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‣ Renewability and life-cycle energy efficiency of bioethanol and bio-ethyl tertiary butyl ether (bioETBE): Assessing the implications of allocation

Malça, João; Freire, Fausto
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
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Biofuels are expected to play an increasingly important role in the transportation market, as we search for ways to reduce fossil fuels depletion and emissions. However, the extent to which biofuel can displace petroleum-based fuels depends on the efficiency with which it can be produced. To demonstrate that biofuel has a positive energy balance--i.e. more energy is contained in the fuel than is used in the production--a life-cycle approach must be employed. This paper presents a Life-Cycle Energy Analysis of bioethanol (from sugar beet or wheat) and bioETBE systems in France. Physical and economic data was collected. A systemic description was implemented and the energy used throughout was calculated. A novel indicator aiming at characterizing the renewability of (bio)energy sources is proposed--the energy renewability efficiency (ERenEf). ERenEf measures the fraction of final fuel energy obtained from renewable sources. Inventory results--calculated using four different allocation approaches and ignoring co-product credits--are analyzed in order to understand the effect of allocation in the energy efficiency and renewability results. Sensitivity analysis shows that allocation has a major influence in the results. This research concludes that bioethanol produced in France is clearly favorable in terms of primary energy. A maximum ERenEf value of 48% was obtained for wheat-based ethanol (mass allocation)...

‣ Energy efficiency in agriculture

Baptista, F. J.; Silva, LL; de Visser, C; Gołaszewski, J; Meyer-Aurich, A; Briassoulis, D; Mikkola, H; Murcho, D
Fonte: Portalegre Polytechnic Institute and Extremadura University Publicador: Portalegre Polytechnic Institute and Extremadura University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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One of the EU headline target indicators for Europe is “20% increase in energy efficiency” by 2020. It is anticipated that in the following decades energy use will increase significantly and will have a widespread impact on the economy, including the agricultural sector. Energy use reduction can be achieved by reduced energy input. Improved energy efficiency, however, is only achieved, if energy input per unit yield is reduced. Therefore, improved energy efficiency can be realized with either increased or decreased energy inputs depending on the input-output relationship. In agricultural production the need for energy as an input can determine the profitability of farming which, in turn, impacts heavily upon the farmers’ investment in improved farming systems. This paper presents some of the results obtained in the WP2 of the KBBE.2011.4-04 project “Energy Efficiency in Agriculture - AGREE” supported by the 7th Framework Program. It gives an overview into energy use and energy efficiency of agriculture in various agro-climatic zones of Europe.

‣ An Evaluation of Ontario’s Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009: Exploring the Role of Indicators in Community Energy Planning

Stuermer, Ana
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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With increasing public concern over environmental degradation and Climate Change, community energy planning is now emerging as a new task for planners. Community energy planning are practices that foster energy sustainability, protect or restore the natural environment, avoid harm in relation to social and health indicators, result in a more equitable distribution of benefits, are economic to maintain over the long-term, and do not impede the emergence of other sustainable approaches at the local level (FCM, 2009; Neves and Leal, 2010). More specifically, planning how a community generates, receives, utilizes and conserves energy can greatly contribute to the goal of stabilizing green house gas (GHG) emissions, reducing air pollution, diversifying energy resources and fostering a secure, accessible and stable energy supply that supports the local municipal economy. As the role of energy planning is closely tied with supportive provincial Legislation, this research study aimed at analyzing the effectiveness of Ontario’s Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA) to local municipal planners. The overall goal of this Legislation is to foster the growth of renewable energy projects, promote energy conservation and energy efficiency while strengthening Ontario’s economy. This Act also has significant implications for municipalities across the Province...

‣ Tall Buildings. ‘Vertical facilities’ for the energy balance of the urban habitat; Tall Building. Infrastrutture verticali per il riequilibrio energetico dell’ambiente urbano.

FAIS, LUKIA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The Thesis has the general aim to inquire on tall buildings in relation to the quest for a more sustainable future, by going through research on their potential capability to produce energy from renewable sources. The final result is a systematic framework of tall buildings morphological and functional features related to building and renewable energy sources systems, and identifies critical elements and design variables as well, usefull for comparing tall buildings with targets such as Net Zero Energy Building and Plus Energy Building. The thesis is divided into three thematic areas. First of all, it investigates the tall buildings’ embodied and operational energy, by going through the most up-to-date literature and post occupancy evaluation data. The specific aim is to identify innovatory architectural strategies aimed at enhancing the energy efficiency of tall buildings. The second part of the research looks into the potential that tall buildings have of generating power from renewable sources. On the basis of an analysis of the technologies for generating power from renewable energy sources, the criticalities and the potential of each system implemented in tall buildings have been highlighted, focusing on the key issues of integration...

