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‣ Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India

Sargsyan, Gevorg; Bhatia, Mikul; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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India has 150 GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This diagnostic note draws on a detailed analysis conducted by a PricewaterhouseCoopers India consulting team in 2008-09 for the World Bank. The data are based on information on about 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from and norms of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The study is intended to provoke discussions of the feasibility of renewable energy development in India. Why is renewable energy development relevant? How much development is economically feasible? What needs to be done to realize the potential? Each of these topics is addressed in a separate chapter...

‣ Central American Regional Programmatic Study for the Energy Sector : General Issues and Options - Sector Overview

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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The six Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama share a long tradition of regional integration, including a common market, substantial intraregional trade, as well as coordinated commercial policies, such as the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) with the US. The most significant example of regional integration in the energy subsector consists of the Sistema de Interconexion Electrica para America Central (SIEPAC), an interconnection line that is expected to link the six countries in mid-2010. The creation of the interconnection has been a long-term effort, starting in the early 1990s and culminating in 2010. This report provides an overview of the energy sector in Central America, with a focus on the power subsector, and highlights the key challenges and options for meeting future energy and development goals. One of the main objectives of the study is to identify paths for collective action whereby individual countries, and the region as a whole...

‣ A Review of Solar Energy : Markets, Economics and Policies

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Kurdgelashvili, Lado; Narbel, Patrick A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential...

‣ Energy Poverty in Rural and Urban India : Are the Energy Poor Also Income Poor?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach was applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57 percent of households are energy poor, versus 22 percent that are income poor. For urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28 percent compared with 20 percent that are income poor. Policies to reduce energy poverty would include support for rural electrification, the promotion of more modern cooking fuels...

‣ Balancing Act : Cutting Energy Subsidies While Protecting Affordability

Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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The cost of energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as elsewhere, is an important policy issue, as shown by the concerns for energy affordability during the past harsh winter. Governments try to moderate the burden of energy expenditures that is experienced by households through subsidies to the energy providers, so that households pay tariffs below the cost recovery level for the energy they use. These subsidies result in significant pressures on government budgets when international prices rise. They also provide perverse incentives for the overconsumption of energy as households do not pay the true cost of energy, and therefore, have fewer incentives to save or to invest in energy efficiency. Balancing competing claims-fiscal and environmental concerns which would push for raising energy tariffs on the one hand, and affordability and political economy concerns which push for keeping tariffs artificially low on the other-is a task that policy makers in the region are increasingly unable to put off. Addressing this issue is all the more pressing as the ongoing crisis continues to add stress to government budgets...

‣ Options for a Low Carbon Energy Future in Morocco

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Morocco s economy is growing rapidly in all its sectors (tourism, agriculture, industry , etc.) Consequently, the energy demand has been increasing steadily in the period 2003-2007 when primary energy demand rose by 5% per annum and electricity demand by 8% per annum. At the request of the World Bank Group, this study was launched having 3 main objectives: An analysis of the current characteristics of energy supply and demand, the assessment of the energy strategy of Morocco for the coming years, and then a development of an alternative energy scenario with low carbon energies. Beicip-Franlab has established a detailed energy balance of Morocco on the basis ofMoroccan and international studies already conducted on the energy sector of Morocco as well as on well known databases like IEA ones.For the period 2009-2030, Morocco has defined an energy strategy which was presented during the first Assises de l Energie organized in March 2009. An assessment of this strategy considering both energy and environmental criteria will be presented in order to be compared with the business as usual scenario.Finally an alternative scenario is proposed. Based on an intensive introduction ofrenewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE)...

‣ Proceedings of the International Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Policy Forum

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This document presents the highlights of speaker presentations, breakout groups, ensuing discussions, conclusions, and next steps as presented at the International Grid- Connected Renewable Energy (RE) Policy Forum. The conferences purpose was to facilitate increased use of grid-connected RE in the developing world. In the course of the three-day meetings, speakers and participants addressed the challenge of scaling up the use of RE for grid power supply. The interactive forum was designed to focus on four core topics: 1) incorporation of RE in power sector frameworks; 2) economic valuation of RE; 3) RE policy instruments; and 4) private sector investment in RE. The forum also presented issues and offered solutions, lessons learned, best practices, and country-specific case studies

‣ Doubling the Rate of Improvement of Energy Efficiency

Sinton, Jonathan; Sarkar, Ashok; Jaques, Ivan; Bushueva, Irina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Over the 20-year period between 1990 and 2010, strong demo¬graphic and economic growth around the world caused global primary energy consumption to grow at a compound annual rate of 2 percent annually. Even so, falling energy intensity (the amount of energy used to produce a unit of economic output) meant that global energy demand in 2010 was more than 20 percent lower than it otherwise would have been. The energy intensity of the global economy fell during the period from 10.2 to 7.9 megajoules per U.S. dollar (2005 dollars at PPP). The reduction was driven by cumulative improvements in energy efficiency, partially offset by growth in activity, resulting in energy savings of nearly 2,300 exajoules over the 20-year period. Doubling the rate of improvement of global energy efficiency is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Launched in the UN General Assembly in September 2012 and co-chaired by the president of the World Bank Group and the UN Secretary-General...

