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‣ Prospecção e bases de formação da demanda e oferta de etanol combustível nos Estados Unidos; Prospection and formation basis of supply and demand for ethanol fuel in the United States

Ishikawa, Aline
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2013 Português
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Desde o primeiro choque do petróleo, em 1973, os países têm despendido esforços para reduzir sua dependência pelo produto, produzido principalmente em regiões politicamente instáveis. Os Estados Unidos são os maiores consumidores mundiais do combustível, e cerca de 70% são destinados ao transporte. Desde o final da década de 70, o governo americano tem incentivado o uso de etanol como substituto parcial da gasolina. No entanto, o crescimento do biocombustível levantou polêmicas porque a matéria-prima utilizada na sua produção no país é o milho, o que poderia estar afetando a oferta do grão para a produção de alimentos. Dessa forma, foi aprovado em 2007 o RFS2, uma legislação que prevê o consumo mandatório de volumes crescentes de etanol até 2022, mas limita a produção a partir de milho. Os investimentos em pesquisas de combustíveis alternativos passaram a se focar no desenvolvimento de etanol de segunda geração, que utiliza material celulósico como matéria-prima. Sua viabilidade técnica já foi confirmada, mas ainda são necessárias melhorias no processo de produção para que o produto possa ser ofertado em escala comercial. Por outro lado, o Brasil tem uma indústria de etanol madura e também tem feito pesquisas na tecnologia de segunda geração. Se bem sucedida...

‣ The frequency domain causality analysis between energy consumption and income in the United States

Tiwari,Aviral Kumar
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
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We investigated Granger-causality in the frequency domain between primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and GDP for the US by employing approach of Lemmens et al. (2008) and covering the period of January, 1973 to December, 2008. We found that causal and reverse causal relations between primary energy consumption and GDP and electricity consumption and GDP vary across frequencies. Our unique contribution in the existing literature lies in decomposing the causality on the basis of time horizons and demonstrating bidirectional the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run causality between GDP and primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and thus providing evidence for the feedback hypothesis. These results have important implications for the US for planning of the short, the medium and the long run energy and economic growth related policies.

‣ Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4535561 bytes; application/pdf
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The effects of alternative public policies on the consumption and prices of various forms of energy in the United States depends critically on the nature of consumer demands for fuels and the supply characteristics of these fuels. Previous work on energy demand has tended to concentrate on the demand for a particular fuel as determined by standard economic variables such as the price of the fuel, income levels, sometimes the price of alternative fuels, and other demographic characteristics of the consuming population. In this work the consumer decision making process is viewed as being composed of two steps. First, the consumer decides that he wants a particular service and, secondly, seeks to find the fuel that will provide this service most cheaply. This view leads us to concentrate on substitution possibilities among fuels for particular services rather than own-price elasticities for a particular fuel. This paper presents results for the determinants of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector in the United States. First, a discussion of the conceptual model used for fuel choice decisions is presented. Then, empirical results are given for appliance choices in the residential sector for four selected appliances and for the "fuel-split" of aggregate energy consumption among the three fuels used in the residential and commercial sector. The own-price and cross-price elasticities are estimated and discussed. Next...

‣ Energy conservation: a case study for a large manufacturing plant

Felton, Lewis Allen; Glicksman, Leon R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4079287 bytes; application/pdf
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The methods of formulating, implementing, and evaluating a conservation program in a commercial building or light industrial plant are examined in this paper. The results of one case study are also presented. In commercial and light industrial applications, most energy is consumed to maintain proper environmental conditions; light levels, heat levels, and fresh air levels. Most buildings today expend too much energy on these services. A co-ordinated program to maintain environmental conditions at levels pointed out in this report could save as mu h as 20% each year in energy consumption. This report presents a method that can be used by many commercial and light industrial concerns to establish a conservation program. Guidelines are presented that can be used to examine environmental conditions and determine how they must be changed. A system of program analysis is also presented. Results of this study show that saving 20% is possible, but motivation of the company and workforce will be a problem. The report also concludes that new buildings can be made more energy efficient if energy conservation is kept in mind during building design.