‣ Nuclear Power and Sustainable Energy Policy : Promises and Perils

Kessides, Ioannis N.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The author examines the challenges and opportunities of nuclear power in meeting the projected large absolute increase in energy demand, especially electricity, throughout the industrialized and developing world, while helping to mitigate the threat of climate change. A significant global nuclear power deployment would engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. However, according to some analysts, advances in the design of nuclear reactors may have reduced their associated risks and improved their performance. Moreover, while a variety of renewable energy sources (hydro, wind, modern biomass, solar) will play important roles in the transition to a low-carbon economy, some analysts perceive that nuclear power is the only proven technology for generating electricity that is both largely carbon-free, not location specific (as with wind, hydro and solar), and amenable to significant scaling up. Thus given the projections of threats from climate change, and if the considerable strain experienced by world energy markets in recent years is a harbinger of things to come...

‣ Energy Poverty in Rural Bangladesh

Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty.

‣ Sustainable density: form, built environment, energy; Densità sostenibile: forma, ambiente costruito, energia

MORGANTI, MICHELE
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This research aims at exploring meaning, quality and analytical capacity of density concept and its potential interpretations in architecture and sustainability fields. Its goal is to determine the relationships among built environment, energy and form of urban textures in Mediterranean compact city, taken density as useful parameter to illustrate their features. Despite the growing unsustainability of today’s city facing an effective energy and environmental crisis, recent statistics have confirmed the increasing attractive power of metropolitan areas. Within the context of European compact city, new building models, based on energy conservation, account for an insignificant percentage compared to existing city whose functioning remarkably affects the efficiency of the whole metropolitan system. Therefore, an approach determining instruments and design methods at both urban and architectural scale, should be found in order to set out conditions more appropriate to the compact city. In respect of this kind of scale, the relationship between energy and form takes a central role in the variation of energy performances; at the same time the concept of density has showed itself as an efficient instrument of analysis of the morphological performances of the built form. This research is composed by five interconnected parts. The first one examines urban and energy dynamics’ current conditions to comprehend the role and contribution of the building industry considering the scientific progress and the implementation of present operational instruments. The second one investigates role and evolution of the density concept as parameter...

‣ Air Transport and Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The air transport sector is enjoying an optimistic growth rate while at the same time eliciting growing concern, due to its environmental impact and its vulnerability with respect to energy security. These issues have put the sector at the forefront of the tide in achieving energy efficiency. Efforts have been made on every front to improve efficiency through better technology, optimized operation, as well as energy-saving infrastructure. This report includes five chapters. Chapter 1 will introduce the air transport energy consumption outlook though the analysis of the growth of air services as well as consumption of fossil fuel-based energy. Chapter two will discuss air transport's impact on the environment and the response and actions from the air transport sector. Chapter three will detail potential energy efficiency gains in aircraft design, air service operation, as well as infrastructure design. The role of the government and private sector in fostering and supporting those energy efficiency gains will also be discussed. Chapter four will enumerate policy options for countries with respect to air transport energy efficiency...

‣ Climate Impacts on Energy Systems : Key Issues for Energy Sector Adaptation

Ebinger, Jane; Vergara, Walter
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This report presents an overview of how the energy sector might be impacted by climate change and what options exist for its management. It focuses on energy sector adaptation, rather than mitigation, which has been a key focus of the energy sector and is not discussed in this report. This report draws on available scientific and peer-reviewed literature in the public domain and takes the perspective of the developing world to the extent possible. It starts with a discussion about observed and projected climate change (out to 2100), exploring trends, extremes, and 'hotspots'- geographic regions that will see significant changes or variability for relevant parameters (for example, temperature, runoff , and sea level rise). It then discusses what is known about the impacts of these changes on energy resources, infrastructure, and transportation systems as well as demand. It discusses what technologies or services are more vulnerable and identifies gaps in information or knowledge. The report concludes with a number of proposed near-term actions to foster dialogue...

