efficiency (the energy efficiency measures). Improving energy efficiency of agricultural production contributes directly to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. This State of the Art analysis has been determined on the basis of the data provided by six countries: Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal. The approach based on the life cycle analysis (LCA) has been chosen with the system boundary at the farm gate and have thus excluded processing into consumer goods. Specific energy input has been established for those agricultural products which have a decisive role in the EU foodstuff production...

‣ Energy efficiency (EE) and cost-effective means to increase EE and to mitigate the climate change of pork and broiler meat production in five European countries

BAPTISTA, F.J.; GOŁASZEWSKI, J.; DALGAARD, T.; MEYER-AURICH, A.; DE VISSER, C.; MIKKOLA, H.
Fonte: EurAgEng Publicador: EurAgEng
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Production of pork and broiler meat in the European Union (EU) has increased by 7.8 and 16.1%, respectively, in the period of 2001 – 2011. At that time pork and broiler meat produced, amounted together to over four times the cattle meat. Meat is an important protein source in human diet, but on the other hand, livestock uses globally 30% of ice-free terrestrial land and produces 18% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This exceeds the global emissions of the transport sector. Furthermore, energy ratio (output/input) for meat production is less than 1.0 in general and it is much lower than that of plant production. This paper presents cost-effectiveness of EE measures in pork and broiler meat production and it is based on the results of the Agriculture and Energy Efficiency Project (www.AGREE.aua.gr). The structure of the energy input appeared to be very similar in pork and broiler meat production. Feed was found to be the major indirect energy input. Its contribution to the total energy demand varied from 51% to 82% in pork production and from 55% to 94% in broiler meat production. The percentage of feed was the lowest in the Northern European countries and the highest in the south. This difference was mainly attributable to the demand for heating of animal houses during the winter period. Differences could also be found in the absolute energy input of feed. It indicated that there may be possibilities to improve feeding strategies or feed conversation rate of animals. In pork production...

‣ The integration of fluctuating renewable energy using energy storage

Connolly, David
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
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peer-reviewed; Energy storage is often portrayed as an ideal solution for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy (RE) due to the flexibility it creates. However, there is uncertainty surrounding energy storage in terms of the technologies that currently exist, the additional RE it enables, and its role in modern electricity markets. These uncertainties have hampered the deployment of large‐scale energy storage and hence, this research examined these concerns. This research began by identifying the most feasible energy storage technology available for the integration of fluctuating RE, specifically for Ireland. Due to its technical maturity and large‐scale capacities, pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) was deemed the most viable technology, but the literature outlined a lack of suitable sites for its construction. Therefore, a new software tool was developed in this study to search for suitable PHES sites, which was then applied to two counties in Ireland. The results indicate that these two counties alone have over 15 sites suitable for freshwater PHES, which in some cases could be twice as large as Ireland’s only existing PHES facility. Hence, the next stage of this research assessed the benefits of constructing large‐scale energy storage in Ireland. To do this...

‣ Effects of acute and longer-term dietary restriction on upper gut motility, hormone, appetite, and energy-intake responses to duodenal lipid in lean and obese men

Seimon, R.; Taylor, P.; Little, T.; Noakes, M.; Standfield, S.; Clifton, P.; Horowitz, M.; Feinle-Bisset, C.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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BACKGROUND: A 4-d 70% energy restriction enhances gastrointestinal sensitivity to nutrients associated with enhanced energy-intake suppression by lipid. To our knowledge, it is unknown whether these changes occur with 30% energy restriction and are sustained in the longer term. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that 1) a 4-d 30% energy restriction would enhance effects of intraduodenal lipid on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake in lean and obese men and 2) a 12-wk energy restriction associated with weight loss would diminish effects of acute energy restriction on responses to lipid in in obese men. DESIGN: Twelve obese males were studied before (day 0) and after 4 d (day 5), 4 wk (week 4), and 12 wk (week 12), and 12 lean males were studied before and after 4 d of consumption of a 30% energy–restricted diet. On each study day, antropyloroduodenal pressures, gut hormones, and appetite during a 120-min (2.86-kcal/min) intraduodenal lipid infusion and energy intake at a buffet lunch were measured. RESULTS: On day 5, fasting cholecystokinin was less, and ghrelin was higher, in lean (P < 0.05) but not obese men, and lipid-stimulated cholecystokinin and peptide YY and the desire to eat were greater in both groups (P < 0.05)...