‣ Information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency : a report to the Federal Energy Administration

MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 11635839 bytes; application/pdf
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Final working paper, submitted to Office of Data Policy, Federal Energy Administration in connection with A Study of information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency, (FEA Contract no. 14-01-001-2040).

‣ Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2142479 bytes; application/pdf
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NSF Grant GI-39150 and NSF Grant no. SIA 73-07871 A02

‣ Project Independence report : a review of U.S. energy needs up to 1985

Hausman, Jerry A.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 3077511 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ The FEA Project Independence report: an analytical review and evaluation

MIT Energy Laboratory Policy Study Group
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 6572499 bytes; application/pdf
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Final report to Office of Energy Research and Development Policy, National Science Foundation, Contract NSF C-1030

‣ Energy consumption and fuel choice by residential and commercial consumers in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 1506069 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ An examination of the use of probability modeling for the analysis of interfuel substitution in residential fuel demand

Hartman, Raymond Steve; Hollyer, Mark R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 4561111 bytes; application/pdf
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Research was supported by the Energy Research and Development Administration as part of a contract with Arthur D. Little, inc.

‣ Institutional analysis of energy provision in housing : a preliminary exploration

Reamer, Andrew; Nutt-Powell, Thomas Evan; Heim, Steven
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 2848835 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper, one of a series resulting from institutional analysis of photovoltaic (PV) acceptance, provides preliminary exploration of the energy industry in relation to energy provision in the residential sector. It is based on theoretical formulations and utilizes methods of institutional analysis developed in an earlier paper in this series. Seven institutional functions -- production, financing, regulation, political, research, service and socialization -- are reviewed as to the manner in which they are performed in the energy industry. The structure of the energy industry is described, as is the regulatory web within which its financial decisions are made and its operations conducted. The persistent and increasing activity of all levels of government in determining the practices of the energy industry is dis- cussed. The research section identifies recent efforts to develop alternative energy sources. The services section especially emphasizes the delivery of energy to residences, while the discussion of the social- ization function highlights the ways in which attitudes on energy availability and use are developed.; Prepared under Dept. of Energy Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order no.37.

‣ Effect of attic wood floor on temperatures and fuel-oil consumption in a frame dwelling

Mathewson, J. S; Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.); University of Wisconsin; United States -- Forest Service
Fonte: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis ) Publicador: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory; U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 4, [4] leaves : ill. ; 26 cm.
Publicado em //[1936?] Português
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Cover title.; "Published in Domestic Engineering October 1936."; "In cooperation with the University of Wisconsin."; (Statement of Responsibility) by J.S. Mathewson.

‣ Privatization of utilities in government owned housing: a model approach

Autrey, James L
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis examines the option of privatizing electricity and gas utilities, requiring residents of Navy Family Housing (NFH) to pay for all consumption. To assist in the payment, an Utility Housing Allowance (UHA) would be provided to residents based on the average consumption of local Private Sector Housing (PSH) residents. The goal of this thesis is to determine if implementing an UHA would reduce the overall energy consumption in NFH. Specifically, it determines the historical usage of electricity and gas in the Naval Postgraduate School's La Mesa housing village (LMV) area and the local PSH areas. It then develops forecasting models for both areas to predict the future consumption of utilities, sets a baseline consumption rate for LMV residents, and identifies the savings that would be generated from implementing the UHA program. After validating the forecasting models and comparing costs under the UHA concept, this study concludes that the UHA concept would save approximately $268,300 annually at LMV alone. Additionally, in meeting the Navy's Year 2005 goal of reducing energy consumption by 30% per square foot, by implementing an UHA concept, the projected savings in LMV alone are approximately 50% per square foot/month. Although the study focuses on LMV...