‣ Energy Saving in IP over WDM Backbone Networks

COIRO, ANGELO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The energy consumption of the Internet is exploding due to the increase of the number of devices connected to it as well as the increase of traffic volume that is estimated in about 50% per year fuelled by mobile data and video applications; consequently, it is crucial to improve network efficiency to prevent the Internet from being throttled by an energy bottleneck. This PhD dissertation deals with the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks and specifically faces the problem of saving energy in the backbone section of the network. The main contributions concern the definition of algorithms and mechanisms that integrate and exploit the knowledge of the network topology, the carried traffic and the power behaviour of network devices to achieve energy efficiency in the network. Three novel contributions are presented which are related to three different saving strategies. The first faced problem concerns the design of energy efficient virtual topologies in two-layers IP over WDM networks. The problem is formalized as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem and a novel heuristic algorithm, named Start-Single Hop and ReRoute, is proposed and compared with the optimal solution and another heuristic solution proposed in the literature. Results obtained through extended simulations demonstrate that the proposed solution is able to reduce the network energy consumption with respect to other solutions and to perform close to the optimal solution. Another key aspect faced in the dissertation is related to the possibility of saving energy in presence of variable traffic exploiting traffic engineering strategies that aim at aggregating the traffic on a subset of network elements in order to put in sleeping unused devices. Concerning this point...

‣ An agent-based simulator to estimate domestic energy use

Sá, António Pedro Amorim de
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 Português
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Throughout recent years, there has been an increase in the population size, as well as a fast economic growth, which has led to an increase of the energy demand that comes mainly from fossil fuels. In order to reduce the ecological footprint, governments have implemented sustainable measures and it is expected that by 2035 the energy produced from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar would be responsible for one-third of the energy produced globally. However, since the energy produced from renewable sources is governed by the availability of the respective primary energy source there is often a mismatch between production and demand, which could be solved by adding flexibility on the demand side through demand response (DR). DR programs influence the end-user electricity usage by changing its cost along the time. Under this scenario the user needs to estimate the energy demand and on-site production in advance to plan its energy demand according to the energy price. This work focuses on the development of an agent-based electrical simulator, capable of: (a) estimating the energy demand and on-site generation with a 1-min time resolution for a 24-h period, (b) calculating the energy price for a given scenario...

‣ The hidden world trade in energy

Strout, Alan Mayne
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 5212452 bytes; application/pdf
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The energy embodied in internationally traded commodities is estimated for the year 1967 by employing United States input-output energy coefficients expressed in physical units. In this year and under the assumption of USA technology and industrial structure, this "hidden" world trade in energy probably exceeded 40 per cent of the directly observed world trade in energy. As a ratio to aggregate energy consumption, the importance of embodied energy flows is smaller, but net embodied energy imports are positively correlated with per capita GDP, and their inclusion in aggregate energy consumption would increase measured income (per capita GDP) elasticities. A country's imports of embodied energy are approximately proportional to the imports of all commodities. Exports of embodied energy, on the other hand, especially those associated with more energy-intensive materials (which are largely products of what is commonly called heavy industry and which account for most of the country net imports of embodied energy) have a much higher elasticity than do imports with respect to per capita GDP. These energy-intensive exports are also significantly affected by a country's relative production of primary energy, total agricultural crops...

‣ Vacuum Polarization and Casimir Energy of a Dirac Field Induced by a Scalar Potential in One Spatial Dimension

Gousheh, Siamak S.; Mousavi, Soheila S.; Shahkarami, Leila
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2014 Português
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We investigate the vacuum polarization and the Casimir energy of a Dirac field coupled to a scalar potential in one spatial dimension. Both of these effects have a common cause which is the distortion of the spectrum due to the coupling with the background field. Choosing the potential to be a symmetrical square-well, the problem becomes exactly solvable and we can find the whole spectrum of the system, analytically. We show that the total number of states and the total density remain unchanged as compared with the free case, as one expects. Furthermore, since the positive- and negative-energy eigenstates of the fermion are fermion-number conjugates of each other and there is no zero-energy bound state, the total density and the total number of negative and positive states remain unchanged, separately. Therefore, the vacuum polarization in this model is zero for any choice of the parameters of the potential. It is important to note that although the vacuum polarization is zero due to the symmetries of the model, the Casimir energy of the system is not zero in general. In the graph of the Casimir energy as a function of the depth of the well there is a maximum approximately when the bound energy levels change direction and move back towards their continuum of origin. The Casimir energy for a fixed value of the depth is a linear function of the width and is always positive. Moreover...