‣ Adapting to Higher Energy Costs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
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This report presents findings from 208 focus group discussions held across 8 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia between 2013-2014 that examined households experiences with and attitudes to energy tariff reforms. Over the past five years, the World Bank has provided guidance to more than 14 countries in the region on implementing energy subsidy reforms. This work complements a large body of research on the poverty impacts of these reforms. Specifically, it gives voice to poor and middle-income citizens, and presents their perspectives and concerns with regard to rising tariffs and reforms in the energy sector overall. The report argues that by gaining a deeper understanding of the narratives that people attach to energy issues, governments can design better mitigation policies to address the reforms adverse impacts; better communication campaigns to convey the rationale of reforms to the public; and institute stronger accountability measures to help citizens protect their rights as consumers. This report examines poverty and social impacts of energy tariff reforms in the ECA region from citizens perspectives. It aims to complement previously collected quantitative data on distributional impacts of reforms...

‣ Turkey’s Energy Transition Milestones and Challenges; Türkiye enerji sektöründe dönüşüm önemli aşamalar ve zorluklar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Through a variety of interlinked measures, Turkey’s energy reforms have achieved energy security for a fast-growing economy with rapidly increasing energy needs. These measures include legislation regarding electricity, gas, renewable energy, and energy efficiency; the establishment of an energy sector regulatory authority; energy price reform; the creation of a functional electricity market and large-scale introduction of natural gas; the restructuring of state-owned energy enterprises; and large-scale private sector participation through privatization and new investment. The objectives of this are to: (a) inform future energy reforms and reformers seeking to learn and benefit from Turkey’s experience, and (b) contribute to the dialogue on future energy reforms in Turkey. The report will present Turkey’s accomplishments in developing and implementing market-oriented energy reforms as well as selected key reform challenges going forward. In terms of reform milestones, the primary focus is on the electric power and natural gas sectors...

‣ Africa Energy Poverty : G8 Energy Ministers Meeting 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Worldwide, about 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity services. There are also large populations without access in the poorer countries of Asia and Latin America, as well as in the rural and peri-urban areas of middle income countries. However large-scale electrification programs that is currently underway in middle income countries and the poor countries of Asia will increase household electricity access more rapidly than in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa has the lowest electrification rate of all the regions at 26 percent of households, meaning that as many as 547 million people are without access to electricity. On current trends less than half of African countries will reach universal access to electricity even by 2050. Without access to electricity services, the poor are deprived of opportunities to improve their living standards and the delivery of health and education services is compromised when electricity is not available in clinics, in schools and in the households of students and teachers. The total financing needs for Africa to resolve the power supply crisis are of the order of approximately US$40 billion per annum or 6.4 percent of region's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In response to the power crisis...

‣ Assessment of Household Energy Deprivation in Tajikistan : Policy Options for Socially Responsible Reform in the Energy Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Every year an estimated seventy percent of Tajikistan's population suffers from severe electricity shortages in winter. The energy sector was affected by dramatic changes over the last few decades - regional energy cooperation was disrupted after the break-up of the Soviet Union, gas imports were interrupted, and the state was unable to invest adequately in the maintenance of the national energy infrastructure. Tajikistan has been facing severe power shortages in winter months since the district heating system collapsed and households as a consequence started to use electricity for heating purposes. This report assesses energy deprivation in Tajikistan with an emphasis on the human dimension, paying special attention to rural areas. It takes a broad look at household energy security, affordability, and coping mechanisms, in order to inform short and medium-term policies to mitigate energy deprivation. Firstly, it analyzes energy use and spending patterns across diverse groups of consumers, low and middle-income...

‣ Tapping the Potential for Energy Savings in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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This report, Tapping the Potential for Energy Savings in Turkey, focuses on sector and analytical work to assess demand-side energy efficiency measures that require specific attention in Turkey. The report provides recommendations on potential government strategies to promote energy efficiency and to scale up investments. The report concludes that the Government now needs to be focused on creating the enabling environment to develop an energy efficiency market and incentives as well as rules and standards for private sector capital and technical capacity to prioritize energy efficiency. National and sector targets for energy savings may be set to clarify the Government's intent to improve energy efficiency. Specific actions and policy recommendations are addressed.

‣ Toward a Low-Carbon Economy : Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Renewable energy and energy efficiency projects continue to perform strongly in the World Bank Group (WBG) energy portfolio and are increasingly being mainstreamed in the WBG's energy lending. In fiscal 2007 a total of US$1,433 million supported 63 renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in 32 countries. In addition to operational activities, the WBG engages in a variety of economic sector work and technical assistance focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency. This work is an integral part of the WBG activities, which is valued as an important source of information and advice for policy makers and other stakeholders. In addition, these activities are an important component in the preparation of future lending activities. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) is a multi-donor trust-funded global technical assistance program that has reached its 25th anniversary. This program provides policy advice on sustainable energy development to governments of developing countries and economies in transition. The carbon finance project aims at promoting investments in wind energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to contribute to the further development of the international carbon market in Mexico through the supply of emissions reductions under the clean development mechanism and to improve energy security.