‣ Is the use of economic diplomacy within the energy sector mitigating or causing conflict in the Asia-Pacific? How is Australia poised to deal with its consequences?

Norgrove, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The possibility of Asia-Pacific nations going to war within the current regional security environment is a distant one. Despite fiery territorial disputes, the exchange of sharp rhetoric and even gunfire across borders, the opportunity costs of war at this stage render stability a collective interest for regional prosperity. Bilateral and multilateral relationships and institutions have been established in political, economic and social spheres of engagement and help to stabilise a region witnessing a turbulent restructuring of its power order. The Asia-Pacific is nonetheless host to a diverse collection of conflict. Development on a grand scale has pushed states like China and India into the limelight of the international political economy, and has delivered domestic legitimacy and political clout to their governments. The pressure on China to fuel growth of this kind, while maintaining their hold on a population of some 1.37 billion, has directed attention to its energy supply in the interests of national security. China's energy security policies have real economic and diplomatic resonance in the security framework of the Asia-Pacific. While the argument that increased reliance on trade relationships is acting as a successful proxy for diplomacy...

‣ Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Brazil

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Brazil has one of the world's cleanest energy portfolios, with 85.3 percent of overall energy production coming from renewable sources (compared with the worldwide average of 16 percent), and with 75 percent of the country's 105,000 megawatt (MW) installed generation capacity coming from hydropower plants alone. The country has improved its procedures for building new energy facilities and connecting them to the grid. The distribution companies in the zone where transmission services were needed lacked the personnel to plan network expansion. In addition, in certain cases, the network needs of the renewable energy providers requesting transmission services dwarfed in size and capital cost the entire existing distribution network in the area. To address the challenges of planning and paying for the transmission infrastructure needed to bring energy from renewable sources to the grid, Brazil devised a competitive process to develop shared transmission networks for renewable energy. The procurement process provides transparency that helps reveal the cost of efficiently delivering infrastructure, supports a realistic and sustainable pricing structure, and creates an environment for both generation and transmission that is attractive to the private sector.

‣ Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Mexico

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Mexico's 2010 national energy strategy aims to promote sustainability and simultaneously increase energy access by increasing the share of renewable resources used to generate energy. The wind farms of La Ventosa, a windy area in the southeastern state of Oaxaca, are a key part of that strategy, which aims to raise the share of renewables in generation to 35 percent by 2024, up from 23.7 percent in 2008. The open season process was a major breakthrough that made possible several agreements to build wind power generation projects in an area that previously had been closed to development because of the lack of transmission infrastructure. The open season process gave developers of renewable energy the certainty and predictability they needed concerning the development of transmission infrastructure, while also reducing the investment costs of that infrastructure by ensuring development of an optimized and shared network. Moreover, the system is transparent for all participants. It highlights the ability of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to modernize its role as a facilitator and creative problem solver, and encourages renewable energy developers and energy consumers to collaborate and follow through on their commitments for the benefit of all involved.

‣ Energizing Green Cities in Southeast Asia : Applying Sustainable Urban Energy and Emissions Planning

Ostojic, Dejan R.; Bose, Ranjan K.; Krambeck, Holly; Lim, Jeanette; Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
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Fast-growing cities in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region will define the region's energy future and its greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint. Rapid urbanization and growing standards of living offer a major opportunity to EAP cities to become the global engines of green growth by choosing energy efficient solutions to suit their infrastructure needs and by avoiding locking in energy-intensive infrastructure. The underlying studies in three EAP pilot cities show a clear correlation between investments in energy efficient solutions in all major infrastructure sectors and economic growth by improving energy and GHG emissions efficiency, cities not only help the global environment, but they also support local economic development through productivity gains, reduced pollution, and more efficient use of resources. Thus, the Bank is well positioned to assist municipal governments in building institutions, creating policies, developing long-term green growth plans that will attract financial support and investments from both the private sector and the donor community, and linking efficiency and low carbon programs to international concessional financing and funding, as well as to the private sector investors who will play an important role in achieving green growth objectives. This paper is organized as follows: part one focuses on urban energy use and GHG emissions in EAP; part two presents sustainable urban energy and emissions planning in three pilot cities; and part three gives sustainable urban energy and emissions planning guidebook: a guide for cities in EAP.