‣ Quantum Energy Teleportation between Spin Particles in a Gibbs State

Frey, Michael; Gerlach, Karl; Hotta, Masahiro
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Energy in a multipartite quantum system appears from an operational perspective to be distributed to some extent non-locally because of correlations extant among the system's components. This non-locality allows users to transfer, in effect, locally accessible energy between sites of different system components by LOCC (local operations and classical communication). Quantum energy teleportation is a three-step LOCC protocol, accomplished without an external energy carrier, for effectively transferring energy between two physically separated, but correlated, sites. We apply this LOCC teleportation protocol to a model Heisenberg spin particle pair initially in a quantum thermal Gibbs state, making temperature an explicit parameter. We find in this setting that energy teleportation is possible at any temperature, even at temperatures above the threshold where the particles' entanglement vanishes. This shows for Gibbs spin states that entanglement is not fundamentally necessary for energy teleportation; correlation other than entanglement can suffice. Dissonance---quantum correlation in separable states---is in this regard shown to be a quantum resource for energy teleportation, more dissonance being consistently associated with greater energy yield. We compare energy teleportation from particle A to B in Gibbs states with direct local energy extraction by a general quantum operation on B and find a temperature threshold below which energy extraction by a local operation is impossible. This threshold delineates essentially two regimes: a high temperature regime where entanglement vanishes and the teleportation generated by other quantum correlations yields only vanishingly little energy relative to local extraction and a second low-temperature teleportation regime where energy is available at B only by teleportation.

‣ The Economics of Energy (and Electricity) Demand

Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, we look at the macro-economic context of energy. This reveals how energy and electricity consumption are subject to the same drivers - income and price - over long periods. However, energy demand (and carbon emissions) falls and energy prices rises in one country may have little effect at the world level. Next, we examine the features of energy service expenditures. Despite similarities over time, specific sectors are distinct from one another in terms of consumption profiles, and new sources of electricity demand may substantially change total demand and the way it is consumed. This leads us to a closer look at the micro-economic context of energy demand, and the tension between technically possible energy savings one one side, and the economics and behavioural dimensions on the other side. We conclude by highlighting the various unknowns and uncertainties that characterise the future of energy demand.

‣ AN ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, AND CARBON OFFSETS AT DUKE UNIVERSITY

Kazarov, Elena; Baehr, Ellis; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Yee; Brasovan, Ashley
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015 Português
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Many universities globally are embarking on voluntary efforts to become climate neutral to combat global warming. In 2007, Duke University adopted a goal to be climate neutral by 2024. The Office of the Executive Vice President established the Duke Carbon Offsets Initiative (DCOI) in June 2009 to develop the University’s strategy for meeting its carbon offset goals. As the client for this report, the DCOI charged Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment Masters team with preparing a purchasing guide to aid in its strategy. The paper analyzes the options considered by Duke to meet its carbon neutrality goals, which include: reducing on-campus emissions through improving energy efficiency; buying carbon offsets on the market; creating carbon offsets through local projects; purchasing Renewable Energy Credits; and developing renewable energy resources on-campus. The final product sets forth a recommended strategy to meet the carbon offsets goals, including a timeline of purchases and an overview of costs. Given the University’s role as an institution motivated by both financial and non-financial goals, such as education and economic benefits to the local community, combinations of purchasing options are presented in three portfolios: the cheapest portfolio...

‣ Analyzing Energy Outlooks: Focusing on North America and the United States of America

Molinari, Terrence
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 Português
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There are broad ranges of organizations that produce energy forecasts for different purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy produces an International Energy Outlook through their Energy Information Administration (EIA), whose objective is to provide facts for public policy decisions. The International Energy Agency (IEA) produces a World Energy Outlook to ensure their members maintain energy security and have research to achieve clean, cheap and affordable energy sources. Furthermore, various public companies produce outlooks, such as BP and ExxonMobil, which both do so in an effort to promote discussion around energy issues. Assumptions made about policy, technology, economic development, and demographics strongly affect the different models used in each survey. The objectives of analyzing these outlooks together are to determine how and where they differ, and to explain these differences quantitatively and qualitatively. The most influencing factor, for all the energy types, was the scenario assumption, namely policy and technology assumptions. Projections that differ the most, or were most similar, can be generally explained by understanding the policy and technology assumptions behind each survey. The EIA provides projections for consumption in production for the status quo...