‣ Energy and Emissions : Local and Global Effects of the Rise of China and India

Shalizi, Zmarak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Part 1 of the paper reviews recent trends in fossil fuel use and associated externalities. It also argues that the recent run-up in international oil prices reflects growing concerns about supply constraints associated with declining spare capacity in OPEC, refining bottlenecks, and geopolitical uncertainties rather than growing incremental use of oil by China and India. Part 2 compares two business as usual scenarios with a set of alternate scenarios based on policy interventions on the demand for or supply of energy and different assumptions about rigidities in domestic and international energy markets. The results suggest that energy externalities are likely to worsen significantly if there is no shift in China's and India's energy strategies. High energy demand from China and India could constrain some developing countries' growth through higher prices on international energy markets, but for others the "growth retarding" effects of higher energy prices are partially or fully offset by the "growth stimulating" effects of the larger markets in China and India. Given that there are many inefficiencies in the energy system in both China and India...

‣ Accelerating Clean Energy Technology Research, Development, and Deployment : Lessons from Non-Energy Sectors

Avato, Patrick; Coony, Jonathan
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The World Bank Group's clean energy for development investment framework action plan has outlined some of the key activities it intends to undertake in the area of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and helping client countries adapt to changes in climate. One of these activities focuses on an analysis of the role of low-carbon energy technologies in climate change mitigation. This report provides an initial analysis of this issue. The second chapter describes the urgency of developing new low-carbon energy technologies based on a review of some of the most authoritative recent reports on climate change. Strong evidence demonstrates the need for new and improved energy technologies, but, as is described in the third chapter, current research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts worldwide appear too limited and slow-paced to generate new energy technologies rapidly enough to respond to the climate change crisis. Moreover, significant barriers are limiting incentives to invest in energy RD&D and may reduce the effectiveness of such investments. These barriers are discussed in the fourth chapter. In light of these barriers and the very limited success of past attempts to overcome them...

‣ China : Improving Energy Efficiency in Public Institutions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The next several years are critical for achieving lasting results in China's relatively new energy efficiency program for public institutions. Public institutions in China are defined as those government agencies, public service units, and organizations that either fully or partially receive government budget funds. In the study team's opinion, key challenges for China's public institution energy conservation program for the medium-term might best be summarized to include the following four: (i) completing program institutional infrastructure, (ii) making further inroads in the huge task of completing energy use data collection and diagnostic analysis in China's many public entities, (iii) further improving incentives and generating greater enthusiasm among public entities for action, and (iv) expanding financing options for public entities, especially using energy performance contracting (EPC). Plans already exist to address the first two challenges and emphasis should be placed on quality of implementation. Efforts dealing with the third and fourth challenges...

‣ Accelerating Energy Conservation in China's Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
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China's comprehensive 2006-10 energy conservation drive has succeeded in both delivering strong results to date and laying policy and program foundations for delivering more energy savings well into the future. The policies, program concepts, and implementation platforms created over the last four years will serve China well to achieve further energy conservation results during the next five-year planning cycle, and to help achieve China's target to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 40-45 percent by 2020. However, much work remains to be done, to improve, adjust, and strengthen the programs further, and to continue to interject new and creative solutions. This report seeks to provide provincial agencies and groups in China, and those that support them, with some outside perspectives and ideas on further development of provincial-level energy conservation programs over the next several years. The report also describes the provincial energy conservation programs developed during the last four years in some detail...

‣ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Financing and Policy Network : Options Study and Proceedings of the International Forum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This report documents the proceedings of a scoping study conducted by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank on the needs and options for a Financing and Policy Network for Scaling-Up Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries. At the Bonn International Conference on Renewable Energies in June 2004, global leaders from governments, industry, financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, and multilateral organizations paved the way for a new energy future that will transform the energy structures of today and increase the global use of renewable energy. To build upon the success of the Bonn Conference, the idea of a "global policy network" was proposed - the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), The network would bring together a range of stakeholders to address the scaling-up of renewable energy and energy efficiency by focusing on such key issues as policies, capacity building, technology transfer, research and development...

‣ Lights out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Before the current economic crisis hit the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region in 2008, energy security was a major source of concern in Central and Eastern Europe and in many of the economies in the former Soviet Union. Energy importers were experiencing shortages leading to periodic brownouts and blackouts. An energy crisis seemed imminent. This report analyzes the outlook for energy demand and supply in the region. It estimates the investment requirements and highlights the potential environmental concerns associated with meeting future energy needs, including those related to climate change. The report also proposes the actions necessary to create an attractive environment for investment in cleaner energy. Greater regional cooperation for smart energy and climate action is an important part of the World Bank's engagement in Europe and Central Asia.