‣ REDUCING DIESEL DEPENDENCE IN NUNAVUT: INTEGRATING RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH POLICY ACTIONS

MCDONALD, NICOLE C
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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In the last fifty years, Nunavut has developed a deep dependence on diesel for virtually all of its energy needs, including electricity. This dependence has created a number of economic, environmental and health related challenges in the territory, with an estimated 20% of the territory’s annual budget being spent on energy, thereby limiting the Government of Nunavut’s ability to address other essential infrastructure and societal needs, such as education, nutrition and health care and housing. One solution to address this diesel dependency is the use of renewable energy technologies (RETs), such as wind, solar and hydropower. As such, this thesis explores energy alternatives in Nunavut, and through RETScreen renewable energy simulations, found that solar power and wind power are technically viable options for Nunavut communities and a potentially successful means to offset diesel-generated electricity in Nunavut. However, through this analysis it was also discovered that accurate data or renewable resources are often unavailable for most Nunavut communities. Moreover, through qualitative open-ended interviews, the perspectives of Nunavut residents with regards to developing RETs in Nunavut were explored, and it was found that respondents generally supported the use of renewable energy in their communities...

‣ A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO ENERGY SHAPING

Gharesifard, BAHMAN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 666735 bytes; application/pdf
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In this thesis is initiated a more systematic geometric exploration of energy shaping. Most of the previous results have been dealt wih particular cases and neither the existence nor the space of solutions has been discussed with any degree of generality. The geometric theory of partial differential equations originated by Goldschmidt and Spencer in late 1960s is utilized to analyze the partial differential equations in energy shaping. The energy shaping partial differential equations are described as a fibered submanifold of a $ k $-jet bundle of a fibered manifold. By revealing the nature of kinetic energy shaping, similarities are noticed between the problem of kinetic energy shaping and some well-known problems in Riemannian geometry. In particular, there is a strong similarity between kinetic energy shaping and the problem of finding a metric connection initiated by Eisenhart and Veblen. We notice that the necessary conditions for the set of so-called $ \lambda $-equation restricted to the control distribution are related to the Ricci identity, similarly to the Eisenhart and Veblen metric connection problem. Finally, the set of $ \lambda $-equations for kinetic energy shaping are coupled with the integrability results of potential energy shaping. The procedure shows how a poor design of closed-loop metric can make it impossible to achieve any flexibility in the character of the possible closed-loop potential function. The integrability results of this thesis have been used to answer some interesting questions about the energy shaping. In particular...

‣ Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

Teixeira, César; Albano, Michele; Skou, Arne; Dueñas, Lara Pérez; Antonacci, Francesco; Ferreira, Rodrigo; Pedersen, Keld Lotzfeldt; Scalari, Sandra
Fonte: Mykolas Romeris University Publicador: Mykolas Romeris University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates) to improve energy utilization and management in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world. Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries) showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision. Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies...

‣ Potencialidade energética e o perfil socioeconômico do estado de Alagoas.; Potentiality energy and the profile socioeconomic of the state of Alagoas.

Omena Neto, Alcides José de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Desenvolvimento sustentável Regional; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Desenvolvimento sustentável Regional; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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In the function of the current society, the energy is an variable of total importance. It does not have much that to think about growth and development, without this matrix is inserted. That the taken routes only need to be reviewed, and certain incorporated concepts already to the effective system, and, that, until then, seen as untouchable, they urgently need a to formulate how much its technician-scientific action. This process of appropriation of materials of the nature for the production of goods and services in order to take care of the necessities of the society, some concepts of civilities seem to have been forgotten, and the search for the full comfort leads to the man to interact of incoherent form, in view of the exhaustion of the reserves of natural resources, establishing, thus, the degradation in such a way of the ecological environment as the social environment. This way operands, is that it is studied as form to quantify and to characterize the actions human beings in main its input the energy, comparing the direct relation enters of energy and the economic and social development; to analyze the energy in the World, Brazil and the State of Alagoas, to see the producing relation versus energy consumer, the energy matrices...