‣ The Arctic energy budget, sea ice area, and the atmospheric circulation

Chan, Weihan
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Leathers, Daniel J.; Arctic amplification and changes in Arctic sea ice has led to questions regarding the role of the Arctic in mid-latitude climate. All studies concerning the factors and the impacts suggest that changes in the Arctic system occur in association with altered energy fluxes. Therefore, this study explores Arctic energy fluxes in detail concentrating on their temporal and regional characteristics using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) dataset. To understand how energy flux variations affect the Arctic climate, interactions among energy flux variables, Arctic sea ice, and prominent atmospheric teleconnections are investigated. These interactions are analyzed from two spatial perspectives: the entire Arctic and the sub-Arctic regions. Results from the entire Arctic showed that the annual cycle and the spatial distribution of energy fluxes follow the seasonal cycle, latitudinal variation, and surface conditions. No significant long-term trends are found for the energy flux variables; however, the accumulated total energy tendency suggests a prolonged period with energy flux surplus from 1995-2006. Significant correlations were found among energy fluxes, sea ice, and the NAO suggesting that sea ice variations are connected with changes in atmospheric circulation through the surface energy flux (F sfc ) directly or indirectly through the atmospheric energy transport (TEDIV). Maps of the spatial correlations show stronger relationships between these variables in unique regions. Hence...

‣ ENERGY BALANCE AND EFFICIENCY IN WOOD SAWDUST BRIQUETTES PRODUCTION; ENERGY BALANCE AND EFFICIENCY IN WOOD SAWDUST BRIQUETTES PRODUCTION

Vale, Ailton Teixeira; Universidade de Brasília; Gentil, Luiz Vicente; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/11/2014 Português
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AbstractEnergy balance and efficiency for densified sawdust production. The industrial wood briquette making process is an alternative to add value to forestry waste and involves the compaction of sawdust at high pressure and temperature. The present study was performed in an industry in the state of Goiás, Brazil. All kinds of energy involved in the wood briquette manufacturing process were qualified and quantified, in all stages of the process. The methodology used was based on Cotrim (1992), Silva (2001), (BEN, 2007), Inconprera (2008) and NBR 8633. The total energy demand to produce one ton of Pinus wood briquettes using sawdust at 43.8% moisture was 435 kWh. When producing the same amount of briquettes at 11% humidity, this value fell to 101.66 kWh per ton. Thus, drying process of sawdust consumes 76.63% of all the energy used for manufacturing. The amount of energy required for the production of 1 ton of briquettes corresponds to 10.8% (wet sawdust) and 4.37% (dry sawdust) of the energy contained in this one ton of briquettes.Keywords: Wood densification; industry of briquette; energy. ResumoEficiência e balanço energético na fabricação de briquetes de madeira. A briquetagem é uma alternativa para agregar valor a resíduos de origem agro florestal e consiste na compactação da serragem a elevadas pressões e temperatura. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma indústria no estado de Goiás...

‣ An evaluation for harnessing low-enthalpy geothermal energy in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

Dhansay,Taufeeq; de Wit,Maarten; Patt,Anthony
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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South Africa generates most of its energy requirements from coal, and is now the leading carbon emitter in Africa, and has one of the highest rates of emissions of all nations in the world. In an attempt to decrease its CO2 emissions, South Africa continues to research and develop alternative forms of energy, expand on the development of nuclear and has began to explore potentially vast shale gas reserves. In this mix, geothermal has not been considered to date as an alternative energy source. This omission appears to stem largely from the popular belief that South Africa is tectonically too stable. In this study, we investigated low-enthalpy geothermal energy from one of a number of anomalously elevated heat flow regions in South Africa. Here, we consider a 75-MW enhanced geothermal systems plant in the Limpopo Province, sustainable over a 30-year period. All parameters were inculcated within a levelised cost of electricity model that calculates the single unit cost of electricity and tests its viability and potential impact toward South Africa's future energy security and CO2 reduction. The cost of electricity produced is estimated at 14 USc/KWh, almost double that of coal-generated energy. However, a USD25/MWh renewable energy tax incentive has the potential of making enhanced geothermal systems comparable with other renewable energy sources. It also has the potential of CO2 mitigation by up to 1.5 gCO...