‣ Energy consumption evaluation of United States Navy LEED certified buildings for fiscal year 2009

Mangasarian, Seth
Fonte: University of Wisconsin-Madison Publicador: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 136 p. : col. ill.
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CIVINS; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; As of October 1, 2008, the Department of the Navy inserted the requirement that all new buildings constructed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps would have an additional requirement to become Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver certified by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The goal of this effort is in compliance with Executive Order (EO) 13423, which provides that all Government departments must reduce energy consumption by 30% by 2015. The objective of this research is to find if the eleven buildings for the United States Navy that have already received a LEED certification or higher, have achieved the expected energy consumption savings in comparison to other similar non-LEED certified facilities. To accomplish this effort, these buildings have been compared to other United States Navy and Marine Corps commercial buildings of comparable size, usage, and within the same region as chosen by the respective Public Works Departments. The data being compared for this study will be electricity and water consumption, based upon what could be received from the current building's meters. Additionally, these LEED certified buildings will be compared to the national averages for electricity consumption as expressed by the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to find if any energy savings is achieved to buildings of similar size.; Contract number: N00244-00-G-0004.; CIVINS

‣ Final report on energy, supply, demand/need and the gaps between : to the M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas and the Environmental Protection Agency under Task 27 of EPA Contract 8-01-1308

Meyer, James Wagner; Jones, William J.; Kessler, Myer M.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 14502067 bytes; 4493381 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This paper is a summary, based on a critical review of selected literature pertaining to energy supply, demand, supply/ demand imbalances and the operational/technological developments needed to redress imbalances. Crises have been a recurrent feature of man's history. There was a crisis based on a shortage of wood fuel in the early 17th century. Whale oil was so short during the Civil War that the price doubled, yet it then dropped by a factor of six before the end of the century as kerosene became an alternate option. Energy demand growth soared in the U.S. over the last two decades not because of need but because real energy prices dropped. Energy was substituted for labor and material which were costing more. Now we have materials as well as energy shortages and massive unemployment. There is little agreement regarding our future supply of fossil fuels and no consensus on the best way to reduce demand. History tells us that the imbalance will be resolved. It is our task to make sure that the resolution occurs with the lowest possible social and environmental cost. Price can resolve the imbalance, but because price dbes not often reflect all costs this resolution can be very disruptive. Alternatives must be developed and options broadened. Opportunities for conservation should not be overlooked for the marginal barrel of oil saved is of greater value than the marginal barrel of new production. A series of working papers and monographs which discuss certain aspects of this review more broadly are included in Volume II of this report.; Environmental Protection Agency of United States and M.W. Kellogg Company

‣ Factors affecting residential heating energy consumption

Donovan, John J.; Fischer, Walter P.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 3139071 bytes; application/pdf
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Twenty per cent of all energy consumed in New England and ten per cent of all energy consumed in the United States is consumed in home heating. This paper reports on an effort to ascertain the major factors affecting the consumption of home heating oil. Three general classes of factors are analyzed: (1) physical and occupant characteristics (number of rooms, number of occupants, number of stories, amount of insulation, income level, etc.); (2) external (price, shortage awareness, weather); and (3) behavioral and physical changes (change in temperature settings, change in insulation, change in oil burner, etc.). The study is based on four data series: (1) actual monthly home heating oil consumption data on 8000 suburban homeowners in suburban Boston; (2) questionnaire responses from 2000 homeowners on their homes' physical and occupant characteristics, as well as changes in physical and occu- pant behavioral characteristics between 1972 and 1975; (3) monthly weather data; and (4) heating oil price data. The data is associated with the years from 1972 through 1975, a period in which marked price changes, shortages, and behavioral changes occurred, hence providing an opportunity to study the effects of these various events. Three models are central to the study: Model I. A cross-sectional model that depicts consumption per degree-day as a function of physical and occupant characteristics of a home. Model II. A time series regression model that establishes consumption per degree-day as a function of price and consumer awareness of an energy shortage. Model III. A cross-sectional regression model that attempts to explain change in consumption per degree-day from one year to the next as a function of specific conservation actions such as temperature resetting...

‣ Cogeneration in the U.S. : an economic and technical analysis

Pickel, Frederick H.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 12747529 bytes; application/pdf
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Traditionally, only space heating and transportation have consumed more fuel than industrial process steam generation. Several recent studies have examined electricity and industrial steam supply and have recommended vigorous federal efforts to increase the cogeneration, or joint production, of electricity and process steam. The conceptual approach and analytic methods employed in these studies contain flaws that make them incomplete. The studies' recommendations are premised upon the existence of distortions in the markets surrounding cogeneration, but they offer only anecdotal evidence of such market failures. They propose increased cogeneration, citing aggregate energy savings for a single year and cumulative capital savings, but the analytic techniques they use in simulating market behavior and evaluating the desirability of various levels of cogeneration lack needed sophistication. This research addresses several of the methodological objections to the earlier studies. To unite this effort, the report poses two focal questions on cogeneration policy and economics: * Can the historical decline in cogeneration's importance be explained by changes in fuel prices and technologies alone? * What is the best future role for cogeneration if the choice is based on economic efficiency? First...

‣ HOME ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATION BY END USE AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS

Li, Chao
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2014 Português
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Residential energy consumption is becoming an ever-growing sector, in 2012 accounting for 21.2% of total consumed energy in the United States. People have been focused on exploring potential strategies to lower the associated energy consumption, including energy efficiency improvement and policy adjustment. However, in the absence of detailed breakdown of energy consumption, it is hard to effectively apply energy efficiency upgrades, meaning a necessity of getting a deep understanding of the energy consumption estimates. To achieve the breakdown of energy consumption, this project primarily focuses on the individual home energy consumption, through estimating the energy consumed in space heating, space cooling, water heating, and appliances. In particular, multiple-regression method is employed to construct the prediction model, and Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is used as the source data, which includes more than 12000 samples and has satisfactory data reliability. As a result, many select factors are proven to be closely associated with certain energy end use. For instance, space heating/cooling energy consumption is greatly driven by the housing unit square feet, and a bigger house would result in more energy consumed in the heating and cooling sector...

‣ Energy policies and diplomatic relations with the United States : [presentation given on September 6, 2011]; Diplomatic relations with the United States

Thaci, Krenare
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
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Energy policy is a hot topic around the world and it is a great concern, affecting our economic interests and presenting global challenges. Immense technological developments resulting from global warring are now emerging. Huge potential markets are anticipated for carbon trading. In order to shape the future of Energy Policy we must review the current energy situation, which has remained pretty much the same since the Arab Oil Embargo, shifts have taken place with renewables and energy efficiency. Since the Arab Oil Embargo, oil imports to the United States have doubled, reflecting demand growth as well as decline in domestic production. Therefore, it is more than due time to take serious and effective initiatives to improve future of energy policy.; 1.0 Introduction to U.S. diplomacy and energy sources -- 2.0 U.S. energy consumption and imports -- 3.0 The founding and foundation of U.S. and Saudi Arabia relations -- 4.0 Gates to reinforce U.S. relatiosn with Australia -- A strategic economic engagement could strengthen U.S. - Chinese ties -- 6.0 Japan's analysis brief -- 7.0 France's analysis brief -- 8.0 Germany's analysis brief -- 9.0 Spain -- 10.0 Final discussions and recommendations.

‣ An evaluation of energy consumption and emissions from intermodal freight operations on the eastern seaboard: A GIS network analysis approach

Falzarano, Aaron
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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As global trade continues to increase, the energy and environmental impacts of freight movement in the US have become more of a concern. As such, the freight transport system needs to consider opportunities to meet customer objectives, while also meeting social goals. In the US there has been legislation enacted to address the growing impact that freight movement has on the environment, but there are limited tools to assist in the implementation of those polices. This research sets forth a process for creating a geospatial intermodal freight transportation (GIFT) model within ArcGIS that can be used to analyze freight movement under different economic and environmental scenarios. The GIFT model uses an intermodal network that connects various modes (rail, truck, and ship) via intermodal terminals. ArcGIS Network Analyst is used to create the intermodal network and conduct optimal route analysis for various network attributes. Routes along the network are characterized not only by temporal and distance attributes, but also by cost, energy, and emissions attributes. Decision makers can use the model to explore tradeoffs among alternative route selection across different modal combinations, and to identify optimal routes for objectives that feature energy and environmental parameters (e.g....